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  • endogenous small
  • Exogenous siRNAs with sequence complementarity to promoter regions have been shown to induce TGS in mammalian cells through heterochromatin assembly ( 3 - 6 ), suggesting that endogenous, small RNA-directed epigenetic processes might exist in mammals. (pnas.org)
  • miRNAs are endogenous small RNAs that are processed from primary transcripts in the nucleus that have a characteristic stem-loop structure ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • roles
  • To elaborate their roles in Arabidopsis shoot development, we analysed two of the 11 miR156 regulated Arabidopsis SBP-box genes, i.e. the likely paralogous genes SPL9 and SPL15 . (springer.com)
  • Altogether, these findings suggest that miR-16 and miR-424 play important roles in regulating cell-intrinsic angiogenic activity of ECs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Non-coding RNAs play roles in embryonic development of animals and these functions might be expected to evolve rapidly. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Tili E, Michaille JJ, Cimino A et al (2007) Modulation of miR-155 and miR-125b levels following lipopolysaccharide/TNF-alpha stimulation and their possible roles in regulating the response to endotoxin shock. (springer.com)
  • primary transcripts
  • Upon further examination, we observed that the primary transcripts containing the stem-loop structures of all 10 miRNAs were encoded within the promoter regions of their proximal known genes, suggesting that these miRNAs could potentially target their opposite strand sequences in cis with perfect complementarity. (pnas.org)
  • encodes
  • The human OCT4 gene encodes a transcription factor that maintains pluripotency and self-renewal in Embryonic Stem (ES) cells. (openaccesspub.org)
  • This gene encodes at least three transcripts, designated as OCT4A, OCT4B and OCT4B1, by alternative splicing and alternative promoter mechanisms 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 . (openaccesspub.org)
  • 27% of various tumors were suggested to have a hemizygous deletion of the gene that encodes DICER1 ( 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • promoter
  • This gene generates several known transcripts by alternative promoter and alternative splicing (OCT4A, OCT4B and OCT4B1). (openaccesspub.org)
  • In this study, we supposed that miR-1285 potentially can bind to the OCT4 promoter and might regulate transcription of the OCT4 in the human cancer cell lines and differentiated cells. (openaccesspub.org)
  • The Transcription Start Site (TSS) of OCT4A is located in upstream of exon1, but the OCT4B and OCT4B1 variants are transcribed from an alternative promoter in interon1 of oct4 gene 8 . (openaccesspub.org)
  • demonstrated that miR-145 promoter is bound and repressed by OCT4 in ES cells and surprisingly, OCT4 3ʹ-UTR can be targeted and down-regulated by miR-145 14 . (openaccesspub.org)
  • One conserved miRNA, miR-320, is encoded within the promoter region of the cell cycle gene POLR3D in the antisense orientation. (pnas.org)
  • degradation
  • As NOBOX is a maternal transcript critical for development and NOBOX is depleted during early embryogenesis, we hypothesized that NOBOX is targeted by microRNAs for silencing and/or degradation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mechanism
  • A zebrafish model for C9orf72 ALS reveals RNA toxicity as a pathogenic mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • tissues
  • Amiteye S, Corral JM, Vogel H, Sharbel TF (2011) Analysis of conserved microRNAs in floral tissues of sexual and apomictic Boechera species. (springer.com)
  • miRNAs play
  • Indeed, recent studies have shown that miRNAs play a critical role in tumor cells by serving as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes ( 5 , 6 ), as well as by offering resistance to cytotoxic anticancer therapy ( 9 - 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • role
  • Arabidopsis microRNA169 (miR169) is an ambient temperature-responsive microRNA that plays an important role in stress responses and the floral transition. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent studies in zebrafish have identified the role of microRNAs during the maternal-to-embryonic transition (MET). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review highlights the need to investigate the role of microRNAs in GVHD and hypothesizes that microRNAs may be one of the missing links in our understanding of GVHD, with the potential for novel therapeutics. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tang X, Tang G, Ozcan S (2008) Role of microRNAs in diabetes. (springer.com)
  • The role of microRNA-21 in isoflurane-induced cardioprotection is unknown. (asahq.org)
  • miR-9-5p/3p are brain-enriched miRNAs known to regulate development and their changes have been implicated in several neurological disorders, yet their role in mature neurons in mice is largely unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • sequences
  • Allen E, Xie Z, Gustafson AM, Sung G-H, Spatafora JW, Carrington JC (2004) Evolution of microRNA genes by inverted duplication of target gene sequences in Arabidopsis thaliana . (springer.com)
  • strand
  • Each RNAP is transcribing an RNA strand , which can be seen branching off from the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of RNA is a single strand of alternating ribose and phosphate groups with nitrogenous bases attached to the ribose. (varsitytutors.com)