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  • Research
  • Our research focuses mainly on Sylvioidea passerine birds where we have recently detected a new sex chromosome, a neo-sex chromosome, which has been formed by a fusion between an autosome and the ancestral sex chromosomes. (lu.se)
  • This neo-sex chromosome is evolutionarily very interesting and promising for research: First, the female-specific neo-W chromosome is in an intermediate stage of degeneration. (lu.se)
  • This is an ideal situation for research on sex chromosomes, because the processes we wish to study have had some time to leave detectable genomic footprints, but have not yet removed the material we want to investigate. (lu.se)
  • genes
  • Mutations in checkpoint genes can lead to cancer, because of the resultant deregulation of cell division. (biologyreference.com)
  • Modern Biotechnology are interesting fields which are concerned expression of genes, taking advantage of natural genetic variation, modifying genes and transferring genes to new hosts, Environmental Biotechnology, Cell biology, Genetic Engineering and Molecular Biology, Tissue Engineering, Biosensor, Cancer Biology, Bioinformatics and Computational biology. (omicsonline.org)
  • The essential response regulator CtrA is centrally involved in regulating the progression of the Caulobacter cell cycle ( Fig. 1 B ). In its role as a DNA-binding regulatory protein, the active phosphorylated form of CtrA, CtrA∼P, directly controls the transcription of at least 95 cell cycle-regulated genes ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • The rate of muscle formation from C2C12 cells can be controlled by the introduction of loss-of-functions genes vital for the fusion of myoblasts and myogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some example genes in humans include: BRCA2 and BRCA1 BLM NBS1 DNA damage prevents the normal enzymatic synthesis of DNA by the replication fork. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, as a single fertilized egg cell - the zygote - continues to divide, the resulting daughter cells change into all the different cell types in an organism, including neurons, muscle cells, epithelium, endothelium of blood vessels, etc., by activating some genes while inhibiting the expression of others. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 1950s the prevailing view was that the genes in a chromosome acted like discrete entities, indivisible by recombination and arranged like beads on a string. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • The molecular mechanisms involved in the variations in TopoIIα expression depend on the cell type. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Both internal and external inputs trigger molecular events that regulate normal progress through the stages of the cell cycle. (biologyreference.com)
  • In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • This covalent modification of the molecular structure of Cdc2 inhibits the enzymatic activity of Cdc2 and prevents cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Machinery
  • The cellular-scale organization of the replication machinery (replisome) and the replicating chromosome has remained controversial. (springer.com)
  • This is consistent with the view that SeqA plays a role in sequestering the newly replicated origin by making it inaccessible to the replication machinery, and suggests that this may involve a SeqA-mediated oriC -membrane interaction. (pnas.org)
  • Caulobacter
  • Jensen RB, Wang SC, Shapiro L (2001) A moving dna replication factory in Caulobacter crescentus . (springer.com)
  • A recently identified degradation factor, RcdA, mediates proteolysis of the Caulobacter CtrA cell cycle master regulator by the dynamically localized ClpXP protease at specific times in the cell cycle ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Each Caulobacter cell division is asymmetric, producing two morphologically distinct daughter cells with different cell fates (see Fig. 1 B ). The swarmer daughter cell has a single polar flagellum and polar pili. (pnas.org)
  • Caulobacter daughter cells have two very different forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Caulobacter stalked cell stage provides a fitness advantage by anchoring the cell to surfaces to form biofilms and or to exploit nutrient sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet, Caulobacter has the swarmer cell stage that results in slower population growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Caulobacter cell cycle regulatory system controls many modular subsystems that organize the progression of cell growth and reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • An essential feature of the Caulobacter cell cycle is that the chromosome is replicated once and only once per cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • In deciding that the DNA double strand break was the crucial and all-important lesion we were able to associate the mathematical analysis with the biology of the cell and were able to relate known properties of the DNA molecule to known radiobiological effects. (springer.com)
  • Gilbert received his BA degrees in Biochemistry/Cell Biology and Philosophy from the University of California, San Diego and his PhD in Genetics from Stanford University. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has served on American Cancer Society (1996-2004) and NIH study sections (1997-present) and is an editorial member of the Epigenetics Society and is on the editorial board of the Journal of Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecule
  • A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most bacterial chromosomes contain a circular DNA molecule - there are no free ends to the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since DNA analyses using this technique are single-molecule, genomes from different cells can be compared to find anomalies, with implications for diagnosis of cancer and other genetic alterations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each strand of the original DNA molecule then serves as a template for the production of its counterpart, a process referred to as semiconservative replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for yeast cells to repair damage by homologous recombination, there must be present, in the same nucleus, a second DNA molecule containing sequence homology with the region to be repaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a diploid cell in G1 phase of the cell cycle, such a molecule is present in the form of the homologous chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of DNA was studied by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins using X-ray crystallography, which led James D. Watson and Francis Crick to publish a model of the double-stranded DNA molecule whose paired nucleotide bases indicated a compelling hypothesis for the mechanism of genetic replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • fission yeast
  • In addition to providing a wealth of information on DNA replication and the fission yeast cell cycle, the site includes protocols and practical information for working with pombe as well as links to other web-based resources providing pertinent information. (sciencemag.org)
  • Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) MCMs, like those in metazoans, are found in the nucleus throughout the cell cycle. (embl.de)
  • proliferation
  • Adult thymus, fetal thymus, fetal liver, and bone marrow, known as active tissues in terms of cell proliferation, are the tissues richest in ICBP90 mRNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DNA replication is essential to cellular proliferation. (springer.com)
  • In mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Cdc7 is needed for proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is not to be confused with growth in the context of cell division, referred to as proliferation, where a cell, known as the "mother cell", grows and divides to produce two "daughter cells" (M phase). (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • From the viewpoint of chromosomes, four distinct, ordered stages constitute a cell cycle. (biologyreference.com)
  • Thus, replication in Plasmodium appears to be an excellent drug target: its mechanisms and regulators are distinct from those of the host organisms, the scale of reproductive output is directly crucial to pathogenicity, and it offers the possibility of interfering with the transmissibility of the parasite. (springer.com)
  • Each origin occupies a distinct genetic locus and must fire only once per cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre-implantation embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells, derived from the blastocyst stage early mammalian embryos, are distinguished by their ability to differentiate into any cell type and by their ability to propagate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate to generate primitive ectoderm, which ultimately differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • while embryonic stem cells can generate all cell types in the body, adult stem cells are multipotent and can produce only a limited number of cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, under defined conditions, embryonic stem cells are capable of propagating themselves indefinitely in an undifferentiated state and have the capacity when provided with the appropriate signals to differentiate, presumably via the formation of precursor cells, to almost all mature cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows embryonic stem cells to be employed as useful tools for both research and regenerative medicine, because they can produce limitless numbers of themselves for continued research or clinical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of their plasticity and potentially unlimited capacity for self-renewal, embryonic stem cell therapies have been proposed for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells provide hope that it will be possible to overcome the problems of donor tissue shortage and also, by making the cells immunocompatible with the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other potential uses of embryonic stem cells include investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2002 article in PNAS, "Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • interphase
  • The protein kinase Cdr2 (which negatively regulates Wee1) and the Cdr2-related kinase Cdr1 (which directly phosphorylates and inhibits Wee1 in vitro) are localized to a band of cortical nodes in the middle of interphase cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replicon
  • Jackson DA, Pombo A (1998) Replicon clusters are stable units of chromosome structure: Evidence that nuclear organization contributes to the efficient activation and propagation of s phase in human cells. (springer.com)
  • The segment of DNA that is copied starting from each unique replication origin is called a replicon. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic
  • First, condensed sister chromatids attach to the mitotic spindle at the center of the cell. (biologyreference.com)
  • When cells have reached sufficient size during G2, the phosphatase Cdc25 removes the inhibitory phosphorylation, and thus activates Cdc2 to allow mitotic entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • A balance of Wee1 and Cdc25 activity with changes in cell size is coordinated by the mitotic entry control system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blt1 knockout cells had increased length at division, which is consistent with a delay in mitotic entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, newborn cells inherit partially duplicated chromosomes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thus a cell cycle proceeds from S to G 2 to M to G 1 , and the two new cells' cycles continue to S and onward through the same series of stages. (biologyreference.com)
  • In swarmer cells, CpdR is in the phosphorylated state, thus preventing ClpXP localization and CtrA degradation. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we report the identification of a protein, CpdR, that directs ClpXP localization to the cell pole and show that CpdR function is under the control of a phospho-signaling pathway, thus establishing a mechanism for providing temporal and spatial specificity to bacterial proteases. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, each generation of cells should be twice as numerous as the previous generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • predivisional
  • In strain NA1000, which was derived from CB15 in the 1970s, the stalked and predivisional cells can be physically separated in the laboratory from new swarmer cells, while cell types from strain CB15 cannot be physically separated. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • The most common origin of replication that is used in plasmids for genetic engineering is called pUC. (wikipedia.org)
  • When used in the context of cell development, the term refers to increase in cytoplasmic and organelle volume (G1 phase), as well as increase in genetic material (G2 phase) following the replication during S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Because the methylation reactions occur after replication, adenine residues within GATC sequences in the newly synthesized strand remain unmethylated for a period of time. (pnas.org)
  • Recombinational repair (RR) is done at this point to try to fix the CDC7 gene so replication can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Here, we collate what is known about the various cell cycle events and their regulators throughout the Plasmodium life-cycle, highlighting the differences between Plasmodium , model organisms and other apicomplexan parasites and identifying areas where further study is required. (springer.com)
  • All living organisms are products of repeated rounds of cell growth and division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell size is highly variable among organisms, with some algae such as Caulerpa taxifolia being a single cell several meters in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • It is clear that a mechanism exists to prevent premature reinitiation until the proper time in the cell cycle is reached ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Dynamic protease localization mediated by a phospho-signaling pathway is a novel mechanism to integrate spatial and temporal control of bacterial cell cycle progression. (pnas.org)
  • Homology directed repair (HDR) is a mechanism in cells to repair double strand DNA lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HDR mechanism can only be used by the cell when there is a homologue piece of DNA present in the nucleus, mostly in G2 and S phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • For some cells, there is a mechanism by which cell division is not initiated until a cell has reached a certain size. (wikipedia.org)
  • origin
  • Frimodt-Møller J, Charbon G, Løbner-Olesen A (2017) Control of bacterial chromosome replication by non-coding regions outside the origin. (springer.com)
  • It was suggested that the hemimethylated origin was refractory to reinitiation, thereby explaining the defect in plasmid replication. (pnas.org)
  • SeqA is a protein that is required for both the membrane binding of hemimethylated oriC in vitro and the refractory period to initiation that follows replication of the origin region in dam + cells ( 8 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • This activation of MCM 2 leads to helicase activity of the MCM complex at the origin of replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • He did two post-doctoral training periods, first as an EMBO Fellow with Pierre Chambon in Strasbourg, France, studying transcriptional control, and second as a Roche Fellow with Melvin DePamphilis studying replication origin recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specific structure of the origin of replication varies somewhat from species to species, but all share some common characteristics such as high AT content (repeats of adenine and thymine are easier to separate because their base stacking interactions are not as strong as those of guanine and cytosine). (wikipedia.org)
  • The origin of replication binds the pre-replication complex, a protein complex that recognizes, unwinds, and begins to copy DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The origin of replication are classified in two ways: Narrow or broad host range High- or low-copy number. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA replication typically begins at a single origin of replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the replication origin is activated, the cell's DNA will be replicated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In S phase, the Mcm2-7 complex interacts with helicase cofactors Cdc45 and GINS to isolate a single DNA strand, unwind the origin, and begin replication down the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • DnaA Pre Replication Complex DNA Helicase Cyclins Cyclin Dependant Kinases (CDK) Origin Recognition Complex at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Dutta A, Bell SP (1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • recombination
  • SCE is elevated in pathologies including Bloom syndrome, having recombination rates ~10-100 times above normal, depending on cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Found in the nucleus of every cell, building blocks from which every organism is built, gene information, & can act as receptors for drug molecules. (cram.com)
  • In order to define the complex behavior of a tumor cell population associated with these complex gene expressions, we have chosen to define entropies of apoptosis, cellular differentiation and survival or growth inhibition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These phenotypes include the set of transformed states associated with aberrant gene expression, the set of differentiated states that have been defined as a result of stochastic gene expression and the distribution of cells between living and dead or growth inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the tax gene transcript could not be detected in fresh ATL cells regardless of hyperacetylated histone H3 in 5'-LTR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results showed that epigenetic changes of provirus facilitated ATL cells to evade host immune system by suppressing viral gene transcription. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These phenotypes were unexpectedly linked to mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex, which is essential for DNA replication prior to cell division. (jci.org)
  • In wild-type cells (n = 206), most tetrads had the URA3 marker segregated 2:2, and only 0.5% of tetrads showed rearrangement of the URA3 marker by gene conversion (Figure 2A). (nih.gov)
  • This gene is intronless and encodes a replication-dependent histone that is a member of the histone H3 family. (nih.gov)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supernumerary ring chromosome 7 mosaicism: case report, investigation of the gene content, and delineation of the phenotype" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • In Mitchison's lab he made substantial contributions to the study of the cell cycle in fission yeast isolating and characterising cell cycle mutants and the first identification of a gene product (DNA ligase) in these mutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • This represented the first case where the position of a gene in the chromosome had demonstrable biological significance, and prompted Nasmyth to abandon work on the cell cycle for a time and concentrate instead on studying gene silencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the IMP, Nasmyth changed his focus from gene silencing back to cell cycle control. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a cell retains DNA damage, transcription of a gene can be prevented and thus translation into a protein will also be blocked. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a mutation in a caretaker gene coding for a DNA repair pathway that leads to the inability to properly repair DNA damage could allow uncontrolled cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike replication, where a complete copy of DNA is made, transcription copies only the gene that is to be expressed as a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA replication licensing factor MCM6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MCM6 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Therefore, if the oncogene or set of oncogenes contributing maximally to a tumor cell's survival can be identified, such oncogene(s) are the most appropriate target(s) for maximizing tumor cell kill. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesize that a cell's phenotypic entropy is determined as a function of the survival fraction or proliferation rate of a tumor ;and also, the number of transformed and differentiated states that arise within a particular cell population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and thereby, to predict which oncogene(s) are the most appropriate target(s) for maximizing tumor cell kill. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Travis Stracker's research has focused on the functions of the DNA damage response in many aspects of chromosome metabolism and tumor suppression. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • encodes
  • In 1956, Francis Crick proposed what is now known as the "central dogma" of biology: DNA encodes the genetic information required for an organism to carry out its life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast
  • Yeast diploid cells were induced to undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores, which were enclosed in tetrads. (nih.gov)
  • Here he worked on the cell cycle alongside Paul Nurse and his PhD thesis focused on the control of DNA replication in fission yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • it is often a biochemical alternative to the self-destruction of such a damaged cell by apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear DNA damage can contribute to aging either indirectly (by increasing apoptosis or cellular senescence) or directly (by increasing cell dysfunction). (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically
  • Previously it was called resting stage because there is no apparent activity related to cell division.Typically interphase lasts for at least 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • ASK1 will be transported to the nucleus when UV-irradiation is used to treat the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • DNA damage can be recognized by enzymes, and thus can be correctly repaired using the complementary undamaged sequence in a homologous chromosome if it is available for copying. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage
  • Some DNA damage may remain in any cell despite the action of repair processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage is more prevalent in certain types of cells, particularly in non-replicating or slowly replicating cells, such as cells in the brain, skeletal and cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given these properties of DNA damage and mutation, it can be seen that DNA damages are a special problem in non-dividing or slowly dividing cells, where unrepaired damages will tend to accumulate over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • DnaA
  • They bind to DnaA-ADP and DnaA-ATP with equal affinities and are bound by DnaA throughout most of the cell cycle and forms a scaffold on which rest of the orisome assembles. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Mutations are replicated when the cell replicates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although distinctly different from each other, DNA damages and mutations are related because DNA damages often cause errors of DNA synthesis during replication or repair and these errors are a major source of mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, infrequent mutations that provide a survival advantage will tend to clonally expand at the expense of neighboring cells in the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of DNA replication inherently places cells at risk of acquiring mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • originates
  • Truly endothelial, BOEC are progeny of a transplantable cell that originates in bone marrow, a putative endothelial progenitor. (jci.org)
  • Archaea
  • And because the system of DNA replication in Archaea is much simpler than that in Eukaryota, it was suggested that Archaea could be used as a model to study the much more complex DNA replication in Eukaryota. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structure
  • Structure and Replication of Influenza Virus and. (hhmi.org)
  • Other changes in the number or structure of chromosome 7 can cause delayed growth and development, mental disorder, characteristic facial features, skeletal abnormalities, delayed speech, and other medical problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • Altered DNA methylation at various CpG sites was associated with exposure to mercury, lead or BPA, providing candidates to be investigated using a larger study sample, as the results may reflect an independently associated predictor (e.g. socioeconomic status, diet, genetic variants, altered blood cell composition). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Six of the variants are mainly expressed during the S phase and hence replication-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such a common role can therefore be compensated in mutant cells by increasing the amount of other H1 variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • In a population of cells, mutant cells will increase or decrease in frequency according to the effects of the mutation on the ability of the cell to survive and reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for future studies to explore the role of DNA replication in immune cell generation and function. (jci.org)