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  • mitosis
  • The timing of gene expression by using such data and methods, therefore, is not interpretable beyond assigning transcripts to main cell cycle phases in which their expression peaks: G 1 (gap 1), S (DNA synthesis), G 2 (gap 2), M (mitosis), and M/G 1 ( 1 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • and an endochitinase, crucial for cell separation after mitosis ( CTS1 ). (pnas.org)
  • inhibitor
  • In response to mitogens, PDCD4, an inhibitor of the translation initiation factor eIF4A, is rapidly degraded in a βTrCP- and S6K1-dependent manner, allowing efficient protein translation and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is present at telomeres throughout the cell cycle and functions as an inhibitor of telomerase, acting in cis to limit the elongation of individual chromosome ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastric
  • Defects in PLK1 are associated with gastric, thyroid and B-cell malignancies, with increased expression linked to a worse prognosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • promoters
  • CGGBP1 depletion also increased the expression of cell cycle regulatory genes CDKN1A and GAS1, associated with reductions in histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation in their promoters. (diva-portal.org)
  • DNA microarray analysis reveals unique sets of target promoters among E2F family members suggesting that each protein has a unique role in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activators are maximally expressed late in G1 and can be found in association with E2F regulated promoters during the G1/S transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • squamous cell carc
  • Areca nut chewing habits are associated with several oral manifestations like leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • human
  • Recently we had found CGGBP1 to be a cell cycle regulatory midbody protein required for normal cytokinetic abscission in normal human fibroblasts, which have all the cell cycle regulatory mechanisms intact. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, the regulatory mechanism of USP12 in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell growth is unknown. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In human cancer cell lines derived from various tumor types, a high frequency of genetic and epigenetic alterations (e.g., promoter hyper-methylation, homozygous deletion or mutation) in the CDKN2A gene has been observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor cells
  • In the zebrafish retina, during both larval development and adult photoreceptor regeneration, mdka is expressed in retinal stem and progenitor cells and functions as a molecular component of the retina's stem cell niche. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • p190
  • p190RhoGAP (p190), a Rho family GTPase-activating protein, regulates actin stress fiber dynamics via hydrolysis of Rho-GTP. (rupress.org)
  • Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that both endogenous and exogenous p190 localized to the newly forming and contracting cleavage furrow of dividing cells. (rupress.org)
  • expression
  • The precise determination of the moment of maximum expression is, therefore, important for understanding the cell division process. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, Fourier methods have typically been used for timing of genes ( 3 , 5 , 8 ), but these methods are limited to genes with one expression peak per cycle and are most accurate for temporal profiles resembling a sinusoid. (pnas.org)
  • Expression of the chimeric Gal4-Sir1p via the MET3 -repressible promoter in these cells enabled Sir protein association at HMR . (nih.gov)
  • MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other genes by several mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • E2F activator levels are cyclic, with maximal expression during G1/S. In contrast, E2F repressors stay constant, especially since they are often expressed in quiescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of DGL7 is found in cancer and stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stress
  • 1993). Nevertheless, under prolonged stress, the cell destiny may be diverted towards an apoptotic outcome. (wikipathways.org)
  • nuclei
  • Additional experiments using FLIM-FRET revealed that Pol30p interacted with SAS-I and Rtt109p in the nuclei of living cells. (nih.gov)
  • CBs were initially discovered by neurobiologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal in 1903 as small argyrophilic spots in nuclei of silver-stained neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cajal bodies are only found in nuclei of plant, yeast, and animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • microarray
  • Previous whole-genome studies of the yeast cell cycle relied on microarray data from artificially synchronized cultures grown under nutrient-rich laboratory conditions ( 1 , 3 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • binding protein
  • Background Cardiac stress may trigger production of the 40\kDa peptide fragment produced from the amino terminus from the cardiac myosin\binding protein C. function, cell viability, hypertrophy, or possibility of success. (biomasswars.com)
  • gene
  • Found in the nucleus of every cell, building blocks from which every organism is built, gene information, & can act as receptors for drug molecules. (cram.com)
  • Noncoding anti-sense RNAs like BACE1-AS complement other forms of RNA and are useful in regulating the specific gene to which they are complementary. (scripps.edu)
  • In contrast to the pacemaker neurons, in which the circadian oscillations of clock gene expression what time should you take spironolactone self-sustained for many days in DD, oscillations in the peripheral clocks decline after several cycles in DD. (luxbar-starway.ru)
  • A few other mechanisms in E. coli that variously regulate initiation are DDAH (datA-Dependent DnaA Hydrolysis, which is also regulated by IHF), inhibition of the dnaA gene (by the SeqA protein), and reactivation of DnaA by the lipid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a nucleolar antigen expressed in proliferating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is highly conserved during evolution and it plays a key role in the regulation of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new fusion gene, BCR-ABL, encodes an unregulated, cytoplasm-targeted tyrosine kinase that allows the cells to proliferate without being regulated by cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Our in vitro as well as in vivo studies show that a previously unknown molecule, BACE1-AS, regulates a critical mechanism associated with Alzheimer's disease, and may turn out to be key to the pathological progression of the disease," said Claes Wahlestedt, M.D. Ph.D., a Scripps Florida professor who led the study. (scripps.edu)
  • intracellular
  • Glycine-induced activation of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors may also result in hyper- or depolarising reactions of the prospective cells with regards to the intracellular Cl? (biomasswars.com)
  • First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a protein complex in adherens junctions that helps cells maintain epithelial layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • help regulate
  • The role of BACE1-AS is to help regulate the enzyme, to allow it to perform its normal physiological functions while avoiding the serious consequences of over or under expression. (scripps.edu)
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Concanavalin A (ConA) has the ability to stimulate the activation of T lymphocytes, mostly CD4 + T-cells, leading to immune hepatitis in mice [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Tumors of mice treated with PBT showed reductions in myeloid cells that suppress immune attack on tumor cells and significant increases in tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the study, reporter mice were used to track stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice engineered to specifically have vascular endothelium cells deficient in β-catenin showed disrupted adhesion between vascular endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • As a result, its levels in the cell are stabilized as it builds up in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cell
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • She discovered that overexpression of ODC and c-Raf activation is sufficient to convert a normal primary keratinocyte into a malignant, invasive tumor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism's life
  • Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily stopped. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • king May Help Cut Women's Breast Cancer Risk Cedars-Sinai increases the body's estrogen levels fostering the growth of cancer cells. (villa-agata.eu)
  • G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, and room for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiological temperatures are optimal for cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for the cell to continue through the G1-pm, there must be a high amount of growth factors and a steady rate of protein synthesis, otherwise the cell will move into G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reasons the cell would not move into the S phase include insufficient cell growth, damaged DNA, or other preparations have not been completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fruiting process is thought to benefit myxobacteria by ensuring that cell growth is resumed with a group (swarm) of myxobacteria, rather than as isolated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, hydrogen cyanamide stimulates cell division and growth in dormant plants, causing budbreak when the plant is on the edge of breaking dormancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Expression analyses of the c.[124A;125_130delallele suggest that MC1R transcription may be regulated epigenetically in rabbits with the Japanese brindling phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • metabolism
  • It is now clear that adipokines regulate central aspects of metabolism, such as body weight, energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity and a variety of physiological conditions which are directly or indirectly associated with these parameters. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer
  • This finding is significant with regard to the stem cell origin of skin cancer, since carcinogen-targeted stem cells can remain dormant for many years until recruited to develop into a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Coat colour in mammals is determined by the presence, distribution and biochemical activity of the melanocytes, which are specialized cells where eumelanins (black/brown pigments) and pheomelanins (yellow/red pigments) are synthesized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biochemical triggers known as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) switch on cell cycles events at the corrected time and in the correct order to prevent any mistakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • Gilmour provided the first evidence that elevated epidermal levels of polyamines alone can positively affect the recruitment of bulge stem cells in the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • of TRPC decreased the cell routine S stage and cell migration, implicating an operating function for TRP-mediated Ca2+ entrance in cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • When nutrients are scarce, myxobacterial cells aggregate into fruiting bodies (not to be confused with those in fungi), a process long-thought to be mediated by chemotaxis but now considered to be a function of a form of contact-mediated signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • dormant
  • After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters a restriction point in which it is decided whether the cell will move forward with the G1 phase or move into the dormant G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Outcomes had been gathered from 3 different batches of MCF-7 cells. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Interestingly, palmitate exerts its effect on fat cells at different levels. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The duration of each phase, including the G1 phase, is different in many different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some authors will say that the restriction point and the G1/S checkpoint are one and the same, but more recent studies have argued that there are two different points in the G1 phase that check the progression of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • In agreement with this hypothesis, we have found that palmitate inhibits adiponectin production by adipocytes in a cell-autonomous fashion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • organisms
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms of some taxonomic groups, including some animals, experience chronological decrease in mortality, for all or part of their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • 5 So it's pretty common for virus-infected cells to show reduced levels of MHC class I. (iayork.com)
  • Mullbacher's paper showed that flaviviruses do the opposite: They specifically up -regulate surface levels of MHC class I. (As it happens, this had been described earlier, though I think only in specific cell types, 6 but this was the first time I had run into it. (iayork.com)
  • Polyamine levels are dramatically elevated in tumor cells compared to normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Background Human being fetal midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) might deliver a cells source for medication testing and regenerative cell therapy to take care of Parkinsons disease. (biomasswars.com)
  • division
  • At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)