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  • afferent
  • The hypothesis that afferent responses (axon reflexes) to local triggers would be increased in rosacea-affected areas compared to both unaffected areas and control subjects was tested. (marian.edu)
  • This differentiated regulation occurs via mechanisms that operate at multiple sites within the classic reflex arc: peripherally at the level of afferent input stimuli to various reflex pathways, centrally at the level of interconnections between various central neuron pools, and peripherally at the level of efferent fibers targeted to various effectors within the organ. (physiology.org)
  • stimuli
  • METHOD: A total of 40 healthy volunteers each received painful electrical stimuli to the sural nerve to elicit nociceptive flexion reflexes. (hindawi.com)
  • Conditioned emotional response (CER) is emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli, such as fear of dogs or the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person. (coursehero.com)
  • The present data suggest that estrogen modulates the spinal cord processing and reflex responses to innocuous and noxious colorectal stimuli in female rats and may contribute to alterations in sensory processing associated with irritable bowel syndrome. (jneurosci.org)
  • To examine the role of gonadal hormones on visceral sensory processing to innocuous and noxious colorectal stimuli, and identify a locus of action, we tested the effects of ovariectomy and estrogen replacement on two responses to colorectal distention: the visceromotor reflex (vmr) and dorsal horn neuron activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • The biting/snapping responses of salmonid larvae, which obtain nutrients solely from their yolk sacs, were videotaped during presentations of amino acids that are potent olfactory and taste stimuli to adult rainbow trout. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Unlike in adult rainbow trout where visual and olfactory stimuli control all the successive behavior patterns of feeding behavior, taste stimuli released in alevins of rainbow and brook trout the early biting/snapping reflex independently from the complex feeding behavior. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The reflexes are the most primitive patterns that occur in response to specific stimuli, and they establish basic survival patterns of function. (bodymindcentering.com)
  • pathways
  • The gain of these responses is modulated according to the phase of the step cycle such that it generally does not vary in parallel with the background activity (and thus presumably not with motoneuronal excitability), indicating premotoneuronal mechanisms that control the gain of the reflex pathways during the course of a step cycle. (physiology.org)
  • Abstract
  • Abstract Boundary layer wind tunnel experiments have been conducted to explore differences in the aerodynamic behavior of two autostable or reflexed airfoils, with different positive camber submitted to three different incoming flows with the same mean velocity but with different turbulence characteristics. (scielo.org.ar)
  • behavior
  • The objectives of the present experiments were concentrated in getting experimental aerodynamic data about the influence of camber in the behavior of airplanes with reflexed airfoils submitted to two flows with different turbulence scales. (scielo.org.ar)
  • triggers
  • Here we report that when an unexpected peripheral stimulus is briefly flashed during fixation, the stimulus triggers a reflexive pupillary response that predicts the onset of microsaccades. (arvojournals.org)
  • physiology
  • C. P. Richter and M. Hines, "Experimental production of the grasp reflex in adult monkeys by lesions of the frontal lobes," American Journal of Physiology , vol. 101, pp. 87-88, 1932. (hindawi.com)
  • comparable
  • CONCLUSIONS: Subjective pain ratings and nociceptive flexion reflexes show comparable test-retest reliabilities, but they reflect different components of CPM. (hindawi.com)
  • Two animals produced very brisk responses, comparable to the best results seen following transplantation into neonatal hosts. (jneurosci.org)
  • The latencies, durations, and phase-dependent modulation patterns of the responses were mostly comparable with those observed in healthy subjects. (physiology.org)
  • Modulation
  • BACKGROUND: The endogenous modulation of pain can be assessed through conditioned pain modulation (CPM), which can be quantified using subjective pain ratings or nociceptive flexion reflexes. (hindawi.com)
  • However, in a previous study we investigated the phase-dependent modulation of another type of reflexes (startle) in PD and found very few abnormalities either in the overall amplitude or in the phase-dependent modulation of the responses (Nieuwenhuijzen et al. (physiology.org)
  • Lateral
  • L. Rönnqvist, B. Hopkins, R. Van Emmerik, and L. De Groot, "Lateral biases in head turning and the Moro response in the human newborn: are they both vestibular in origin? (hindawi.com)
  • Therapy
  • This study will present one of the methods of treatment for alcoholism, Conditioned Reflex (Response) Therapy, at the Washingtonian Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, where it is felt that success can be achieved in the treatment of some cases. (bu.edu)
  • exogenous
  • Expression of a reflex biting/snapping response to amino acids prior to first exogenous feeding in salmonid alevins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The independent biting/snapping reflex of rainbow and brook trout alevins ceased at the onset of spontaneous swimming activity several hours prior to the first exogenous feeding. (biomedsearch.com)
  • If so, the observed overproduction of microsaccades following an exogenous stimulus may be the result of an orienting reflex (Sokolov, 1963) triggered by the stimulus that is imperfectly inhibited during this period of relaxation. (arvojournals.org)
  • 2006). Thus, interactions between a reflexive ocular response and the biomechanical constraints of fixation may underpin the earliest stages of exogenous attention. (arvojournals.org)
  • Assessment
  • G. Pucher, R. Haidmayer, and T. Kenner, "Quantitative assessment of the Moro reflex: an attempt to identify infants at risk for SIDS? (hindawi.com)
  • patterns
  • Human beings in general are still largely moved by the old reptilian and mammalian urges, pushed into war, conflict and murder, territorialism and old mating patterns in ways that are far from rational - these are unconditioned responses. (dreamhawk.com)
  • The equilibrium responses are patterns which maintain balance of the whole body in the dynamic relationship between the shifting of one's center of gravity through space and one's base of support. (bodymindcentering.com)
  • results
  • These results show that transplanted retinae are capable of making specific functional connections with the mature brain, since an appropriate visual reflex can be elicited by illuminating the graft in the absence of host visual input. (jneurosci.org)
  • Taken together, hese results suggest that increased ANG II in hypertension induces oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, thereby exaggerating the muscle reflex. (physiology.org)
  • Studies
  • H. M. Halvorson, "Studies of the grasping response of early infancy," Journal of Genetic Psychology , vol. 51, pp. 371-449, 1937. (hindawi.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the test-retest reliability of CPM-induced changes, measured using subjective pain ratings and nociceptive flexion reflexes, to provide a reliable scoring parameter for future studies. (hindawi.com)
  • control
  • Reflex sizes and subjective pain ratings were recorded before and during the immersion of the contralateral hand in hot water to induce CPM as well as innocuous water as control. (hindawi.com)
  • study
  • In the present study, it is hypothesized that PTR responses may be described by the exponential decay rate and damped natural frequency of a theoretical second-order system. (hindawi.com)
  • This study confirmed that PTR responses strongly correlate to a second-order system and that exponential decay rate and undamped natural frequency are novel measurement variables to accurately measure PTR responses. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that increased ANG II in hypertension exaggerates skeletal muscle contraction-evoked reflex sympathoexcitation by inducing oxidative stress in the muscle. (physiology.org)
  • motor
  • reflex response 10-14 weeks Cephalopeliciv disproportion Gorilla Birth-ape quick and easy birth, cp disproportion minimal neonates well developed Upright posture and infancy,etc… Brain is tripled (neoteny) Pelvis strengthened/development lengthened 50%, gestation 13%/Face shortened/Long legs, arms shortened Reflexes-blinking, withdrawal, grasping, rooting and sucking, automatic march Myelination of Nerves after birth Motor maturation and walking Visual and auditory cortex thickness cores. (coursehero.com)
  • activation
  • To determine the prevalence and to quantify reflex pelvic floor activation on coughing in nulliparous women, assess peripartal changes and any association with stress urinary incontinence. (urotoday.com)
  • In such cases the increase in crossed reflexes sometimes reflected premotoneuronal gating since it was not always due to increased background activation in that period. (physiology.org)
  • animals
  • Although we are used to thinking of animals showing conditioned reflexes, as with Pavlovian training, we seldom realise what a large part they play in human life. (dreamhawk.com)
  • In 6 of 24 animals, illumination elicited an obvious pupilloconstriction response in the host eye. (jneurosci.org)
  • The 4 other animals produced responses that were less brisk. (jneurosci.org)
  • All 6 animals with clear-cut graft-mediated pupillary responses had well-formed grafts containing numerous rosettes and ganglion cells. (jneurosci.org)