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  • genes
  • In non-recombining regions of the Y chromosome repetitive DNA sequences are accumulated, representing a dominant and early process forming the Y chromosome, probably before genes start to degenerate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The clones containing 5S rDNA genes, 18S-25S rDNA sequences and the 180 bp paracentromeric repeated element account for 3.6%, 8.9% and 5.8%, respectively. (harvard.edu)
  • Previous studies of repetitive elements (REs) have implicated a mechanistic role in generating new chimerical genes. (nih.gov)
  • Examination of their flanking sequences revealed an excess of repetitive sequences, with the majority belonging to the transposable element DNAREP1 family, associated with the new genes. (nih.gov)
  • With his move to the University of Cologne he started projects in comparative genomics, with a special focus on the evolution of new genes, which resulted in the discovery of de novo evolution of genes from non-coding sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Yeast SRP RNA genes have a TATA box and additional intragenic promoter sequences (referred to as A- and B-blocks) which play a role in regulating transcription of the SRP gene by Pol III. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the repetitive nature of MAEB stem-loops supports this kind of a role, the association of MAEB with metabolic genes is inconsistent with known repetitive elements, which are typically the result of selfish replication or errors in replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some types of interspersed repetitive DNA elements allow new genes to evolve by uncoupling similar DNA sequences from gene conversion during meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Repetitive sequences play the role of uncoupling the gene conversion network, thereby allowing new genes to evolve. (wikipedia.org)
  • By breaking the links that would otherwise overwrite novel DNA sequence variations, interspersed repeats catalyse evolution, allowing the new genes and new species to develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of his scientific contributions involve the first genetic sequencing of a ribosomal RNA operon, the design of plasmids for studying gene expression, expression vectors for high-level production of recombinant proteins and RNA, RNA biology, RNomics as well as the significance of retroposition for plasticity and evolution of genomes, genes and gene modules including regulatory sequences or elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • There, he sequenced the first large ribosomal RNAs via their genes utilizing the Maxam-Gilbert sequencing method. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 1980s, Brosius became interested in a small brain-specific RNA that was thought to be a waste product of a mechanism orchestrating the expression of genes by RNA polymerase III transcription of identifier sequence (ID) repetitive elements, classified as SINEs, short interspersed repeats, located in the introns of brain-specific genes by making chromatin accessible to RNA polymerase II. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • By regulating the transcription of DNA sequences, the stability of RNA, and the capability of messenger RNA to be translated, RNA processing events allow for a diverse array of proteins to be synthesized from a single gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes, tail-anchored proteins possessing a hydrophobic insertion sequence at their C-terminus are delivered to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the SRP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates or "sugars" (this term should not be confused with simple sugars - monosaccharides and disaccharides) as they are generally called, form the third class of biopolymers, other two being proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike proteins and nucleic acids which are linear, carbohydrates are often branched and extremely complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hnRNP proteins have distinct nucleic acid binding properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • These were introduced by Gibbs and McIntyre in 1970 and are two-dimensional matrices that have the sequences of the proteins being compared along the vertical and horizontal axes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, Brosius began to develop plasmid vectors for the selection of promoters and terminators, as well as widely used vectors for the high-level expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, often employing regulatory sequences or modules from the rRNA operon. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Several allelic variants of this tandemly repeated sequence can be resolved by genomic blotting. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Reference-free SNP calling: improved accuracy by preventing incorrect calls from repetitive genomic regions. (nih.gov)
  • The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has made it possible to efficiently genotype a large number of SNPs in the non-model organisms with no or limited genomic resources. (nih.gov)
  • The iML algorithm incorporates the mixed Poisson/normal model to detect composite read clusters and can efficiently prevent incorrect SNP calls resulting from repetitive genomic regions. (nih.gov)
  • The iML algorithm can efficiently prevent incorrect SNP calls resulting from repetitive genomic regions, and thus outperforms the original ML algorithm by achieving much higher genotyping accuracy. (nih.gov)
  • The results highlight the promise of next generation sequencing for development of genomic resources for any organism. (nih.gov)
  • JDotter - Java version of Dotter Dotplot, easy (educational) HTML5 tool to generate dot plots from RNA sequences lastz and laj, programs to prepare and visualize genomic alignments. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAs
  • For example, the RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism of small interfering RNAs derived from L1 sequences can cause suppression of L1 retrotransposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution
  • Here we review the occurrence and role of repetitive DNA in Y chromosome evolution in various species with a focus on dioecious plants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Controversial references to 'junk' or 'selfish' DNA were put forward early on, implying that repetitive DNA segments are remainders from past evolution or autonomous self-replicating sequences hacking the cell machinery to proliferate. (wikipedia.org)
  • probe
  • Commonly cDNA is created with labelled primers for the RNA sequence of interest to act as the probe in the northern blot. (wikipedia.org)
  • sugars
  • One of the main constrains in the glycoinformatics is the difficulty of representing sugars in the sequence form especially due to their branching nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • similarity
  • For a simple visual representation of the similarity between two sequences, individual cells in the matrix can be shaded black if residues are identical, so that matching sequence segments appear as runs of diagonal lines across the matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some idea of the similarity of the two sequences can be gleaned from the number and length of matching segments shown in the matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The closeness of the sequences in similarity will determine how close the diagonal line is to what a graph showing a curve demonstrating a direct relationship is. (wikipedia.org)
  • LTR retrotransposons are further sub-classified into the Ty1-copia-like (Pseudoviridae), Ty3-gypsy-like (Metaviridae), and BEL-Pao-like groups based on both their degree of sequence similarity and the order of encoded gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • elements
  • The presence of deletions and reciprocal duplications suggests NAHR as the causative mechanism of HERV-mediated CNV, even though the length and the sequence homology of the HERV elements are less than currently thought to be required for NAHR. (nih.gov)
  • We propose that in addition to HERVs, other repetitive elements, such as long interspersed elements, may also be responsible for the formation of recurrent CNVs via NAHR. (nih.gov)
  • It was shown that BC1 RNA is the source gene for ID repetitive elements in rodents, and his laboratory established that the dendritic localization of BC1 RNA in neurons co-localizes with numerous components of the translation machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • insertion
  • Furthermore, retrotransposon-induced mutations are relatively stable, because the sequence at the insertion site is retained as they transpose via the replication mechanism. (wikipedia.org)