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  • biology
  • In this proposal, we examine the role of mitochondria, which fulfill diverse roles in cell biology but whose role in the biology of hematopoietic stem cells has never been analyzed in depth. (grantome.com)
  • He is recognized for significant contributions to the fields of gene therapy and hematopoietic stem cell biology and in 2009 was awarded the Tobias Prize by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • An equal component of his research has been in the field of hematopoietic stem cell biology, where Dr. Karlsson focused on studying the mechanisms of hematopoietic stem cell expansion and maintenance with major contributions to understanding the role of Tgf-beta and more recently Cripto. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell and Developmental Biology, or CDB, is built on the idea that the cell should be the primary focus of developmental biology, and that a cell ought to be understood in the context of its 'host' organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Stem cells are central to the development and homeostasis of metazoan tissues and play roles at multiple times within a diversity of organs during the lifetime of an animal. (springer.com)
  • In order to facilitate this goal we need to understand how stem cells are generated, what factors maintain them in their respective tissues and how their differentiation is regulated. (springer.com)
  • Musashi2 also appears to be expressed in stem cells and in a wide variety of tissues, including the bulge region of the hair follicle, immature pancreatic β-cells and neural progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with the rest of Musashi family RNA-binding proteins, MSI2 is linked to tissue stem cells and has an influence in asymmetric cell division, germ and somatic stem cell function and cell fate determination in a variety of tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • These findings broadly support the regulation of chromatin ubiquitination as a key pathway in preserving tissue function through modulation of the response to genotoxic stress. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The CD34 protein is a member of a family of single-pass transmembrane sialomucin proteins that show expression on early hematopoietic and vascular-associated tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Gene Regulation, Stem Cells, and Cancer program focus on mechanisms of gene expression, mechanisms of epigenetic regulation, and the molecular underpinnings of cellular operations pertaining to tissue homeostasis and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell research includes differentiation and transdifferentiation in the hematopoietic system, somatic cell reprogramming, and tissue regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells then integrate into the site of injury, replacing damaged tissue, and thus facilitate improved function of the organ or tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • These antigens are either ubiquitously expressed in most tissue like skin and intestines or restrictively expressed in the immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TGFβ family of cytokines regulates critical processes during the lifecycle of metazoans, with important roles during embryo development, tissue homeostasis, regeneration, and immune regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • The second focus is based on our discovery that BM cells can differentiate into mature epithelial cells of the lung, liver, GI tract and skin. (yale.edu)
  • We have shown that RBM15 is downregulated as hematopoietic stem cells differentiate down the myeloid lineage such that megakaryoblasts express low levels of RBM15. (yale.edu)
  • In this paradigm multipotent or unipotent cells differentiate into a specific cell type in the lab or after reaching the site of injury (via local or systemic administration). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • Goodell has been on the faculty of Baylor College of Medicine since 1997 as a member of the Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, and the Departments of Pediatrics, Molecular and Human Genetic, and Immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The E3 ligase, Fbw7, has been shown to influence HSC self-renewal through the regulation of c-Myc protein. (grantome.com)
  • Loss-of-function mutations of the human postsynaptic cell-adhesion protein neuroligin-4 have been repeatedly associated with autism, but the precise synaptic function of neuroligin-4 that may account for its role in autism remains unclear. (rupress.org)
  • In order for cells to grow and proliferate by manufacturing more proteins, the cells must ensure that they have the resources available for protein production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, for protein production, and therefore mTORC1 activation, cells must have adequate energy resources, nutrient availability, oxygen abundance, and proper growth factors in order for mRNA translation to begin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even if a cell has the proper energy for protein synthesis, if it does not have the amino acid building blocks for proteins, no protein synthesis will occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, since insulin is a factor that is secreted by pancreatic beta cells upon glucose elevation in the blood, its signaling ensures that there is energy for protein synthesis to take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Musashi2 is an RNA-binding protein expressed in neuronal progenitor cells, including stem cells, and both normal and leukemic blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neural cell lines, MSI2 protein, as well as its homologue MSI1, is exclusively located in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • PrP messenger RNA contains a pseudoknot structure (prion pseudoknot), which is thought to be involved in regulation of PrP protein translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ABL1 proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic and nuclear protein tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in processes of cell differentiation, cell division, cell adhesion, and stress response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large G proteins, for example, are involved in transduction of signaling from the G protein-coupled receptor for a variety of signaling processes like hormonal signaling, and small G proteins are involved in processes like cellular trafficking and cell cycling. (wikipedia.org)
  • A certain GAP and a certain G protein happen to be expressed in the same time and place, and that is how the cell ensures specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Notch protein spans the cell membrane, with part of it inside and part outside. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein occurs in certain cell types as either an intracellular, nuclear protein or a secreted protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also belongs to the Darwin family of proteins that modulate members of the TGFβ protein superfamily, a family of proteins that all play a role in the regulation of cellular responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The spatial organization and dynamics of proteins and lipids within the cell membrane is important for the regulation of cell signaling, adhesion, and cell communication. (unm.edu)
  • Using human primary CD34+ stem/progenitor cells and the progenitor-like KG1a cell line, we found this domain to be enriched in the specific tetraspanin proteins, CD63, CD81, and CD82. (unm.edu)
  • Phagoptosis is normally caused by: the cell exposing on its surface so-called "eat-me" signals, and/or the cell no longer exposing "don't-eat-me" signals and/or the cell being opsonised i.e. binding soluble proteins that tag the cell for phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opsonins are normally soluble proteins, which when bound to the surface of a cell induce phagocytes to phagocytose that cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the PIWI subfamily of Argonaute proteins, evolutionarily conserved proteins containing both PAZ and Piwi motifs that play important roles in stem cell self-renewal, RNA silencing, and translational regulation in diverse organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the principles that underlie the behavior of proteins within and across cells are poorly understood, the CDB program aims to study the interactions between intercellular signaling systems and the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, proteins from outside cell is internalized and then binds to MHC class II molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation of G proteins is important because these proteins are involved in a variety of important cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • GAPs, then, are critical in the regulation of G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrolysis of GTP by Ran is thought to provide the energy needed to transport nuclear proteins into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligand proteins binding to the extracellular domain induce proteolytic cleavage and release of the intracellular domain, which enters the cell nucleus to modify gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor is normally triggered via direct cell-to-cell contact, in which the transmembrane proteins of the cells in direct contact form the ligands that bind the notch receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notch and most of its ligands are transmembrane proteins, so the cells expressing the ligands typically must be adjacent to the notch expressing cell for signaling to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunity
  • In the past two decades, the explosive progresses in this field uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms and metabolic regulators and, further, reveal how these regulations fine-tune host immunity during vaccination, infection, and disease initiation and progression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, new studies suggest harnessing immunometabolic regulations is a promising strategy to boost anti-tumor immunity and to tone down reactivity of autoimmunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • And there is increasing evidence that it mediates physiological death of neutrophils, T cells, platelets and stem cells, and thereby regulates inflammation, immunity, clotting and neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The age-associated impairment of dendritic Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) has profound implications as this translates into a deficiency in cell-mediated immunity and thus, the inability for effector T-lymphocytes to modulate an adaptive immune response (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • A decline in humoral immunity caused by a reduction in the population of antibody producing B-cells along with a smaller immunoglobulin diversity and affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, T cells capable of fighting cancer cells via cell-mediated immunity may be injected in the course of immunotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • fate
  • The UPS plays a role in HSC homeostasis and is involved in several aspects of HSC cell fate. (nih.gov)
  • lin-12 and Notch mediate binary cell fate decisions, and lateral inhibition involves feedback mechanisms to amplify initial differences. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • Soluble and transmembrane SCF is produced by fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the embryo requires rapid oxygenation due to its high mitotic activity, these islands are the main source of red blood cell (RBC) production via fusing endothelial cells (ECs) with the developing embryonic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • He is also a founding and current member of the Lund Stem Cell Center, since 2003, and director of the Hemato-Linné Strategic Research Environment (2006-2016) funded through a 10-year Linneus grant from the Swedish Research Council. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006 Eaves retired as required by provincial law at that time, becoming Professor Emeritus of Hematology and spending more time on several companies he founded to further the fields of cellular therapy and regenerative medicine - STEMCELL Technologies, STEMSOFT Software Inc. and Malachite Management Inc. These companies continue to grow under his leadership and by 2016, STEMCELL had over 900 employees making Canada's largest biotechnology company. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016, STEMCELL was awarded overall Exporter of the Year, as well as won in the Advancing Technology & Innovation category, while Dr. Eaves won in the Leadership category at the BC Export Awards. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • We knew that aging comes along with increased inflammation, but the consequences of chronic inflammation for hematopoietic stem cells and organism aging were incompletely understood," Dr. Zhiyang Chen, postdoctoral researcher at FLI explains his motivation behind the study. (medicalnewser.com)
  • Organism aging is characterized by increases in inflammation and decreases in stem cell function. (idw-online.de)
  • dendritic
  • 1. Metabolic control of antigen-presenting cells, including dendritic cells and macrophages. (frontiersin.org)
  • Phagocytosis of otherwise-viable pathogens, such as bacteria, can be mediated by neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, microglia and dendritic cells, and is central to host defence against pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic cells can phagocytose viable neutrophils, and present antigens derived from bacteria or cancer cell debris previously phagocytosed by the neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with old age. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumour
  • It has been known for some time that animals defend themselves against cancer by antibody-mediated or antibody-independent phagocytosis of viable tumour cells by macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • During his medical training he was greatly influenced by Dr. Ross Langley, a research-oriented hematologist who suggested that Eaves do a PhD at the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto where Dr. Robert Bruce was collaborating with Drs. James Till and Ernest McCulloch (Lasker Award) on how different types of cancer chemotherapeutic agents killed tumour stem cells while sparing normal stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many different tumour cell lines, such as gastric cancer, medulloblastoma and endometrial cancer, lung andeocarcinoma and colorectal carcinoma, there are lower levels of miR-129 indicating that it may play a role in the suppression of cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • Using a mouse model of SAA, we demonstrate that IFNγ-dependent hematopoietic stem cell loss required macrophages. (haematologica.org)
  • Pathogenic cells such as bacteria can be opsonised by antibodies or complement factors, enabling their phagocytosis and phagoptosis by macrophages and neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aged" erythrocytes and neutrophils, as well as "activated" platelets, neutrophils and T-cells, are thought to be phagocytosed alive by macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • During mammalian development multiple cells undergo programmed cell senescence and are then phagocytosed by macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Red blood cells (erythrocytes) live for roughly 3 months in the blood before being phagocytksed by macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Old erythrocytes do not die, but rather display changes in the cell surface that enable macrophages to recognise them as old or damaged, including exposure of phosphatidylserine, desialylation of glycoproteins, loss or changed conformation of the "don't-eat-me" signal CD47, and exposure of novel antigens that bind endogenous antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen recognition causes phosphatidylserine exposure on activated T-cells, which is recognized by Tim-4 on macrophages, inducing phagoptosis of the activated T-cells, and thus the contraction phase of the adaptive response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although myeloid cell production does not seem to decline with age, macrophages become dysregulated as a consequence of environmental changes. (wikipedia.org)