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  • gene expression
  • The timing of gene expression by using such data and methods, therefore, is not interpretable beyond assigning transcripts to main cell cycle phases in which their expression peaks: G 1 (gap 1), S (DNA synthesis), G 2 (gap 2), M (mitosis), and M/G 1 ( 1 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here we present a unique approach to the timing of cell cycle-regulated gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • Gene expression analysis shows Mdka regulates id2a expression, and co-injection of Mdka morpholinos and id2a mRNA rescues the Mdka loss-of-function phenotype. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • differentiation
  • Following targeted knockdown of Mdka synthesis, retinal progenitors cycle more slowly, and this results in microphthalmia, a diminished rate of cell cycle exit and a temporal delay of cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • All-trans-retinoic acid (RA), a natural metabolite of retinol, carries out most of the biological activities of vitamin A and is required for normal growth, cell differentiation, and immune functions. (ovid.com)
  • The expression of CD11b, a cell surface marker of macrophage-like differentiation was increased by RA, as was phagocytic activity. (ovid.com)
  • Our data therefore suggest that this important family of transcription factors implicated in hematopoietic cell growth and differentiation may also play a role in controling lens growth and differentiation through their effects on the cell cycle and growth factors/cytokine signaling in the lens. (arvojournals.org)
  • ubiquitin
  • The sequence associates with the ubiquitin- proteasome system, UPS, required for unique autophagosomal membrane development and fusion within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoters
  • Activators are maximally expressed late in G1 and can be found in association with E2F regulated promoters during the G1/S transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila
  • These results , in both cell culture and Drosophila , point to a novel mechanism of TGF-β signaling through PI3K/Akt . (mun.ca)
  • differentially
  • Chang MC et al (2004) The induction of prostaglandin E2 production, interleukin-6 production, cell cycle arrest, and cytotoxicity in primary oral keratinocytes and KB cancer cells by areca nut ingredients is differentially regulated by MEK/ERK activation. (springer.com)
  • degradation
  • Only poly-ubiquitination on defined lysines, mostly on K48 and K29, is related to degradation by the proteasome (referred to as the "molecular kiss of death"), while other polyubiquitinations (e.g. on K63, K11, K6 and M1) and monoubiquitinations may regulate processes such as endocytic trafficking, inflammation, translation and DNA repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • By combining RNA interference and genetic mutations, we found that the role of CGGBP1 in cell cycle involves multiple mechanisms, as single deficiencies of CDKN1A, GAS1 as well as TP53, INK4A or ARF failed to rescue the G0/G1 arrest caused by CGGBP1 depletion. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying their growth inhibitory effects in lens cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • arrest
  • Inactivation of the DNA replication checkpoint signaling components ATL-1 and CHK-1 suppresses this cell cycle arrest and, remarkably, restores lrr-1 mutant fertility. (biologists.org)
  • Results of FACS analysis further confirm G 1 /S phase cell cycle arrest on areca nut extract exposure. (springer.com)
  • tumor suppressor
  • BAP1 somatic mutations were identified in a small number of breast and lung cancer cell lines, but BAP1 was first shown to act as a tumor suppressor in cultured cells, where its deubiquitinase (UCH) domain and Nuclear localization sequences were required for BAP1 to suppress cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BAP1 occur in approximately 15% of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor cells
  • In the zebrafish retina, during both larval development and adult photoreceptor regeneration, mdka is expressed in retinal stem and progenitor cells and functions as a molecular component of the retina's stem cell niche. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • p190
  • Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that both endogenous and exogenous p190 localized to the newly forming and contracting cleavage furrow of dividing cells. (rupress.org)
  • genome
  • Previous whole-genome studies of the yeast cell cycle relied on microarray data from artificially synchronized cultures grown under nutrient-rich laboratory conditions ( 1 , 3 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Deletions of this well characterised 1 megabase region of the genome was also observed in approximately 50% of mantle cell lymphoma,[citation needed] up to 40% of multiple myeloma,[citation needed] and 60% of prostate cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activator
  • E2F activator levels are cyclic, with maximal expression during G1/S. In contrast, E2F repressors stay constant, especially since they are often expressed in quiescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • affects
  • The screen identified several alleles of Cdc48 that affects cell growth at non-permissive temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • Additional experiments using FLIM-FRET revealed that Pol30p interacted with SAS-I and Rtt109p in the nuclei of living cells. (nih.gov)
  • CBs were initially discovered by neurobiologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal in 1903 as small argyrophilic spots in nuclei of silver-stained neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cajal bodies are only found in nuclei of plant, yeast, and animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • These patterning processes take place while cells are growing and proliferating, so coordination of cell type with cell cycle control is essential, but we are only beginning to understand its mechanism. (biologists.org)
  • substrate
  • The p97 hexameric assembly can undergo dramatic conformational changes during nucleotide hydrolysis cycle, and it is generally believed that these conformational changes generate mechanical force, which is applied to substrate molecules to influence their stability and function. (wikipedia.org)