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  • Chk1
  • In response to genotoxic stress, it contributes to turn off CDK1 activity by mediating the degradation of CDC25A in collaboration with Chk1, thereby preventing cell cycle progression before the completion of DNA repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • The effect of AMEAE on cell proliferation of different cell lines was analyzed by MTT assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data showed for the first time that the ethyl acetate extract of Annona muricata inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death through activation of the mitochondrial-mediated signaling pathway with the involvement of the NF-kB signalling pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mammalian circadian clocks restrict cell proliferation to defined time windows, but the mechanism and consequences of this interrelationship are not fully understood. (pnas.org)
  • Because wound healing defects were also seen in multiple circadian clock-deficient mouse lines, our results therefore suggest that coupling of the cell cycle to the circadian clock via NONO may be useful to segregate in temporal fashion cell proliferation from tissue organization. (pnas.org)
  • Clinical application of first-generation, non-selective CDK inhibitors are designed to inhibit proliferation of cells, that was initially hindered by the lack of efficacy and high risk of toxicity observed with these agents. (psmarketresearch.com)
  • High level expression of miR-17 family members induces cell proliferation, whereas deletion of the miR-17~92 cluster, in mice, is lethal and causes lung and lymphoid cell developmental defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Neddylation has emerged as a major regulatory pathway with a critical role, among others, in cell cycle progression and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • These DNA breaks must be repaired before metaphase I. and these DSBs must be repaired before metaphase I. The cell monitor these DSBs via ATM pathway, in which Cdc25 is suppressed when DSB lesion is detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway is the same as classical DNA damage response and is the part we know the best in meiotic recombination checkpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DSB-independent pathway was proposed when people studied spo11 mutant cells in some species and found that these Spo11 cells could not process to metaphase I even in the absence of DSB. (wikipedia.org)
  • further progression
  • Even though the initial homolog paring in early leptotene is just random interactions, the further progression into presynaptic alignment depends on the formation of double strand breaks and single strand transfer complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • In individual cells, the circadian clock mechanism consists of oscillating feedback loops of transcription of "core" oscillator genes and posttranslational modifications of their protein products that regulate protein stability, activity, and/or localization. (pnas.org)
  • Different forms of stress cause cells to alter their pattern of transcription and translation to adapt to changes in the physiological conditions. (biologists.org)
  • It was specifically found that the circadian-driven transcription factor 'CLOCK' binds to the PFKFB3 promoter at a genuine 'E-box' site to increase transcription in cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • In: Schönthal A.H. (eds) Checkpoint Controls and Cancer. (springer.com)
  • Annona muricata leaves have been reported to have antiproliferative effects against various cancer cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The current study was designed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of A. muricata leaves ethyl acetate extract (AMEAE) against lung cancer A549 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell viability analysis revealed the selective cytotoxic effect of AMEAE towards lung cancer cells, A549, with an IC 50 value of 5.09 ± 0.41 μg/mL after 72 h of treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thereby, continued research into the development of safe and efficient new anticancer agents against lung cancer cells is urgently necessary for further improvements in cancer therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hallmark of cancer is the continuous proliferative capacity of cancerous cells. (psmarketresearch.com)
  • CDK 4 and CDK 6 regulates cell cycle progression at the G1 restriction point, thus are highly considered as anti-cancer drug targets. (psmarketresearch.com)
  • During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and strokes) or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation of the DNA and nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, referred to as B-PLL, is a rare blood cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Warburg effect, proposed by Otto Warbug in 1956, describes the upregulation of glycolysis in most cancer cells, even in the presence of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high rate of glycolysis is accompanied by increased lactic acid fermentation, providing additional nutrients for cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative
  • Naturally occurring oxidative DNA damages arise at least 10,000 times per cell per day in humans and 50,000 times or more per cell per day in rats, as documented below. (wikipedia.org)
  • metaphase
  • The meiotic recombination checkpoint monitors the meiotic recombination during meiosis, and blocks the entry into metaphase I if the recombination is not efficiently processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • asymptomatic
  • Generally, prolymphocyte proportion exceeds 90% Minimal or absence of lymphadenopathy - abnormalities in size, number or consistency of lymph nodes Splenomegaly - Abnormal enlargement of the spleen High white blood cell count B-symptoms - Fever, night sweats and/or weight loss Similar to other leukemias, B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia is often asymptomatic. (wikipedia.org)
  • restriction
  • As the cell progresses through G1, depending on internal and external conditions, it can either delay G1, enter a quiescent state known as G0, or proceed past the restriction point. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • This conserved loop, named the allosteric control loop, has been shown to play a role in regulating interactions between N- and C-terminal regions by facilitating communication between the domains in response to ATP hydrolysis . (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • In mammals, individual clocks in most cells are synchronized by a brain "master clock" in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus to orchestrate all rhythmic physiology ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • It is conserved from yeast to mammals and has a key role in regulating mRNA translation. (biologists.org)
  • Un-repaired DNA damages accumulate in non-replicating cells, such as cells in the brains or muscles of adult mammals and can cause aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • The basic mechanism of this clock is cell-autonomous in all studied species possessing a circadian clock. (pnas.org)
  • It plays an important role during embryonal development as programmed cell death and accompanies a variety of normal involutional processes in which it serves as a mechanism to remove "unwanted" cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • The incubation of A549 cells with superoxide dismutase and catalase significantly attenuated the cytotoxicity caused by AMEAE, indicating that intracellular ROS plays a pivotal role in cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • promotes
  • The formation of the cyclin E-CDK2 complex then promotes a positive feedback loop which creates an "all or nothing" switch from which the cell can not return. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • In bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is expressed in the cytoplasm and centrosome throughout the cell cycle, and to a lesser extent, in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • PFKFB3's synthesis of F2,6BP in the nucleus was found to regulate Cdk-1, whereas cytosolic PFKFB3 activates PFK-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • However, the tax gene transcript could not be detected in fresh ATL cells regardless of hyperacetylated histone H3 in 5'-LTR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results showed that epigenetic changes of provirus facilitated ATL cells to evade host immune system by suppressing viral gene transcription. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These phenotypes were unexpectedly linked to mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex, which is essential for DNA replication prior to cell division. (jci.org)
  • In this study, we investigated PTTG1 gene and protein expression in MM plasma cells from newly diagnosed MM patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In spite of their structural and functional differences, the CDK inhibitor isoforms and the ARF product encoded by this gene, through the regulatory roles of CDK4 and p53 in cell cycle G1 progression, share a common functionality in control of the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • On one end, the hypermethylation, mutation, or deletion of p16 leads to downregulation of the gene and can lead to cancer through the dysregulation of cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations resulting in deletion or reduction of function of the CDKN2A gene are associated with increased risk of a wide range of cancers and alterations of the gene are frequently seen in cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a mutation in a caretaker gene coding for a DNA repair pathway that leads to the inability to properly repair DNA damage could allow uncontrolled cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chimeric gene of AML1-MDS1-EVI1 (AME) formed by the chromosomal translocation (3;21)(q26;q22) has also been shown in vitro to upregulate the cell cycle and block granulocytic differentiation of murine hematopoietic cells, as well as to delay the myeloid differentiation of bone marrow progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation, for example, through gene conversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein BTG2 also known as BTG family member 2 or NGF-inducible anti-proliferative protein PC3 or NGF-inducible protein TIS21, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BTG2 gene (B-cell translocation gene 2) and in other mammals by the homologous Btg2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, BTG2 activates proneural genes by associating with the promoter of Id3, a key inhibitor of proneural gene activity, and by negatively regulating its activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations involving the FANCA gene are associated with many somatic and congenital defects, primarily involving phenotypic variations of Fanconi anaemia, aplastic anaemia, and forms of cancer such as squamous cell carcinoma and acute myeloid leukaemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • squamous cell carc
  • In this study, we sought to determine whether p16 expression is of prognostic importance in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, overexpression of p16 as determined by immunohistochemistry is associated with significantly improved prognosis and lower local recurrence rates. (aacrjournals.org)
  • inhibitor
  • Only one HDAC inhibitor, suberonylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), marketed as Zolinza (vorinostat) has been approved by US Foods and Drugs Administration (FDA) for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/druginfo/fdavorinostat) . (docplayer.net)
  • complexes
  • developed a method called thermal proximity coaggregation (TPCA) to monitor the dynamics of native protein complexes inside cells (see the Perspective by Li et al. ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Delivery of nucleoprotein complexes to recipient cells leads to integration of the bacterial DNA into the host chromosome. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We now report the identification and characterization of APC16, a conserved subunit of the APC/C. APC16 was found in association with tandem-affinity-purified mitotic checkpoint complex protein complexes. (biologists.org)
  • APC16 is a bona fide subunit of human APC/C: it is present in APC/C complexes throughout the cell cycle, the phenotype of APC16-depleted cells copies depletion of other APC/C subunits, and APC16 is important for APC/C activity towards mitotic substrates. (biologists.org)
  • For example visualization of nascent mRNA in HeLa cells has led to a model of transcription units being clustered into "factories" thereby facilitating optimal engagement of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) and coordination with other crucial holoenzyme complexes - . (prolekare.cz)
  • Complexes of cyclin that are active during other phases of the cell cycle are kept inactivated to prevent any cell-cycle events from occurring out of order. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the budding yeast, initial cell cycle entry is controlled by two regulatory complexes, SBF (SCB-binding factor) and MBF (MCB-binding factor). (wikipedia.org)
  • Those complexes, in turn, activate different downstream targets to promote or prevent cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • also found that γ-irradiation of fibroblasts induced a p53 and p21 dependent cell cycle arrest, here p21 was found bound to inactive cyclin E/CDK2 complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome is composed of a number of chromosomes-complexes of tightly coiled DNA that contain genetic information vital for proper cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • A balance between the HP1a and Polycomb group silencing systems appears to be set for the chromatin types that each system will primarily regulate. (fsu.edu)
  • vitro
  • The transcription rapidly recovered after in vitro culture in such ATL cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HIV-1 Rev interacting protein, pre-mRNA processing factor 4 homolog B (PRPF4B), is identified by the in-vitro binding experiments involving cytosolic or nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. (nih.gov)
  • Cdc25
  • it does not dephosphorylate the Sic1 or Cdh1 orthologs, but promotes the inactivation of Cdc2 by down-regulating Cdc25 phosphatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many early studies, especially in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, demonstrated that the protein plays a key role in regulating late mitotic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • This system acts like a timer, or a clock, which sets a fixed amount of time for the cell to spend in each phase of the cell cycle, while at the same time it also responds to information received from the processes it controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • mrna
  • In addition, we also observed significantly elevated levels of SphK1 and SphK2 mrna and SphK1 protein expression in MPM cell lines such as H2691, H513 and H2461 compared to the non-malignant mesothelial Met5 cells. (docplayer.net)
  • Expression of PD-L1 was significantly higher in SNK-6 cells than in NK-92 cells, at both protein and mRNA levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • prognostic
  • PRP4K functions as a HER2-regulated modifier of taxane sensitivity that may have prognostic value as a marker of better overall survival in taxane-treated ovarian cancer patients. (nih.gov)
  • PRP4K functions as a HER2-regulated modifier of taxane sensitivity and is a prognostic biomarker for better survival in taxane-treated ovarian cancer patients. (nih.gov)
  • interphase
  • G1 phase ends when the cell moves into the S phase of interphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin the interphase of a new cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously it was called resting stage because there is no apparent activity related to cell division.Typically interphase lasts for at least 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • It alternates with the much longer interphase, where the cell prepares itself for the process of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • HeLa
  • Western blot shows lysates of HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line. (rndsystems.com)
  • Simple Western lane view shows lysates of HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line, loaded at 0.2 mg/mL. (rndsystems.com)
  • progresses
  • As the cell progresses through G1, depending on internal and external conditions, it can either delay G1, enter a quiescent state known as G0, or proceed past the restriction point. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • Poly(ADP-ribose)-binding is dependent on the presence of zinc and is required for its function in antephase checkpoint. (abcam.com)
  • Biochemical triggers known as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) switch on cell cycles events at the corrected time and in the correct order to prevent any mistakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of each phase is dependent on the proper progression and completion of the previous one. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • Programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1) and PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) have become promising therapeutic targets for various malignancies, but their role in the pathogenesis and their interactions with EBV in NKTCL remains to be investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aberrant expression and activity of Aurora A in tumors, including breast, ovarian, gastric and colorectal cancer, suggests that it plays a role in tumor development and progression. (rndsystems.com)
  • Among the stromal cells, macrophages play a unique role because they are recruited into mammary gland carcinomas (43,44). (euroformhealthcare.biz)
  • bone marrow
  • Truly endothelial, BOEC are progeny of a transplantable cell that originates in bone marrow, a putative endothelial progenitor. (jci.org)
  • tumours
  • Over-expression of PTTG1 has previously been associated with malignant progression and an enhanced proliferative capacity in solid tumours. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The survivin protein is expressed highly in most human tumours and fetal tissue, but is completely absent in terminally differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working in mouse models, it was also shown that whilst mice lacking p21 were healthy, spontaneous tumours developed and G1 checkpoint control was compromised in cells derived from these mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • A number of studies in vivo have shown that BTG2 expression is associated with the neurogenic asymmetric division in neural progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)