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  • biochemical
  • The objective of the presented research is to examine the relationship between the cellular microenvironment and biochemical response of metastatic cells. (utexas.edu)
  • The fundamental inquiry that drives the following research attempts to elucidate how a cell perceives the physical microenvironment and converts that signal to a biochemical response. (utexas.edu)
  • At the biochemical level, these activities are regulated by the ability of PAK1 to phosphorylate its effector interacting substrates, which in-turn set-up a cascade of biochemical events cumulating into a cellular phenotypic response. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic cells
  • The action of penicillin and related β-lactam antibiotics was early recognized to be extrmely broad, affecting the vast majority of bacterial species, and at the same time highly specific, generally producing little effect on eukaryotic cells. (springer.com)
  • All eukaryotic cells - in plants, animals and fungi - contain mitochondria, which allow oxygen-breathing organisms to obtain energy from respiration. (vetscite.org)
  • Binds
  • Binds kininogen, the proteinaceous kinin precursor, and contributes to trigger the kinin-forming cascade on the cell surface. (rcsb.org)
  • Glis1 also up-regulates expression of the protein LIN28 which binds the let-7 microRNA precursor, preventing production of active let-7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arabidopsis
  • This coordination is essential in patterning the highly elongated giant cells, which are interspersed between small cells, in the outer epidermis of the Arabidopsis thaliana sepal. (biologists.org)
  • We find that members of the epidermal specification pathway, DEFECTIVE KERNEL1 ( DEK1 ), MERISTEM LAYER1 ( ATML1 ), Arabidopsis CRINKLY4 ( ACR4 ) and HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 ( HDG11 ), control the identity of giant cells. (biologists.org)
  • Recent genetic analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana has revealed several mechanisms involved cell proliferation control during root development, including hormone signaling and regulatory loops. (springer.com)
  • Beeckman T, Burssens S, Inze D (2001) The peri-cell-cycle in Arabidopsis . (springer.com)
  • Bemis SM, Torii KU (2007) Autonomy of cell proliferation and developmental programs during Arabidopsis aboveground organ morphogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Boudolf V, Vlieghe K, Beemster GT, Magyar Z, Torres Acosta JA, Maes S, Van Der Schueren E, Inze D, De Veylder L (2004) The plant-specific cyclin-dependent kinase CDKB1;1 and transcription factor E2Fa-DPa control the balance of mitotically dividing and endoreduplicating cells in Arabidopsis . (springer.com)
  • mechanism
  • The precise mechanism of cortactin-dependent cofilin regulation and the roles of this pathway in invadopodia maturation and cell invasion are not fully understood. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These patterning processes take place while cells are growing and proliferating, so coordination of cell type with cell cycle control is essential, but we are only beginning to understand its mechanism. (biologists.org)
  • These results provide new insights into the mechanism of YAP mechanosensing activity and qualify this Hippo effector as the key determinant of cell mechanics in response to ECM cues. (muni.cz)
  • Our new observation demonstrate for the first time the mechanism which enables cells to specifically turnover their adhesions to migrate in a specific tissue. (eurekalert.org)
  • rpoSp promotes transcription of rpoS mRNA, and is induced upon entry into stationary phase in cells growing on rich media via an unknown mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Cholesterol metabolism is tightly regulated at the cellular level and is essential for cellular growth. (hu-berlin.de)
  • GPI -anchored hyphal cell wall protein required for hyphal growth and virulence. (rcsb.org)
  • In this view, the opposing effects of ω-6 PUFA-derived and ω-3 PUFA-derived eicosanoids on key target cells underlie the detrimental and beneficial effects of ω-6 and ω-3 PUFA-rich diets on inflammation and allergy reactions, atherosclerosis, hypertension, cancer growth, and a host of other processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 88 kDa precursor protein, progranulin, is also called proepithelin and prostate cancer (PC) cell-derived growth factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the peptides and intact granulin protein regulate cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, different members of the granulin protein family may act as inhibitors, stimulators, or have dual actions on cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation and cell
  • According to the prevailing accepted theory of carcinogenesis, the somatic mutation theory, mutations in DNA and epimutations that lead to cancer disrupt these orderly processes by disrupting the programming regulating the processes, upsetting the normal balance between proliferation and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Botta, G.A. and Park, J.T. (1981) Evidence of penicillin-binding protein 3 in murein synthesis during septation but not during cell elongation. (springer.com)
  • Ishino, F., Mitsui, K., Tanaki, S. and Matsuhashi, M. (1980) Dual enzyme activities of cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis, peptidoglycan transglycosylase and penicillin sensitive transpeptidase, in purified preparations of Escherichia coli penicillin-binding protein 1A. (springer.com)
  • The fungal plasma membrane is critical for cell wall synthesis and other important processes including nutrient uptake, secretion, endocytosis, morphogenesis, and response to stress. (mdpi.com)
  • but a very pronounced defect in cell wall synthesis has been observed for mutants with defects in MCC/eisosomes in some yeast species. (mdpi.com)
  • For example, Candida albicans MCC/eisosome mutants display abnormal spatial regulation of cell wall synthesis, including large invaginations and altered chemical composition of the walls. (mdpi.com)
  • Recent studies indicate that MCC/eisosomes affect cell wall synthesis in part by regulating the levels of the key regulatory lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI 4,5 P 2 ) in the plasma membrane. (mdpi.com)
  • In a fundamental discovery with far-reaching implications, scientists at the University of California, Davis, now show how cells control DNA synthesis in mitochondria and couple it to mitochondrial division. (vetscite.org)
  • molecular
  • Provided are embodiments of a molecular method based on guanidinium-rich molecular transporters (GR-MoTrs) for bringing molecular cargos into algal cells. (osti.gov)
  • contacting an algal cell with a guanidinium-rich delivery vehicle comprising a guanidinium-rich molecular transporter (GR-MoTr) linked to a cargo compound desired to be delivered to the algal cell, whereby the guanidinium-rich molecular transporter can traverse the algal cell wall, thereby delivering the cargo compound to the algal cell. (osti.gov)
  • These cells are subsequently analyzed by molecular analysis and immunoassays, including quantitative PCR, Western blotting, and gelatin zymography, to acquire measures of the cellular response to perturbations of micromechanical environment. (utexas.edu)
  • Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • Glis1 uses a Zinc finger domain comprising five tandem Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs (meaning the zinc atom is coordinated by two cysteine and two histidine residues) to interact with target DNA sequences to regulate gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three classes of protein interact with RhoG to regulate GTP/GDP loading. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • The BTG1 gene locus has been shown to be involved in a t(8;12)(q24;q22) chromosomal translocation in a case of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription of rpoS in E. coli is mainly regulated by the chromosomal rpoSp promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains many copies (often 20 or more) of a small chromosomal region, usually containing one or more oncogenes and adjacent genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • The nuclear pore complex is a massive structure that extends across the nuclear envelope, forming a gateway that regulates the flow of macromolecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Does PBP2 Regulate Cell Division in E. coli? (springer.com)
  • del Portillo, F.G. and de Pedro, M.A. (1991) Penicillin-Binding Protein 2 is essential for the integrity of growing cells of Escherichia coli pon Bstrains. (springer.com)
  • Donachie, W.D. and Begg, K.J. (1989) Cell length, nucleoid separation, and cell division of rod-shaped and spherical cells of Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • β-catenin is regulated and destroyed by the beta-catenin destruction complex, and in particular by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, encoded by the tumour-suppressing APC gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • We show that distinct enhancers are expressed in giant cells and small cells, indicating that these cell types have different identities as well as different sizes. (biologists.org)
  • Overexpression
  • We found that overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of Rac (Rac V12 ) specifically increases TSP2 mRNA levels without affecting TSP1 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • indicate
  • Whereas genetic studies indicate that Pbx1 regulates the development and function of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells, the role of Meis family members in β-cells is still unknown. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recent data, obtained in a new model of mouse lacking the BTG1 gene, indicate that BTG1 is essential for the proliferation and expansion of stem cells in the adult neurogenic niches, i.e. the dentate gyrus and sub ventricular zone (see for review). (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • By combining RNA interference and genetic mutations, we found that the role of CGGBP1 in cell cycle involves multiple mechanisms, as single deficiencies of CDKN1A, GAS1 as well as TP53, INK4A or ARF failed to rescue the G0/G1 arrest caused by CGGBP1 depletion. (diva-portal.org)
  • Recurrent mutations in this gene have been associated to cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • Recently we had found CGGBP1 to be a cell cycle regulatory midbody protein required for normal cytokinetic abscission in normal human fibroblasts, which have all the cell cycle regulatory mechanisms intact. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this study, we investigated ZIP8 regulatory roles in downstream targets in ZIP8-gain and loss cells and in ZIP8 overexpressed lungs. (rsc.org)
  • regulator
  • Regulator of cell cycle RGCC (RGCC) also known as response gene to complement 32 protein (RGC-32) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGCC gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • RpoS is a central regulator of the general stress response and operates in both a retroactive and a proactive manner: it not only allows the cell to survive environmental challenges, but it also prepares the cell for subsequent stresses (cross-protection). (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Over-expression of miR-33 induced a significant G1 cell cycle arrest and most importantly, inhibition of miR-33 expression using 2'F/MOE-modified phosphorothioate backbone antisense oligonucleotides improved liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) in mice, suggesting an important role for miR-33 in regulating hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Furthermore, we found that increasing Rac V12 expression results in a biphasic proliferative curve, with proliferation initially increasing as Rac V12 expression increases and then returning to levels less than that of control cells at higher expression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Finally, we show in vivo that Rac-induced TSP2 expression is observed in the aorta of transgenic mice selectively expressing Rac V12 in smooth muscle cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This gene is widely expressed in human tissues and has increased expression in actively dividing cells, such as those in testis, thymus, fetal liver, and carcinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • BTG1 expression is maximal in the G0/G1 phases of the cell cycle and downregulated when cells progressed through G1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disruption of a single gene may also result from integration of genomic material from a DNA virus or retrovirus, and such an event may also result in the expression of viral oncogenes in the affected cell and its descendants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The testicular germ cell-specific expression and developmental pattern of expression of the mouse gene suggests that this gene plays an important role at and after the meiotic phase of spermatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Mitochondria retain their own DNA from the very distant past, when they were a type of bacteria that moved into other cells and never left. (vetscite.org)
  • immune
  • Involved in innate immune cell evasion through confering resistance to neutrophil killing. (rcsb.org)