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  • evolutionary trees
  • The two groups also performed a combined analysis, which produced evolutionary trees that included all of the major groups of flowering plants. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In this article , recently accepted at PLOS ONE journal and available as open access, the authors propose a framework for reconstructing text evolutionary trees, aiming at reconstructing the history of modifications that a set of related documents has gone through. (wordpress.com)
  • posterior
  • Using both simulated and empirical data, we demonstrate that MCC trees, and trees constructed using the similar maximum a posteriori (MAP) method, often include poorly supported and incorrect clades when summarizing diffuse posterior samples of trees. (deepdyve.com)
  • We demonstrate that the paucity of information in morphological data sets contributes to the inability of MCC and MAP trees to accurately summarise of the posterior distribution. (deepdyve.com)
  • Conversely, majority-rule consensus (MRC) trees represent a lower proportion of incorrect nodes when summarizing the same posterior samples of trees. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, interpreting the results of such analyses is complicated because morphological data often yield a very diffuse posterior sample of topologically disparate trees that are difficult to reconcile meaningfully in a single consensus tree. (deepdyve.com)
  • Several methods are available to summarize the results from Bayesian posterior tree samples. (deepdyve.com)
  • A straightforward approach to representing the posterior distribution of trees is to choose a single tree from the sample of trees that can be considered optimal by maximizing some criterion of support. (deepdyve.com)
  • One such approach is to use the single sampled topology with the greatest posterior probability, the maximum a posteriori tree (MAP). (deepdyve.com)
  • As Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling is used to obtain a posterior sample of trees it is never certain that the true MAP tree is present in the sample, unless it is possible to obtain an infinite number of samples. (deepdyve.com)
  • This is because the MCMC procedure does not attempt to search for a tree that maximizes the posterior probability but instead samples trees with frequency proportional to their posterior probability. (deepdyve.com)
  • if the posterior distribution of these trees is very diffuse it is possible that many unique topologies are sampled. (deepdyve.com)
  • To obtain the MAP tree, the MCMC sampling procedure must therefore be performed for an inordinate amount of time as the goal is no longer to approximate the posterior distribution but, instead, to inefficiently find the tree with the greatest posterior probability. (deepdyve.com)
  • Another sampled tree consensus method, Maximum Clade Credibility (MCC), is less susceptible to this source of error as it considers the distribution of clade support in the posterior sample of trees. (deepdyve.com)
  • pine
  • To clarify, according to Prof. Gabriel Shiller, a respected forest researcher, “the next generation of the native pine trees has genetic marks that do not belong to Israel.†(Ref. Article “The Day That After, The Day That Before†, by Gili Sopher, Masa Acher journal, #232, January 2011. (jewlicious.com)
  • Pine forests face a global threat of pine wilt disease, which is being spread by vector beetles carrying pathogenic nematodes from dead trees to healthy ones. (springer.com)
  • survive
  • Yet, just as not all greenhouse trees survive genetic alterations and transplants to foreign soil, there were also many immigrants who remained physically uprooted in the new land. (jewlicious.com)
  • Among the host pines there are varying degrees of susceptibility, and nematode strains also contain a variety of virulences, both of which factors help to determine whether infected host trees will die or survive. (springer.com)
  • mortality
  • PURPOSE: A natural experiment, which provides stronger evidence of causality, was used to test whether a major change to the natural environment-the loss of 100 million trees to the emerald ash borer, an invasive forest pest-has influenced mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory diseases. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS: Two fixed-effects regression models were used to estimate the relationship between emerald ash borer presence and county-level mortality from 1990 to 2007 in 15 U.S. states, while controlling for a wide range of demographic covariates. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that loss of trees to the emerald ash borer increased mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Bark beetle outbreaks in the Rocky Mountains caused substantial tree mortality starting in the late 1990s, and continued into the 2000s, with the most severe mortality occurring from 2002 to 2012. (springer.com)
  • We examined correlations between dissolved copper and tree mortality in the BTR. (springer.com)
  • Two sites, one consisting of water from the western side of the continental divide and one consisting of water from the eastern side, demonstrated a positive relationship between percentage tree mortality and dissolved copper. (springer.com)
  • The relationships were similar except that the best relationship occurred with a 3-year lag between tree mortality and subsequent dissolved copper levels at the eastern site and with a 5-year lag at the western site. (springer.com)
  • Our results suggest that bark beetle-induced tree mortality may contribute significantly to dissolved copper levels in the BTR. (springer.com)
  • Water quality following extensive beetle-induced tree mortality: interplay of aromatic carbon loading, disinfection byproducts, and hydrologic drivers. (springer.com)
  • Cascading impacts of bark beetle-caused tree mortality on coupled biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes. (springer.com)
  • estimates
  • The MCC method assumes that the sampled, fully resolved topology with the highest clade credibility is an adequate summary of the most probable clades, with parameter estimates from compatible sampled trees used to obtain the marginal distributions of parameters such as clade ages and branch lengths. (deepdyve.com)
  • forests
  • As an immediate response to the disaster and in efforts to counteract the fear that this will happen again, donations of trees and volunteers offering to replant Israel’s forests poured in from around the world. (jewlicious.com)
  • million trees
  • In addition, the fire tore through the natural forest reserve of Israel, consuming over 5 million trees and 50,000 dunams of land (12,355 acres and ~1/3 of the nature reserve). (jewlicious.com)
  • among
  • As trees grow, they are set upon by true bugs (order Hemiptera ) that feed on sap, such as aphids, among many other herbivorous insects. (americanforests.org)
  • Tree of life for flowering plants reveals relationships among ma. (bio-medicine.org)
  • One of the reasons why it has been hard to understand evolutionary relationships among the major groups of flowering plants is because they diversified over such a short time frame, said Jansen. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Inset ) Tree depicts admixture hypotheses with dashed lines among North American canid populations (Supplemental Table S1). (nih.gov)
  • leaf
  • Ectomycorrhizal fungi feed trees nitrogen directly from organic matter-like decaying leaves-so, he proposed, they would be more successful in cooler places where decomposition is slow and leaf litter is abundant. (phys.org)
  • However
  • Testing Read's ideas had to wait, however, because proof required gathering data from large numbers of trees in diverse parts of the globe. (phys.org)
  • influence
  • Growth stress is important to achieve upright growth and avoid exterior influence on living trees. (springer.com)
  • As well, biotic and abiotic environmental factors influence the fate of infected trees. (springer.com)
  • present
  • The U.S. General Land Office land surveys document trees present during European settlement. (usda.gov)
  • quality
  • Tapping sugar maples for sap production yields an annual income, but there is a loss in timber quality if the tree is cut for factory lumber products. (usda.gov)
  • distribution
  • One of three maps showing the distribution of trees likely to associate with the three major types of symbiotic bacteria or fungi. (phys.org)
  • highly
  • Hidden to most observers, these inter-kingdom collaborations between microbes and trees are highly diverse. (phys.org)
  • This would be the case for highly endogamous populations such as Ashkenazi Jews where most people's DNA test shows a relationship at about the sixth cousin or better level. (blogspot.com)
  • range
  • Accurate tree ages are critical to a range of forestry and ecological studies. (usda.gov)
  • long
  • Sometimes if the engagement is long enough or if the couple has had experience with being in a long term relationship, they are able to work through these issues. (chron.com)
  • lower
  • Techniques used to establish two plantations are used to raise several important issues which, if resolved, can result in increased tree planting and lower land reclamation cost. (usda.gov)
  • native
  • In Israel we have a strong national tradition of planting trees and bringing ‘green’ into our native landscape. (jewlicious.com)
  • wood
  • It is speculated that when the reorientation of inclined trees is insufficiently supported by exerting tensile stress at tension wood side, compressive stress will be formed at the opposite wood side as a complement. (springer.com)
  • time
  • In the application of partial harvests, time needs to be allocated to marking trees to be cut. (usda.gov)