Loading...
  • gene
  • When rats were fed an iron-abundant diet and then switched to an iron-deficient diet, investigators reported that the Hepcidin gene was significantly turned off in the liver while genes encoding iron transporters were significantly turned on in the digestive tract. (nih.gov)
  • To identify the Zn2+-dependent regulator, constitutive mutants were isolated and tested for complementation by a gene bank of E. coli. (nih.gov)
  • mRNA
  • Moreover, iron has been shown to induce BMP6 mRNA expression and Smad5 phosphorylation [ 25 - 27 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • deficiency
  • Thus, an important, and the most common, cause of anemia is iron deficiency, which can be corrected through administration of iron supplements. (nih.gov)
  • Attempts to treat this condition with oral iron supplements typically do not work (a condition referred to as iron-refractory anemia), even though this form of anemia mimics iron deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • Although various metabolites affected by Fe availability are thought to influence Fe deficiency responses, we propose that the direct binding of Fe to expressional regulators is the primary Fe sensing event in plant cells, similar to the mechanisms in animals, fungi, and bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the gut, copper deficiency can affect iron absorption through modulating the activity of hephaestin - a multi-copper oxidase required for optimal iron export from enterocytes. (jove.com)
  • upregulation in copper deficiency appeared to be independent of duodenal iron or copper levels and correlated with the expression of iron transporters (Ferroportin - Fpn, Divalent Metal transporter - Dmt1) and ferric reductase - Dcytb. (jove.com)
  • as an important regulator of iron transport machinery in copper deficiency. (jove.com)
  • Interruption of iron export from macrophages leads to functional iron deficiency and iron-limited erythropoiesis. (jci.org)
  • erythroferrone
  • Critically important to the overall understanding of iron balance is the recent discovery of erythroferrone-with potential implications for treating multiple blood disorders and diseases. (nih.gov)
  • liver
  • Much of the remaining iron is stored in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. (nih.gov)
  • Hepcidin is produced by the liver, and it determines how much iron is absorbed from the diet and released from storage sites in the body. (porphyriafoundation.org)
  • Iron not needed immediately is stored in the form of different biological molecules in the liver and spleen, from where it is moved if the body needs to use more. (carrerasresearch.org)
  • These findings may help to further understand the mechanisms of alcohol and iron-induced liver injury. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the underlying mechanisms of iron accumulation observed in alcoholic liver disease are unclear. (hindawi.com)
  • Alcohol downregulates hepcidin expression in the liver, which leads to an increase in duodenal iron transporter expression [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Of note, liver-specific disruption of Smad4 leads to a decrease in hepcidin expression and accumulation of iron in liver, kidney, and pancreas [ 32 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Alcohol and iron play a synergistic role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Most of this iron is obtained from the recycling of effete red blood cells by macrophages found in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. (jci.org)
  • RirA
  • RirA is active when cellular iron levels are high, and its regulon partially overlaps with that of Irr in Brucella. (ecu.edu)
  • The activity of Irr when cellular iron levels are low, and the activity of RirA when cellular iron levels are high, ensures that cellular iron levels are maintained at physiological levels, protecting against iron starvation, and against iron related toxicity in Brucella. (ecu.edu)
  • hemoglobin
  • Humans need iron to make hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells. (nih.gov)
  • Most of the 3 to 4 grams (0.1 to 0.14 ounces) of iron in adults is in hemoglobin. (nih.gov)
  • Impact of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement on hemoglobin, iron status and biomarkers of inflammation in pregnant Ghanaian women. (uta.fi)
  • heme
  • Irr activity is controlled by inactivation and degradation through its interaction with heme, which is synthesized when cellular iron levels rise. (ecu.edu)
  • sequestration
  • The cellular sequestration of iron leaves less available for transport to the bone marrow. (nih.gov)
  • As an intracellular pathogen, Brucella must overcome iron sequestration in the host cell by utilizing highly efficient iron transport systems. (ecu.edu)
  • depletion
  • The stability of FBXL5 itself was regulated, accumulating under iron- and oxygen-replete conditions and degraded upon iron depletion. (sciencemag.org)
  • In Escherichia coli, lacZ operon fusions were isolated that were derepressed under iron repletion and repressed under iron depletion. (nih.gov)
  • tissues
  • Because excess iron damages tissues, total body iron is carefully regulated, with most of it being constantly recycled. (nih.gov)
  • membrane
  • Folgueras AR, de Lara FM, Pendás AM, Garabaya C, Rodríguez F, Astudillo A, Bernal T, Cabanillas R, López-Otín C, Velasco G. TITULO: Membrane-bound serine protease matriptase-2 (Tmprss6) is an essential regulator of iron homeostasi Blood 2008 Sep 15;112(6):2539-45. (cicancer.org)
  • duodenum
  • At equilibrium, only a small amount of iron is absorbed in the duodenum from the diet each day. (jci.org)
  • essential
  • Iron is essential to the body's oxygen-delivery system. (nih.gov)
  • Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient element for plant growth. (www.gov.uk)
  • Iron is an essential element for life in animals and people, who need a constant intake from their food. (carrerasresearch.org)
  • Iron and copper are essential trace metals, actively absorbed from the proximal gut in a regulated fashion. (jove.com)
  • excess
  • Unfortunately, the human body does not seem to have an efficient or regulated way to rid itself of excess iron. (nih.gov)
  • Further, there is no physiologically regulated mechanism of eliminating excess iron from the body. (jci.org)
  • accumulation
  • Although total iron accumulation was reduced, the growth of the mutant strain was not significantly hampered. (unisi.it)
  • main
  • Excessive iron absorption is one of the main features of β-thalassemia and can lead to severe morbidity and mortality. (jci.org)
  • diseases
  • Most of us are familiar with the idea that if we are short of iron we will have anaemia, however the complexity of the control system means that there are many possibilities for error and as well as there being many types of anaemias, with different causes and consequences there are many other diseases associated with an incorrect balance of iron in the body. (carrerasresearch.org)