Loading...
  • SCNT
  • In this review, the historical work in domestic species leading up to the development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), along with the practical applications of this technology, will be discussed. (pnas.org)
  • As illustrated below, basic research regarding the biological mechanisms of SCNT has led to scientific advances in the areas of reprogramming, cell fate determination, and epigenetic regulation during development. (pnas.org)
  • For this, the expression of 377 miRNAs was investigated using a quantitative real time PCR array technology in placentas of these three origins as well as donor fibroblast cells used for SCNT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With the cloning of a sheep known as Dolly in 1996 by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the idea of human cloning became a hot debate topic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2013, a group of scientists led by Shoukhrat Mitalipov published the first report of embryonic stem cells created using SCNT. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this experiment, the researchers developed a protocol for using SCNT in human cells, which differs slightly from the one used in other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • A year later, a team led by Robert Lanza at Advanced Cell Technology reported that they had replicated Mitalipov's results and further demonstrated the effectiveness by cloning adult cells using SCNT. (wikipedia.org)
  • In somatic cell nuclear transfer ("SCNT"), the nucleus of a somatic cell is taken from a donor and transplanted into a host egg cell, which had its own genetic material removed previously, making it an enucleated egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human SCNT (Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer) experiments, these eggs are obtained through consenting donors, utilizing ovarian stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leading scientists to seek an alternative method of obtaining stem cells, SCNT is one such method. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if a person with Parkinson's disease donated his or her somatic cells, the stem cells resulting from SCNT would have genes that contribute to Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurogenesis
  • Ganglion mother cells (GMCs) are cells involved in neurogenesis that divide only once to give rise to two neurons, or one neuron and one glial cell or two glial cells, and are present only in the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • GDF11 has been shown to suppress neurogenesis through a pathway similar to that of myostatin, including stopping the progenitor cell-cycle during G-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies in mice suggest that GDF11 is involved in mesodermal formation and neurogenesis during embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • Dr. Gordon Woods, UI professor of animal and veterinary science, said the work aided understanding of calcium s role in cell signaling and possibly in the progression of human disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cell cycle progression is inhibited by Prospero because it activates cyclin-dependant kinase inhibitor (CKI). (wikipedia.org)
  • MELK has been shown to involved in progression through the cell cycle, possibly linked to its interaction with CDC25B. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations of the GLI2 gene are associated with several phenotypes including Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome, Pallister-Hall syndrome, preaxial polydactyly type IV, postaxial polydactyly types A1 and B. In human keratinocytes Gli2 activation upregulates a number of genes involved in cell cycle progression including E2F1, CCND1, CDC2 and CDC45L. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • These cells genetically matched the donor organism from which they came.This gives them the ability to create patient specific pluripotent cells, which could then be used in therapies or disease research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • The present study aimed at developing and validating the in vitro and vivo models of TYST and evaluating the sensitivity of TYST to treatments, by cloning human TYST cells and investigating the histology, ultra-structure, growth kinetics and expression of specific proteins of cloned cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The receptor is normally triggered via direct cell-to-cell contact, in which the transmembrane proteins of the cells in direct contact form the ligands that bind the notch receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notch and most of its ligands are transmembrane proteins, so the cells expressing the ligands typically must be adjacent to the notch expressing cell for signaling to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • These four proteins act to inhibit self-renewal (the cell cycle) and promote differentiation (especially Prospero), which is why GMCs divide into their differentiated progeny instead of more GMCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The temporal regulation of neuroblast asymmetric division is controlled by proteins Hunchback (Hb) and sevenup (svp). (wikipedia.org)
  • GDF11 activates the TGF-β pathway in cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells and suppresses the phosphorylation of Forkhead (FOX proteins) transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gli family zinc finger proteins are mediators of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and they are implicated as potent oncogenes in the embryonal carcinoma cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • mesodermal
  • Frequently marginal cells give rise to both endodermal and mesodermal derivatives, demonstrating that these two lineages have not yet separated. (zfin.org)
  • Mesodermal cells form a coherent layer of round cells separating the endoderm and ectoderm. (zfin.org)
  • kinase
  • The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) group of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is activated in response to the treatment of cells with inflammatory cytokines and by exposure to environmental stress. (umassmed.edu)
  • Src (also known as pp60src) is a non receptor Tyrosine Kinase involved in signal transduction in many biological systems and implicated in the development of human tumors. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MELK gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Extracellular calcium concentrations were reversed, with 1.5 times greater calcium concentrations outside cells in equines than in humans. (innovations-report.com)
  • Orthologs of Oct-4 exist in humans and several other species including: Oct-4 contains the following protein domains: Oct-4 has been implicated in tumorigenesis of adult germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans there are many types of stem cells, each with varying levels of potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • To determine which cells are dopaminergic, experiments measured the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which is needed for dopamine synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. (pnas.org)
  • More specifically, a nucleus from a cell of the donor individual is inserted into an oocyte whose own nuclear DNA has been removed (enucleation). (pnas.org)
  • The technique consists of taking an enucleated oocyte (egg cell) and implanting a donor nucleus from a somatic (body) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of the donor egg cell is removed and discarded, leaving it 'deprogrammed. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoietic
  • As Musashi2 is involved in the generation of hematopoietic cells, it is also linked with cancer pathologies: It has been found that MSI2 plays an important role in myeloid leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ cells
  • The testicular yolk sac tumor (TYST) is the most common neoplasm originated from germ cells differentiated abnormally, a major part of pediatric malignant testicular tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The testicular yolk sac tumor (TYST) is the most common neoplasm originated from germ cells differentiated abnormally [ 1 ], while germ cell tumors in the testis account for approximately 60-75% of pediatric malignant testicular tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • neurons
  • While each ganglion mother cell necessarily gives rise to two neurons, a neuroblast can asymmetrically divide multiple times. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GMC forms two ganglion cells which then develop into neurons or glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a short hairpin for Nurr1 was expressed in microglia and astrocytes, these cells produced inflammatory mediators, such as TNFa, NO synthase and IL-1β, supporting the conclusion that reduced Nurr1 promotes inflammation and leads to cell death of dopaminergic neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, Nurr1 modulation may be promising for generation of dopaminergic neurons for Parkinson's disease research, yet implantation of these induced cells as therapy treatments, has had limited results. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition
  • Inhibition of notch signaling has been shown to have anti-proliferative effects on T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in cultured cells and in a mouse model. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intestinal dysplasia resulted from an increase in progenitor cell population and the upregulation of β-catenin transcription through the inhibition of cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Once expressed, the Fgf8 induces other transcription factors to form cross-regulatory loops between cells, thus the border is established. (wikipedia.org)