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  • mitotic
  • Any process that modulates the rate or extent of progress through the mitotic cell cycle. (yeastgenome.org)
  • After the mitotic phase, the daughter cells re-enter the G1 phase or go into the quiescent state. (springer.com)
  • In animal cells, cytokinesis commences before mitotic chromosome segregation is completed, and hence the two events overlap. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The duplicated organelles are concentrated in the posterior end of the cell (although their relative positioning differs in different parasite life cycle stages), imposing constraints on cytokinesis, which occurs after mitotic chromosome segregation via the unidirectional ingression of a cleavage furrow along the helical axis of the cell from the anterior to the posterior end. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Passage through the cycle is controlled by G 1 , S-phase, and mitotic cyclin -dependent kinase complexes (CdkCs) highlighted in green. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic screens for cell division cycle mutants in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans led to the discovery of never-in-mitosis A (NIMA), a serine/threonine kinase that is required for mitotic entry. (biologists.org)
  • Although there is no evidence that human NEKs are essential for mitotic entry, it is clear that several NEK family members have important roles in cell cycle control. (biologists.org)
  • Though Wee1 is a fairly conserved negative regulator of mitotic entry, no general mechanism of cell size control in G2 has yet been elucidated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrate cells, the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint consists of an arrest of the cell in G2 just before mitotic entry in response to genotoxic stress (such as UV radiation, oxidative stress, DNA intercalating agents, etc.) in both a p53-dependent and p53-independent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulator
  • Here we identify ChpT, an essential histidine phosphotransferase that controls the activity of CtrA, the master cell cycle regulator. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, we show that CtrA triggers its own destruction by promoting cell division and inducing synthesis of the essential regulator DivK, which feeds back to downregulate CckA immediately before S phase. (nih.gov)
  • antigen- pres
  • This "A/5R experiment" confirmed the Determinant Selection Hypothesis concerning the spatial relationships between the histocompatibility I-A and I-E molecules on the surface of antigen- presenting cells, the bound antigen and the recognition structure of the T-cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • interphase
  • Cells that are not in a quiescent state exist in either 1 of the 4 known stages of cell duplication: G1, S, G2, or M. The first 3 stages (G1, S, G2) together form the so-called "Interphase" during which the cell increases in size, accumulates required nutrients, and replicates the DNA in the cell nucleus. (axonmedchem.com)
  • regulate
  • 5 Recent studies have elegantly identified several growth factors that regulate cardiomyogenic induction of the precursor cells in the anterior mesoderm. (ahajournals.org)
  • precursor cells
  • 6-9 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ The failure of these growth factors to promote cardiomyogenic induction in more primitive precursor cells indicates that additional as of yet unidentified factors participate in the process. (ahajournals.org)
  • Wee1
  • Fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) has been previously shown to employ such a mechanism, via Cdr2-mediated spatial regulation of Wee1 activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • Cell cycle regulation differs in different parasite life cycle stages, and T. brucei appears to use different checkpoint control strategies compared to model eukaryotes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, acute control of activity at distinct locations within a cell cannot be achieved. (technologynetworks.com)
  • A new chemo-optogenetic method enables tunable, reversible, and rapid control of activity at multiple subcellular compartments within a living cell. (technologynetworks.com)
  • A series of biochemical switches control transitions between and within the various phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Broadening her immunology studies into the area of autoimmunity, Heber-Katz discovered that particular autoimmune diseases were under the control of delimited and separable T-cell receptor subsets (the V-region disease hypothesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • One hypothesis is that the growth in G2 phase is regulated as a method of cell size control. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin
  • Notably, knockdown of SIRT1 eliminated the regulation of resveratrol on p21 and cyclin D1 expression in PDGF-BB treated HPASMCs. (hindawi.com)
  • intrinsic
  • Cell cycle activity is an intrinsic component of cardiac differentiation and morphogenesis, as evidenced by traditional tritiated thymidine incorporation studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • phases
  • The abundance of Skp2 mRNA oscillates in a cell cycle-dependent manner, being maximal in S and G 2 phases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Skp2 is first detectable at the transition between G 1 and S phases, accumulates during S and G 2 phases, and then decreases in abundance as cells proceed through M phase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • stages
  • For reference, an initial description of cardiomyogenic induction and morphogenesis is provided, which is followed by a summary of published cell cycle analyses during these stages of cardiac ontology. (ahajournals.org)
  • differentiation
  • The stem/progenitor cell has long been regarded as a central cell type in development, homeostasis, and regeneration, largely owing to its robust self-renewal and multilineage differentiation abilities. (springer.com)
  • This cytokine is required for the T-cell-dependent induction of interferon gamma (INF-γ), and is important for the differentiation of both Th1 and Th2 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular
  • Polyamines are ubiquitous small molecules involved in many normal cellular functions, including transcribing and translating genes, regulating ion channels and cell-to-cell interactions, and powering cell growth and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • O-GlcNAc couples metabolic status to the regulation of a wide variety of cellular signaling pathways by acting as a nutrient sensor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • These phenotypes include the set of transformed states associated with aberrant gene expression, the set of differentiated states that have been defined as a result of stochastic gene expression and the distribution of cells between living and dead or growth inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kinase
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA-binding activity of the ubiquitously expressed ABL1 tyrosine kinase is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function for ABL1. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such inhibitor is imatinib mesylate, which occupies the tyrosine kinase domain and inhibits BCR-ABL's influence on the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Media conditions that support fast growth in bacteria also couples with shorter inter-initiation time in them, i.e. the doubling time in fast growing cells is less as compared to the slow growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study of the genomes of a set of bacteria and archaea suggests that the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of all cells was using the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway in a hydrothermal setting. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • The regulation of genetic engineering aims to assess and manage the risks of developing genetically modified organisms (GMO), including commercial food crops and fish. (lafayettecollege.org)
  • dormancy
  • If a cell is signaled to remain undivided, instead of moving onto the S phase, it will leave the G1 phase and move into a state of dormancy called the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • Gilmour provided the first evidence that elevated epidermal levels of polyamines alone can positively affect the recruitment of bulge stem cells in the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This finding is significant with regard to the stem cell origin of skin cancer, since carcinogen-targeted stem cells can remain dormant for many years until recruited to develop into a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Between the beginning of the G1 phase (which is also after mitosis has occurred) and R, the cell is known as being in the G1-pm subphase, or the post-mitotic phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogene
  • Therefore, if the oncogene or set of oncogenes contributing maximally to a tumor cell's survival can be identified, such oncogene(s) are the most appropriate target(s) for maximizing tumor cell kill. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and thereby, to predict which oncogene(s) are the most appropriate target(s) for maximizing tumor cell kill. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cytoplasm
  • As a result, its levels in the cell are stabilized as it builds up in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • selective
  • Evaluation of cytotoxicity in Human noncancer cells indicated that the compounds 3i and 3m were practically ineffective in quiescent peripheral blood lymphocytes, and may have a selective antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • complexes
  • Complexes of cyclin that are active during other phases of the cell cycle are kept inactivated to prevent any cell-cycle events from occurring out of order. (wikipedia.org)
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-catenin participates in the formation and stabilization of adherens junctions by binding to β-catenin-cadherin complexes in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Coat colour in mammals is determined by the presence, distribution and biochemical activity of the melanocytes, which are specialized cells where eumelanins (black/brown pigments) and pheomelanins (yellow/red pigments) are synthesized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biochemical triggers known as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) switch on cell cycles events at the corrected time and in the correct order to prevent any mistakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • She discovered that overexpression of ODC and c-Raf activation is sufficient to convert a normal primary keratinocyte into a malignant, invasive tumor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Outcomes had been gathered from 3 different batches of MCF-7 cells. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Different cell stressors have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. (scripps.edu)
  • Interestingly, palmitate exerts its effect on fat cells at different levels. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The duration of each phase, including the G1 phase, is different in many different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, and room for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiological temperatures are optimal for cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reasons the cell would not move into the S phase include insufficient cell growth, damaged DNA, or other preparations have not been completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Division
  • In humans, the normal physiological temperature is around 37 °C (98.6 °F). G1 phase is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is highly conserved during evolution and it plays a key role in the regulation of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before a cell can enter cell division, it needs to take in nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms of some taxonomic groups, including some animals, experience chronological decrease in mortality, for all or part of their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • In agreement with this hypothesis, we have found that palmitate inhibits adiponectin production by adipocytes in a cell-autonomous fashion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • cell's
  • We hypothesize that a cell's phenotypic entropy is determined as a function of the survival fraction or proliferation rate of a tumor ;and also, the number of transformed and differentiated states that arise within a particular cell population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The transformed states are the phenotypes that a cell can access which provide a hyperproliferative advantage over the cell's normal counterpart. (biomedcentral.com)
  • serum
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • In the study, Wahlestedt and his colleagues exposed cells to a number of them including hyperthermia, serum starvation, and two forms of amyloid β, hydrogen peroxide and high glucose. (scripps.edu)
  • represents
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • expression
  • Gilmour continued her research at The Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, first as postdoctoral fellow (1984 to 1987) and then as research associate (1988 to 1990 While at Wistar, she began her work in characterizing the regulation and expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in both normal and tumor tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • No expression of Daxx leads to malfunction of S phase and cells with two nuclei are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • They bind to DnaA-ADP and DnaA-ATP with equal affinities and are bound by DnaA throughout most of the cell cycle and forms a scaffold on which rest of the orisome assembles. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. (lafayettecollege.org)
  • The modification of isoCA-4 by introduction of difluoromethoxy group at the para-position (3i) and substitution of the two protons of the linker by two fluorine atoms (3m), produced the most active compounds in the series, with IC50 values of 0.15-2.2 nM (3i) and 0.1-2 nM (3m) respectively, against a panel of six cancer cell lines. (deepdyve.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)