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  • fork
  • The two most logical times for the loss of such determinants are at the replication fork, where chromatin is reassembled, or during mitosis when nuclear architecture is dismantled. (rupress.org)
  • Genotoxic stresses that damage the chromosomal DNA or inhibit the progression of a DNA replication fork can lead to instability of the genetic information and hence cause cellular transformation. (nyu.edu)
  • phase
  • Interaction parameters were applied to quantify unexplainable drug-drug interaction effects on cell cycle arrest in S phase and in inducing apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using a Xenopus laevis egg extract replication system, we previously demonstrated that replication timing is established during early G1 phase of the cell cycle (timing decision point [TDP]), which is coincident with the repositioning and anchorage of chromatin in the newly formed nucleus. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we use this same system to show that G2 phase chromatin lacks determinants of replication timing but maintains the overall spatial organization of chromatin domains, and we confirm this finding by genome-wide analysis of rereplication in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • These data support a model in which events at the TDP, facilitated by chromatin spatial organization, establish determinants of replication timing that persist independent of spatial organization until the process of chromatin replication during S phase erases those determinants. (rupress.org)
  • RTDs must be maintained at least until the time of replication during S phase. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we have distinguished between these two possibilities, demonstrating that G2 phase chromatin lacks the determinants of a normal replication timing program upon rereplication in Xenopus egg extracts despite retaining the normal chromatin spatial organization established at the TDP. (rupress.org)
  • activity
  • Some DNA aberrations are caused by physiological processes such as base mismatches introduced during DNA replication and DNA strand breaks caused by malfunctioning activity of topoisomerase I and II ( Jackson and Bartek, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • PharmaMar S.A.U., Madrid, Spain) is a promising anticancer agent that has demonstrated clinical activity in many drug-resistant cancer cell lines, and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for advanced soft tissue sarcoma. (frontiersin.org)
  • found
  • The DDR can also arouse the immune system by for example inducing the expression of antimicrobial peptides as well as ligands for receptors found on immune cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • proliferating cell nu
  • Phosphorylation of these residues (Ser66 in particular) has been shown to possibly regulate the interaction between the RFTS to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) when Ligase I is recruited to the replication factories during S-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • For studies using cultured cells, TaqMan® Array Plates are also compatible (and recommended) with the TaqMan® Gene Expression Cells-to-Ct™ Kit. (thermofisher.com)
  • For example in the well-characterized Onyx-015 (C1-1042) adenovirus (10) , the E1B 55 kDa gene is deleted so that the virus replicates in p53 -deficient tumor cells and not in normal cells, which contain wild-type p53 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • 3) Using a robust copy number assay, we have obtained the first evidence that re-replication causes a heritable genetic change, namely a gene duplication event that represents an early step of gene amplification. (grantome.com)
  • We will exploit this unprecedented opportunity to examine the mechanisms by which re-replication promotes gene amplification. (grantome.com)
  • Because gene amplification is a primary means of activating oncogenes in cancer cells, these studies will shed light on the molecular triggers of tumorigenesis, and potentially identify targets of therapeutic significance. (grantome.com)
  • The results show that PCV2 infection induced obvious S phase accumulation in wild-type PK15 cells and a compromised S phase accumulation in the p53 gene mutation cells (813PK15 p53m/m ), but did not induce obvious S phase accumulation in the p53 gene knockout cells (148PK15 p53 − / − ) compared with the respective mock infection. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Replication factor C subunit 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RFC5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replication protein A 70 kDa DNA-binding subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The LIG1 gene encodes a, 120kDa enzyme, 919 residues long, known as DNA ligase I. The DNA ligase I polypeptide contains an N-terminal replication factory-targeting sequence (RFTS), followed by a nuclear localization sequence (NLS), and three functional domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA replication licensing factor MCM3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MCM3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example is the Saccharomyces pombe gene rad9 which arrests the cells in late S/G2 phase in the presence of DNA damage caused by radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulators
  • Here, we collate what is known about the various cell cycle events and their regulators throughout the Plasmodium life-cycle, highlighting the differences between Plasmodium , model organisms and other apicomplexan parasites and identifying areas where further study is required. (springer.com)
  • Such a complex life-cycle presumably requires sophisticated global and local regulators, involving refined checkpoint and DNA repair mechanisms [ 3 ], yet these are currently only poorly understood. (springer.com)
  • Thus, replication in Plasmodium appears to be an excellent drug target: its mechanisms and regulators are distinct from those of the host organisms, the scale of reproductive output is directly crucial to pathogenicity, and it offers the possibility of interfering with the transmissibility of the parasite. (springer.com)
  • Here, we show a crucial role of some cell cycle regulators in this transition. (jneurosci.org)
  • E2F transcription factors are critical regulators of cell growth and are often overexpressed in cancer cells because of the frequent aberrations in the pRb / E2F/p16 INK4a pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) are key molecular regulators that both stimulate initiation and inhibit re- initiation of DNA replication. (grantome.com)
  • Sliding clamps are well known for their role in DNA replication, but they also interact with factors involved in other cellular processes, such as DNA repair and recombination, and cell cycle regulators. (asmscience.org)
  • Cyclins are important regulators of cell cycle transitions through their ability to bind and activate cyclin-dependent protein kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • BacMam 2.0 also incorporates elements that improve transduction efficiency and expression levels: a pseudotyped capsid protein for more effective cell entry, as well as an enhanced CMV promoter and the woodchuck hepatitis post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE) to boost transcription levels. (thermofisher.com)
  • thus, they are dependent on host cell factors for replication: these include factors such as DNA polymerase-and probably repair polymerases-in order to amplify their genomes, as well as transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human DNA topoisomerase I (Top1) is an essential enzyme that relaxes DNA supercoiling during replication and transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosomes
  • The cells of eukaryotic organisms, such as humans, maintain their genetic information in chromosomes composed of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, residing within a cell nucleus. (sciencing.com)
  • During interphase, the chromosomes relax, giving replication enzymes access to create a new copy of each chromosome. (sciencing.com)
  • The chromosomes align on the metaphase plate in the center of the cell. (sciencing.com)
  • The human cell temporarily has 92 chromosomes at this stage rather than the normal 46. (sciencing.com)
  • The centrosomes pull the microtubules with the chromosomes in tow to either side of the cell, so that both sides have a complete set of genetic material. (sciencing.com)
  • Eventually, the cell divides into two daughter cells, each containing the full complement of chromosomes. (sciencing.com)
  • This chapter describes the recent advances that have been made in understanding the biochemical players that facilitate the complex macromolecular process that mediates faithful replication of archaeal chromosomes. (asmscience.org)
  • Eventually his research focused on how cellular chromosomes are duplicated and how the entire process is regulated in cells, studying the process primarily in the yeast S. cerevisiae and in human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually, all cells in an individual in a given species (plant or animal) show a constant number of chromosomes, which constitute what is known as the karyotype defining this species (see also List of number of chromosomes of various organisms), although some species present a very high karyotypic variability. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Indeed, what little is known appears to be suggesting that diverse mechanisms may be employed to regulate chromosome copy number, to coordinate DNA replication and cell division, and even to mediate the process of cell division itself. (asmscience.org)
  • Cyclin F differs from other cyclins by its ability to monitor and regulate cell cycle without the need for cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (wikipedia.org)
  • checkpoints
  • Finally, in the current era of artemisinin resistance, which appears to involve parasite 'dormancy', understanding cell cycle arrest and checkpoints is of utmost importance. (springer.com)
  • Loss of the Chk1/Cdc25A regulatory pathway disrupts both the DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoints ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • homologous
  • This response may be a primitive form of sexual interaction, similar to the more well-studied bacterial transformation that is also associated with DNA transfer between cells leading to homologous recombinational repair of DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • adenovirus
  • We hypothesized that after infection the replicating adenovirus would spread throughout the tumor mass and cause direct oncolysis of tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ad E2F-1 RC virus replicated as efficiently as the wild-type adenovirus and caused extensive cell killing in a panel of tumor cells in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • This novel selectively replicating adenovirus offers a promising treatment platform for a variety of cancers of which the hallmark is uncontrolled cell growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Adenovirus dl1520, with deletion of E1B55K, can selectively replicate in cancer cells and cause cell death by oncolysis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • He began his career at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in 1979 with investigations into how DNA is copied, starting with studying DNA replication of human adenovirus as a model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdc6
  • These findings indicate that deregulation of CDC6 expression in human cells poses a serious risk of carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodium
  • It is over 100 years since the life-cycle of the malaria parasite Plasmodium was discovered, yet its intricacies remain incompletely understood - a knowledge gap that may prove crucial for our efforts to control the disease. (springer.com)
  • This review focusses on the unusual cell cycles of Plasmodium , which may present a rich source of novel drug targets as well as a topic of fundamental biological interest. (springer.com)
  • Plasmodium does not grow by conventional binary fission, but rather by several syncytial modes of replication including schizogony and sporogony. (springer.com)
  • Finally the use of existing tools, emerging technologies, their limitations and future directions to elucidate the peculiarities of the Plasmodium cell cycle are discussed. (springer.com)
  • enzymes
  • These viruses tend to be introduced into and initially infect differentiated plant cells, via the piercing mouthparts of the vector insect: however, these cells generally lack the host enzymes necessary for DNA replication, making it difficult for the virus to replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topoisomerase inhibitors are chemical compounds that block the action of topoisomerase (topoisomerase I and II), which are enzymes that control the changes in DNA structure by catalyzing the breaking and rejoining of the phosphodiester backbone of DNA strands during the normal cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells that arrested were able to survive due to the increased time in S/G2 phase allowing for DNA repair enzymes to function fully. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • Begomoviruses with two component (i.e. bipartite) genomes have these components separated into two different particles both of which must usually be transmitted together to initiate a new infection within a suitable host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • This process allows for the high-fidelity passage of hereditary/genetic information from parental cell to daughter cell and is thus essential to all organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin
  • In p53 deficient cells, however, PCV2-induced changes in Cyclin A, CDK2, and Cyclin E were efficiently reversed to the basal levels. (beds.ac.uk)
  • NuSAP is a substrate of cyclin F that is involved in cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin F help to control NUSAP abundance and is therefore essential to proper cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the pre-RC is formed, activation of the complex is triggered by two kinases, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK) and Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) that help transition the pre-RC to the initiation complex prior to the initiation of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • We have found that initiation of chromosome replication is triggered at a fixed volume per chromosome independent of a cell's birth volume and growth rate. (diva-portal.org)
  • Researchers examined nucleoid distribution during the cell cycle, and the results suggested that chromosome segregation was concomitant with DNA replication, as was proposed for M. thermautotrophicus , in a mode akin to that employed by bacteria. (asmscience.org)
  • catalytic
  • enzyme activators bind to enzymes and increase their enzymatic activity, while enzyme substrates bind and are converted to products in the normal catalytic cycle of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • The retina is protected by the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) which is composed of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). (hindawi.com)
  • The initial work, published in the JCI in 2000, described the method enabling successful attainment of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC). (jci.org)
  • bacteria
  • Media conditions that support fast growth in bacteria also couples with shorter inter-initiation time in them, i.e. the doubling time in fast growing cells is less as compared to the slow growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • In most cases absence of viroporin in the viral genome can be rescued by the presence of viroporin in trans, and sometimes viral replication can be partially rescued in the presence of another virus' viroporin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiplicity reactivation (MR) is the process by which two or more virus genomes, each containing inactivating genome damage, can interact within an infected cell to form a viable virus genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • In E. coli, the direction for orisome assembly are built into a short stretch of nucleotide sequence called as origin of replication (oriC) which contains multiple binding sites for the initiator protein DnaA (a highly homologous protein amongst bacterial kingdom). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 11 DnaA binding sites/boxes on the E. coli origin of replication out of which three boxes R1, R2 and R4 (which have a highly conserved 9 bp consensus sequence 5' - TTATC/ACACA ) are high affinity DnaA boxes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • This unravels the short tail fibers (STF) that bind irreversibly to the E. coli cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remaining part of the membrane is degraded and then DNA from the head of the phage can travel through the tail tube and enter the E. coli cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of DNA replication in a living cell was measured as the rate of phage T4 DNA elongation in phage-infected E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • It is undisputable that inflammation is beneficial for homeostasis restoration and tissue repair by means of clearing pathogens and harmful cell components. (hindawi.com)
  • Mitotic
  • Between the beginning of the G1 phase (which is also after mitosis has occurred) and R, the cell is known as being in the G1-pm subphase, or the post-mitotic phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "post-mitotic" is sometimes used to refer to both quiescent and senescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutants
  • In Mitchison's lab he made substantial contributions to the study of the cell cycle in fission yeast isolating and characterising cell cycle mutants and the first identification of a gene product (DNA ligase) in these mutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viroporins are capable of assembling into oligomeric ion channels or pores in the host cell's membrane, rendering it more permeable and thus facilitating the exit of virions from the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most well-studied and well-established function of viroporins is the permeabilization of the cell membrane to ions and small solutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The baseplate changes conformation and the tail sheath contracts, causing GP5 at the end of the tail tube to puncture the outer membrane of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under the microscope, scientists observed the virus enter the amoeba through fusion with membrane vacuoles, and integrate their DNA into the host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypes
  • These phenotypes include the set of transformed states associated with aberrant gene expression, the set of differentiated states that have been defined as a result of stochastic gene expression and the distribution of cells between living and dead or growth inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The transformed states are the phenotypes that a cell can access which provide a hyperproliferative advantage over the cell's normal counterpart. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These phenotypes were unexpectedly linked to mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex, which is essential for DNA replication prior to cell division. (jci.org)
  • tricarboxylic
  • They also code for citrate synthase and two subunits of 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, which plays the same role as alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in the TCA (tricarboxylic/Krebs/citric acid) cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral blood
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • infection
  • As the HIV infection progresses, a loss of CD4+ memory cells accompanied by an inability to activate and afterwards replicate new CD4+ cells is observed. (hindawi.com)
  • HIV infection and consequent activation of immune system cells remain the most common cause of ocular damage. (hindawi.com)
  • Recently the role of Tat, the transactivator protein of HIV-1, which plays critical and complex roles in both the HIV-1 replication cycle and the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection, is the object of research. (hindawi.com)
  • Th1-type cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is required for clearance of a fungal infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • Altered DNA methylation at various CpG sites was associated with exposure to mercury, lead or BPA, providing candidates to be investigated using a larger study sample, as the results may reflect an independently associated predictor (e.g. socioeconomic status, diet, genetic variants, altered blood cell composition). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • deficient
  • Further characterization revealed that these patients were neutropenic and NK cell deficient. (jci.org)
  • process
  • Many countries have organizations similar to six where can i buy accutane in nigeria cycles of illnesses acquired in the replication process, a single laxative. (bnnpsulteng.com)
  • Prokaryotic DNA replication is the process by which a prokaryote duplicates its DNA into another copy that is passed on to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • HIV-1 Tat protein is released from HIV-infected cells and is found circulating in the blood of HIV-1-infected patients [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In order for the cell to continue through the G1-pm, there must be a high amount of growth factors and a steady rate of protein synthesis, otherwise the cell will move into G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic
  • The T4's tail is hollow so that it can pass its nucleic acid into the cell it is infecting after attachment. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, and room for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiological temperatures are optimal for cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reasons the cell would not move into the S phase include insufficient cell growth, damaged DNA, or other preparations have not been completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viroporins are not necessarily essential for viral replication, but do enhance growth rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • formation
  • and predicts formation of a cell population equivalent to the definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • The tail fibres are also important in recognizing host cell surface receptors, so they determine if a bacterium is within the phage's host range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical
  • Biochemical triggers known as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) switch on cell cycles events at the corrected time and in the correct order to prevent any mistakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • This pathway normally regulates stress-induced cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • The principle metabolic pathways are a glycolytic pathway, a pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • And because the system of DNA replication in Archaea is much simpler than that in Eukaryota, it was suggested that Archaea could be used as a model to study the much more complex DNA replication in Eukaryota. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • homeostasis
  • This type of negative feedback slows the production line when products begin to build up and is an important way to maintain homeostasis in a cell. (wikipedia.org)