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  • proteins
  • Traditionally, functions of eosinophils focused singularly on their roles as end-stage "effector" cells, e.g., releasing their four granule cationic proteins and generating paracrine mediators of inflammation, including eicosanoids. (jimmunol.org)
  • protein
  • Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a unique member of the HDAC family that not only participates in histone acetylation and deacetylation but also targets several nonhistone substrates, such as α-tubulin, cortactin, and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), to regulate cell proliferation, metastasis, invasion, and mitosis in tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathogenesis
  • It would be of great interest to determine whether this systemic phenomenon is due to the same mechanism as the one described by Upham et al , whether it accounts (at least in part) for the so-called "idiopathic CD4+ T lymphopenia syndrome", 3 and whether it affects the balance between Th1 and Th2 cells which may be critical to the pathogenesis of both asthma and tuberculosis. (bmj.com)
  • presentation
  • Endocytic proteases play a key role in two different steps of MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation: invariant chain cleavage and antigen degradation. (rupress.org)
  • The presentation of host antigens by host APC can be further enhanced by host gamma/delta T cells, as recently shown in the mouse (Maeda et al, 2005). (slideshare.net)
  • Streilein JW, Niederkorn JY, Shadduck JA: Systemic immune unresponsiveness induced in adult mice by anterior chamber presentation of minor histocompatibility antigens. (springer.com)
  • A detailed understanding of function, regulation and trafficking of Fc-epsilon-RI will improve understanding of IgE-mediated antigen presentation and hopefully help to establish new treatment strategies for such allergies. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Cancer ICD requires the presentation of various "hallmarks" of immunomodulation, which include the cell-surface translocation of calreticulin, production of type I interferons, and release of high-mobility group box-1 and ATP, which through their compatible actions induce an immune response against cancer cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the processing and presentation of proinsulin by antigen-presenting cells (APC) in humans is only partially understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • regulate
  • Members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily participate in many events that regulate cell homeostasis, activation and cell death. (uiowa.edu)
  • inhibition
  • Furthermore, CatG activity was found to be elevated in PBMC from T1D patients and abrogation of CatG activity resulted in functional inhibition of proinsulin-reactive T cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, via their direct inhibitory effects on IKK, AαBA and AKβBA convey inhibition of NF-κB and subsequent down-regulation of TNF-α expression in activated human monocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Inhibition of NF-κB leads to a reduction of the inflammatory response, because NF-κB takes the center stage in the regulation of a wide range of genes involved in chronic inflammatory diseases including cytokines such as TNF and IL-1, but also inducible NO synthase and the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 ( 1 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Inhibition of JAK3 with a novel, selective and orally active small molecule induces therapeutic response in T-cell malignancies. (bio-protocol.org)
  • mediate
  • An immunohistology investigation within the acidic saline model of CWP revealed significant up-regulation of Iba-1 and GFAP in the lumbar spinal cord, suggesting that gliosis may potentially mediate hyperalgesia in CWP disorders. (ubc.ca)
  • lymphocyte
  • 1. Management of acute graft-versus-host disease Andrea Bacigalupo Divisione Ematologia e Trapianto di Midollo, Ospedale San Martino, Genova, Italy Summary Acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a frequent compli- cation of allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI). (slideshare.net)
  • Keywords: graft-versus-host disease, haemopoietic stem cell transplantation, donor lymphocyte infusion, immunosuppres- sive therapy, mesenchymal stem cells. (slideshare.net)
  • malignancies
  • How can this information be used to select more effective treatments for B cell malignancies? (uiowa.edu)
  • This is consistent with the association of loss-of-function mutations in TRAF3 observed with B cell malignancies in humans. (uiowa.edu)
  • This information could permit greater efficacy in designing treatments for B cell malignancies. (uiowa.edu)
  • pathogens
  • In steady state, MΦ are the major cell type in the alveolar space, representing ∼90% of its hematopoietic cellular content ( 1 ) and playing a key role in its clearance from pulmonary pathogens and dying cells ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The gastrointestinal immune system balances the ability to respond to pathogens while remaining unresponsive to food antigens as well as the commensal microflora. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Antimicrobial vaccines rely on the immune system's capacity to distinguish self-tissues from infectious non-self so that invading pathogens, and the cells they might infect, could be efficiently identified and eliminated, while sparing healthy tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Normal human mammary epithelial cells proliferate rapidly in the presence of elevated levels of the tumor suppressors p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1. (edu.au)
  • antitumor
  • Epigenetic modifiers have a direct effect on cell viability and appear to fundamentally change the immunogenic properties of cancer cells, by actively subverting tumor microenvironment-associated immunoevasion and aiding in the development of an antitumor immune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antitumor T cells can detect and eliminate cancer cells in a highly precise, antigen-specific fashion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Appropriately activated antitumor T cells can target cancer cells at both local and metastatic sites and, most importantly, can kill existing as well as possibly relapsing cancerous cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Numerous patient cohort studies thus far have reported a clear positive correlation between the activities of antitumor T cells and better patient outcomes ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • antigenic
  • This observation is in agreement with the notion that DCs prevent the premature destruction of antigenic determinants to optimize T cell activation. (rupress.org)
  • mice
  • Streilein JW, Niederkorn JW: Characterization of the suppressor cell(s) responsible for Anterior Chamber Associated Immune Deviation (ACAID) induced in BALB/c mice by P815 cells. (springer.com)
  • Mice lacking TRAF3 specifically in B cells show dramatically increased B cell survival, with normal proliferation. (uiowa.edu)
  • CCL17-expressing dendritic cells drive atherosclerosis by restraining regulatory T cell homeostasis in mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Immunosurveillance of Erbb2 carcinogenesis in transgenic mice is concealed by a dominant regulatory T-cell self-tolerance. (bio-protocol.org)
  • function
  • The so-called "three-signal model" ( 4 ) is usually used to define the APC function required for the activation of T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • By downregulating the function of DCs and upregulating Treg cells, vitamin D acts as a rheostat on the immune response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With regard to normal and aberrant function in disease, B cells frequently undergo transformation, likely via the DNA modification processes unique to B cells. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • 2) What is the role of TRAF3 in signaling and function of T cells? (uiowa.edu)
  • This is largely because cancers employ numerous evasion strategies that are non-conducive toward T cell activation and function. (frontiersin.org)