• Backed by fines of up to €20 million or 4% of global revenue, whichever is higher, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) gives EU residents new, expanded rights over their personal data. (ey.com)
  • The General Data Protection Regulation (GPDR) is a global game changer. (ey.com)
  • What is General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)? (adobe.com)
  • The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is the European Union's privacy law that harmonizes and modernizes data protection requirements. (adobe.com)
  • A key part of the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation is letting individuals choose and control what happens to their personal data. (adobe.com)
  • Think you know what it takes to protect your critical data under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)? (mcafee.com)
  • The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is legislation designed to harmonize data privacy laws across Europe, to protect and empower all European Union (EU) citizens' data privacy, and to reshape the way organizations across the region approach data privacy. (mcafee.com)
  • Disclaimer: The information provided on this General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) page is our informed interpretation of the GDPR and is for information purposes only. (mcafee.com)
  • The European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which comes into effect in May 2018, has far-reaching implications that extend far beyond the EU. (cmswire.com)
  • These regulations outline the statewide standards and licensing requirements for commercial cannabis manufacturers, became effective on December 7, 2017 and were re-adopted with some changes on June 6, 2018. (ca.gov)
  • MCSB published proposed regulations on July 13, 2018. (ca.gov)
  • On March 23, 2018, MCSB released proposed emergency regulations that would allow cannabis manufacturers to utilize shared-use facilities. (ca.gov)
  • The emergency regulations for shared-use facilities were approved and went into effect on April 13, 2018. (ca.gov)
  • GDPR-inspired privacy regulations are cascading into other regions and countries. (adobe.com)
  • Even if the public weren't involved in the development of the Voluntary Code of Practice, and even if search engines weren't coerced into agreeing to it under the not-so-subtle threat of direct government regulation, at least the agreement might claim a fig leaf of legitimacy if it were negotiated and published in a transparent fashion. (eff.org)
  • The 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs play a major role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • But a very important protein required for the regulation of gene expression by sRNAs is missing in Helicobacter pylori. (redorbit.com)
  • The major aim of Transcriptional Regulation by Neuronal Activity: To the Nucleus and Back is to illustrate key advances in the field - specifically how signals are transmitted to the nucleus in response to neuronal activity, what genes are activated and how this is achieved, and how these changes in gene expression alter neuronal function. (springer.com)
  • Regulation of MHC gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • This application proposes to study the molecular basis of retinal development using the regulation of rhodopsin gene expression as a model system. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • You can also find the official text of CDC regulations published in the Code of Federal Regulations under Title 42-Public Health External . (cdc.gov)
  • The NIOSH regulations are found in the following parts of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and are linked below. (cdc.gov)
  • All formal Federal regulations are published in the Federal Register and also in the Code of Federal Regulations , a large multivolume series. (usda.gov)
  • Regulations are codified annually in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). (epa.gov)
  • For a list of regulations CDC is currently working on, please see the Unified Agenda External of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions. (cdc.gov)
  • Identify and disseminate a shared strategic vision of what Better Regulation is seeking to achieve, both in terms of curbing regulatory inflation, but also for the broader contribution which it can make to economic and other public policy goals. (oecd.org)
  • Undertake a review, associating the ASA and the Better Regulation structures of the other Belgian governments, of whether and how any or all of the Belgium wide bodies with a role in regulatory management could be associated more closely to the Better Regulation processes. (oecd.org)
  • Review and monitor Better Regulation co-operation agreements so that they can play an appropriate supporting role in streamlining the regulatory framework to promote policy coherence across Belgium. (oecd.org)
  • Although NIOSH is generally characterized as a non-regulatory agency, guidance and recommendations issued by NIOSH are often used by other agencies responsible for developing and enforcing workplace safety and health regulations. (cdc.gov)
  • EY data protection and privacy services help organizations stay up-to-date with leading services in data security and data privacy, as well as complying with regulation in a constantly evolving threat environment and regulatory landscape. (ey.com)
  • Recent advances, such as findings of extensive modifications of regulatory RNAs, indicate that our understanding of the role of RNAs in gene regulation is far from complete. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Having some companies specializing in the still-not-legal dietary ingredient CBD join CRN will help the trade group as it looks to "help FDA, or Congress, craft those regulations," said Andrew Shao, CRN's senior vice president of scientific and regulatory. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Industry and regulatory speakers will facilitate interactive, forward-looking discussions on current practices, policies, priorities and emerging regulations. (finra.org)
  • Kevin Moore, analyst and managing director at Wachovia Securities, said that lawmakers should minimize the investment communitys need to constantly reevaluate the regulatory environment by introducing minimal and flexible regulation. (eweek.com)
  • Once upon a time, Ralph Nader and his legions were virtually the only ones cited by news reports concerning regulatory legislation, but today we are often likely to read about doubts concerning the value of regulation expressed by economists and others all along the political spectrum. (reason.com)
  • In his discussion of the price and entry regulations applied, for example, to public utilities and transportation, he suggests one reason why public opinion might have been ripe 20 years ago for Ralph Nader and the acceleration of regulatory activity since that time in the health and safety areas. (reason.com)
  • EPA is called a regulatory agency because Congress authorizes us to write regulations that explain the technical, operational, and legal details necessary to implement laws. (epa.gov)
  • The Center on Regulation and Markets at Brookings provides independent, non-partisan research on regulatory policy, applied broadly across microeconomic fields. (brookings.edu)
  • The new regulations come as the banking industry has seen the overall bonus pool fall coming into 2016, according to a recent report from the Office of the New York State Comptroller. (cnbc.com)
  • On July 11, 2013, the EU Cosmetics Regulation entered into effect replacing the EU Cosmetics Directive which had been in place since the 1970s. (export.gov)
  • Section 1 of this report provides information on the categories of products covered by the Cosmetics Regulation. (export.gov)
  • The Cosmetics Regulation requires that non-EU based exporters of cosmetic products retain a Responsible Person. (export.gov)
  • Guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits can sleep safe and sound in Europe as of today (11 March) after the last deadline specified in the Cosmetics Regulation entered into force across the European Union, forbidding the industry from using animal testing. (euractiv.com)
  • The Department of Biological Regulation is comprised of approximately 160 people organized in 13 research groups. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • View the recorded sessions from the 2019 FINRA Advertising Regulation Conference, and receive access to all conference materials. (finra.org)
  • View the online brochure for the 2019 Advertising Regulation Conference. (finra.org)
  • The EC Regulation on Insolvency Proceedings 2000 was passed on 29 May 2000 and came into effect on 31 May 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • BRS derives its authority to write regulations from provisions of the Plant Protection Act , which is a part of the larger Agriculture Risk Protection Act of 2000 . (usda.gov)
  • Facebook Inc. Chief Executive Officer Mark Zuckerberg called for new global regulations governing the internet, recommending overarching rules on hateful and violent content, election integrity, privacy and data portability. (insurancejournal.com)
  • The definition of the COMI is left to member states in their implementation of the Regulation, but paragraph (13) of the preamble states: 'The "centre of main interests" should correspond to the place where the debtor conducts the administration of his interests on a regular basis and is therefore ascertainable by third parties. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the concerns which has been expressed in relation to the EC Regulation is that (other than a reference to the European Court of Justice) there is no mechanism for determining which set of proceedings are to be regarded as the main proceedings if two or more jurisdictions claims that their own proceedings are the main proceedings. (wikipedia.org)
  • We focus our review on four main types of alcohol regulations: price/tax restrictions, age-based availability restrictions, spatial availability restrictions, and temporal availability restrictions. (nber.org)
  • The state boiler inspection program implements statutory rules and regulations established to control the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of approximately 38,000 boilers and pressure vessels in the state of Colorado. (mines.edu)
  • Our research is concentrated on the regulation of processes responsible for the concerted action of cells, tissues, and organs. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Consider how best to secure more effective links between the administration and political units, for shared "buy-in" on Better Regulation processes. (oecd.org)
  • Motivational and behavioral models of developmental regulation form the framework for research on the central processes of agency over the lifespan. (springer.com)
  • The motivational theory of development over the lifespan conceptualizes processes of developmental regulation as a sequence of behavioral phases (goal selection, goal striving, and goal realization) with their own respective control strategies. (springer.com)
  • Regulation of gene transcription by neuronal activity is evident in a large number of neuronal processes ranging from neural development and refinement of neuronal connections to learning and response to injury. (springer.com)
  • Regulation F specifies that banks must institute internal rules that regulate the amount of risk that they can take in their business proceedings with other institutions. (investopedia.com)
  • CBA has become widely accepted for environmental and safety regulation, so why not finance? (cato.org)
  • CDC and other agencies implement public health laws passed by Congress through Federal Regulations. (cdc.gov)
  • Congress added this section to the AWA in 2008 and APHIS published specific regulations in 2014. (usda.gov)
  • The proposed regulations and executive orders are directly related to parts of the president's agenda that have been rejected by Congress and the American people - most recently in the November presidential election. (americanthinker.com)
  • On behalf of our activist community, I urge you to contact your representative and ask him or her to support the Reset Act, H.R. 3442, introduced by Rep. Ted Budd (R-N.C.). The bill would require a review of all major federal regulations and allow Congress the option to overturn any such regulation through a majority vote in both houses. (freedomworks.org)
  • There are a series of key differences between the industry's plan for press regulation and that agreed by politicians and campaigners. (bbc.co.uk)
  • This complexity has created a financial regulation industry - an army of compliance officers, regulators, consultants and advisers - with a vested interest in the regulation industry's expansion. (truth-out.org)
  • Under the definition of "smaller reporting company" in Item 10(f) of Regulation S-K, does the corporate parent of a majority-owned subsidiary have to satisfy the public float or revenue requirements of the definition in order for the majority-owned subsidiary to qualify as a smaller reporting company? (sec.gov)
  • Under the definition of "smaller reporting company" in Item 10(f) of Regulation S-K, must the corporate parent of a majority-owned subsidiary be required to file reports under Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act in order for the majority-owned subsidiary to qualify as a smaller reporting company? (sec.gov)
  • The technical definition of a midnight regulation is one issued between Election Day and the inauguration of a new president. (americanthinker.com)
  • As the nation's public health protection agency, CDC has certain authorities to implement regulations related to protecting America from health and safety threats, both foreign and within the United States, and increasing public health security. (cdc.gov)
  • The Chemicals Regulation Division (CRD) is responsible for the regulation of biocides, pesticides, detergents, chemicals covered by REACH, and for compliance with the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) Regulation. (hse.gov.uk)
  • These Compliance & Disclosure Interpretations ("C&DIs") comprise the Division's interpretations of Regulation S-K. Some of these C&DIs were first published in prior Division publications and have been revised in some cases. (sec.gov)
  • The Gateway to State-by-State Resource Locators Exit , sponsored by EPA's Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance , provides access to state-by-state environmental regulations, compliance assistance, and where applicable, permits and forms for a variety of topics. (epa.gov)
  • From a close-up investigation of Canadian financial regulations before and since the global financial crisis, to a profile of New Zealand's regulation and governance of its non-bank financial sector, to insight for international banks on compliance with anti-money-laundering legislation in Malaysia, the journal presents sophisticated analysis, and in-depth, expert advice. (palgrave.com)
  • EPA docket centers provide access to the same information as Regulations.gov for those people without access to the Internet. (epa.gov)
  • You may also submit comments to the docket centers, in addition to submitting them via Regulations.gov. (epa.gov)
  • Guidance and information on the UK implementation of the EC Detergents Regulation. (hse.gov.uk)
  • They have a prominent role in establishing regulations and policies that support the establishment and implementation of utility-sector energy efficiency programs. (aceee.org)
  • If EPA decides to proceed with regulation development, then the agency conducts a variety of economic analyses when developing the proposed and final regulations. (epa.gov)
  • EPA rulemakings (i.e., regulations that are under development) could impact you once they become final regulations. (epa.gov)
  • Maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis requires constant metabolic adjustment, achieved partly through the fine regulation of the classical transcription factors (e.g., by SREBP and LXR), but also through members of a class of noncoding RNAs termed miRNAs. (hindawi.com)
  • Today the NAI is joining leading advertising and marketing associations in the launch of the cross-industry program for self-regulation of online behavioral advertising. (networkadvertising.org)
  • Newsnight's political editor Allegra Stratton was told Privy Council members felt proposals for self-regulation put forward by newspapers did not meet the requirements of Lord Justice Leveson's report. (bbc.co.uk)
  • In the latest Viewpoints Breakfast series, Laurence Fink, Chairman and CEO of BlackRock Inc. talk about the role of regulation coming out of the recession and in the future, with Alan Murray. (wsj.com)
  • For WSJ's 'Viewpoints' series, late Lazard Chairman and CEO Bruce Wasserstein speaks to Alan Murray about government regulation. (wsj.com)
  • Canned pet food must also comply with the regulations for low-acid canned food . (fda.gov)
  • Although many U.S. exporters of cosmetic products have already taken steps to comply with this regulation, this report assists all U.S. cosmetics manufacturers understand the new requirements so they can better prepare to compete in the EU market. (export.gov)
  • We provide a number of tools for you to keep track of and participate in the development of new EPA regulations, and to learn how to comply with existing regulations. (epa.gov)
  • Photosynthate supply and phytohormones, particularly cytokinins, interact with nitrogen supply to control the expression of photosynthesis genes, the development of leaves and the whole plant nitrogen distribution, which provides the dominant basis for sink regulation of photosynthesis. (nih.gov)
  • The better characterization of proteins that interact with MHC class I and II promoters and the isolation of genes encoding several of these transcription factors, such as H-2RIIBP/RXR beta, NK kappa B, I-kappa B, hXBP-1 and NF-Y, allow the functional analysis of these molecules in MHC gene regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Studies on the regulation of expression of retina-specific genes, in addition to their importance at the basic level, will also have implications for the understanding and treatment of human disease. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • It is regulation that these directives are to be destroyed on receipt. (wiktionary.org)
  • [2] [3] Regulations can be distinguished from directives which, at least in principle, need to be transposed into national law . (wikipedia.org)
  • Opponents contend the rules were crafted so broadly that almost any spot where water collects naturally on private property would invite intrusive federal regulation. (voanews.com)
  • Regulation that is at once extensive and intrusive, yet ineffective and largely captured by financial sector interests. (truth-out.org)
  • The Insolvency Regulation is an EU Regulation concerning the rules of jurisdiction for opening insolvency proceedings in the European Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conformity with applicable rules and regulations. (wiktionary.org)
  • After a Congressional bill becomes law, federal agencies may be responsible for putting the law into action through the development of regulations-also known as "rules. (cdc.gov)
  • The process of creating regulations or rules is called rulemaking. (cdc.gov)
  • You can provide your comments by going to the federal government's regulations website External to view CDC's rules that are open for public comment External . (cdc.gov)
  • We explore the role of government in setting and enforcing rules for fairness and competition in the private sector, and how the private sector manages to set the regulation agenda itself. (corpwatch.org)
  • These regulations mostly outline procedures and requirements for specific health and safety related matters involving a particular industry or set forth rules for NIOSH to follow in administering programs assigned to the Institute. (cdc.gov)
  • They included smaller rules on workplace hazards, gun sellers, nutrition labels and energy efficiency, as well as giant regulations (costing billions) on retirement advice and overtime pay. (americanthinker.com)
  • Regulation of March 26, 2013, on the Exclusion of Some Provisions of the Aviation Law Act for Certain Types of Aircraft and Determining the Conditions and Requirements Relating to the Use of Such Aircraft, [2] which sets out the rules for operation of UAS weighing less than 25 kg. (loc.gov)
  • Regulation of April 26, 2013, on the Technical and Operational Rules on Aircraft of Special Category, Not Subject to the Supervision of the European Aviation Safety Agency, [4] which mostly applies to UAS weighing more than 25 kg. (loc.gov)
  • Obtaining a VLOS operation certificate requires the applicant to sign a declaration of knowledge of relevant regulations and basic theory (airspace, emergencies, flight rules, etc.), and pass theoretical and practical tests conducted by a CAA examiner. (loc.gov)
  • Pushing an overhaul plan for financial regulation on Thursday, the president said, 'Unless your business model depends on bilking people, there is little to fear from these new rules. (nytimes.com)
  • Comment on regulations, and access rules that have been published in the Federal Register and related documents. (epa.gov)
  • At issue is whether those rules, crafted by the Environmental Protection Agency, constitute a reasonable attempt to safeguard America's freshwater supply or a massive bureaucratic power grab that will subject farmers and other landowners to onerous federal oversight and regulations. (voanews.com)
  • A regulation set forth by the Federal Reserve. (investopedia.com)
  • Federal regulations give the public details or specific requirements of how the law will be applied. (cdc.gov)
  • Federal rulemaking usually involves a notice-and-comment process in which regulations are published in the Federal Register External for public comment over a specified time. (cdc.gov)
  • The Unified Agenda, published in the spring and fall of each year, provides information about regulations that the federal government is considering or reviewing within the next 12 months. (cdc.gov)
  • Ensure that the ASA keeps its institutional distinctiveness (location in the Federal Chancellery, autonomous agency, strong link with the stakeholders), which has allowed it to promote, often with great success, Better Regulation initiatives of Belgium-wide relevance. (oecd.org)
  • The links below provide additional information on the requirements and exceptions under the AWA, and complying with other applicable Federal, state, and local laws and regulations. (usda.gov)
  • Witness the moves to reform regulations on airlines and trucking and to limit the activities of the Federal Trade Commission and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (reason.com)
  • Established as a formal policy in 1986, the Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology describes the Federal system for evaluating products developed using modern biotechnology. (usda.gov)
  • In many cases, state-level environmental agencies administer the federal regulations that EPA puts in place. (epa.gov)
  • Chairman Hensarling, Ranking Member Waters, and other members of the committee, I appreciate the opportunity to testify on the Federal Reserve's regulation and supervision of financial institutions. (federalreserve.gov)
  • This report deals with the regulation of logistics infrastructures in Brazil, focusing in particular on the federal level. (rand.org)
  • Ensemble models of allosteric regulation enumerate an allosteric system's statistical ensemble as a function of its potential energy function , and then relate specific statistical measurements of allostery to specific energy terms in the energy function (such as an intermolecular salt bridge between two domains). (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, our regulation of that system should support and promote the system's efficiency just as it supports its safety. (federalreserve.gov)
  • The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) developed emergency regulations to implement the mandates of the Medicinal and Adult-Use Cannabis Regulation and Safety Act (MAUCRSA). (ca.gov)
  • These regulations were developed to provide opportunities for small manufacturing businesses and in response to demand from cities and counties wishing to implement equity programs. (ca.gov)
  • You may be continuing to implement the changes that will align your organization with this data protection regulation. (mcafee.com)
  • Unusually for a European regulation, the EC Insolvency Regulation does not seek to harmonise insolvency laws between the different member states. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a regulation comes into force, it overrides all national laws dealing with the same subject matter and subsequent national legislation must be consistent with and made in the light of the regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accountability is another of the simple conditions that EFF places on any industry code of practice that has a similar broad impact on Internet users as laws or regulations. (eff.org)
  • To understand how FDA regulates pet food, it's important to first understand several key concepts and some of the laws and regulations regarding food for animals. (fda.gov)
  • For a complete list of U.S. laws and regulations pertaining to biotechnology under the Coordinated Framework, click here . (usda.gov)
  • Uruguay has presented a 500 page document to defend itself against an international lawsuit challenging the country's tough tobacco packaging regulations. (corpwatch.org)
  • To understand the complexity of the vertical piano action and theprimary cause of an action going out of regulation, consider the cut-away photo ofthe action from an actual piano on the next page. (slideshare.net)
  • Time beyond regulation is used in some sports or situations within sports to break ties, and is known as overtime. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Regulation of Entry ," Working Paper Series rwp01-015, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government. (repec.org)
  • American attitudes toward government regulation of business have shifted in recent years. (reason.com)
  • MacAvoy's findings, however, are devastating to any argument that government regulation is a net benefit to society. (reason.com)
  • It is unfortunate that the book is so passionless, although its very monotony serves to accent the conclusion that government regulations fail to achieve their presumed objectives and perversely harm the economy instead. (reason.com)
  • The government is another step closer to coming up with regulations on minimum seat sizes for airline flights after the Senate passed an FAA reauthorization bill. (usatoday.com)
  • A joint study by the Brookings Institution and American Enterprise Institute [http://www.aei-brookings.org/publications/abstract.php?pid=98] found that government regulations that are supposed to save lives actually end up killing more people. (realclearpolitics.com)
  • If the COMI of an entity is outside of the European Union then the insolvency proceedings are not subject to the Regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • European Cross-border Insolvency Regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulations require that the horizontal distance from people and structures on the surface must be sufficient to exclude any risk to people, property, or the environment, even after any possible failure. (loc.gov)
  • Press regulation options are being considered in the wake of the Leveson Inquiry, which was set up in July 2011 after it emerged journalists working for the now-closed News of the World had hacked into the mobile phone of murdered Surrey schoolgirl Milly Dowler. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Alcohol Regulation and Crime , Christopher Carpenter, Carlos Dobkin. (nber.org)
  • The description of regulations can be found in Article 288 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (formerly Article 249 TEC ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Kimberly Strassel has a great article in the Wall Street Journal that summarizes the actions taken by President Obama since the election designed to undermine the presidency of Donald Trump by piling thousands of new regulations and executive orders on the new president's desk, daring him to undo them. (americanthinker.com)
  • Information about Regulation (EU) 649/2012 regarding the export or import of chemicals or articles containing chemicals (commonly known as the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Regulation). (hse.gov.uk)
  • Our findings suggest that as backyard chicken farming spreads, states need to develop regulations to better protect animal welfare and human health. (theconversation.com)
  • In some cases, though, a lack of appropriate emotion regulation may be a sign of a mental health condition such as borderline personality disorder or depression . (psychologytoday.com)
  • China's State Administration for Market Regulation (SAMR) is calling for public feedback regarding regulations for health food products containing probiotics. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • It also covers certain types of transactions in the financial markets - interest rate swaps and repurchase agreements fall under this regulation. (investopedia.com)
  • Consequently, leading states have enacted regulations and policies to create new business models for their investor-owned utilities - models that eliminate the financial disincentives that prevent utilities from saving energy and provide incentives for developing successful and effective energy efficiency programs. (aceee.org)
  • The tragicomic events of the past few months-the London Whale (what are we up to now, $6 billion), Barclays-Libor, HSBC laundering money have prompted renewed interest in better, stronger regulation of the financial sector. (truth-out.org)
  • Do senior managers in financial services have a legitimate complaint when it comes to being overwhelmed by regulation? (thersa.org)
  • While member states are prohibited from obscuring the direct effect of regulations, it is common practice to pass legislation dealing with consequential matters arising from the coming into force of a regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • PSCs in some states pioneered regulations and policies that led to the development and practice of utility "demand-side management," which includes customer energy efficiency programs . (aceee.org)
  • Consider whether resources are adequate to the tasks carried out, and ensure that professional capacities and competences are further enhanced, in order to meet the needs of a maturing Better Regulation agenda in support of more effective public administration and economic competitiveness. (oecd.org)
  • The regulation is intended to ensure adequate supplies for local infants and young children, Mead Johnson said. (yahoo.com)
  • Regulations can be adopted by means of a variety of legislative procedures depending on their subject matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation can increase welfare, for example, through fines (even with no changes in prices). (repec.org)