• Orthogonal contrasts showed that BA and TM were additive in their effects on the growth performance, digesta pH in the proventriculus, jejunum, and ileum, and energy utilization, but associative on the energy digestibility, as well as the crop and caecal pH. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In poultry the stomach or crop/proventriculus has a low pH, which is used as a natural defence mechanism, and this area is colonised by acid tolerant probiotics, but at a low density. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Most potential enteropathogens are killed at pH 3 (the pH of the monogastric stomach and crop/proventriculus of a bird. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Furthermore, 'chicken' obestatin also failed to affect the in vitro contractility of muscle strips from crop and proventriculus. (ac.be)
  • The detrimental impact of Ca on IP6 and P disappearance was observed only in the ileum, where 11% reduction in both IP6 and P disappearance was seen when Ca increased from 0.7 to 1.0% (P (ovid.com)
  • Colored yeast fed to heterozygous larvae stains red throughout the length of the gut, but the same colored yeast accumulates only in the proventriculus in dve mutant larvae. (sdbonline.org)
  • Consistent with this observation, the proventriculus is found to form aberrently in dve mutant larvae. (sdbonline.org)
  • As a result, dve larvae cannot form the three-layered structure of the proventriculus, the same failure that is observed in hh or wg mutant embryos. (sdbonline.org)
  • Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. (osti.gov)
  • Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. (osti.gov)
  • Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. (osti.gov)
  • Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. (osti.gov)
  • Examination of food consumption data showed modest and marked reductions in intake in the 250 and 1000 ppm groups, respectively. (inchem.org)
  • In avian species, ghrelin is mainly present in the proventriculus and decreases feed intake, as opposed to its orexigenic properties in mammals. (ac.be)
  • Particle size reduction during grinding increases the surface area of feed ingredients, which increases the interaction of the ingredients with digestive enzymes, improves mixing characteristics, and reduces nutrient segregation during handling, particularly in mash diets. (aces.edu)
  • A yfe mutant has an ~10-fold reduction of virulence in mice infected subcutaneously while a yfe ybt fetMP mutant is completely avirulent in mice infected intravenously. (uky.edu)
  • Reduction in the expression of any of these genes compromised the expression of the chaperone Hsp60 in response to mitochondrial unfolded protein stress without interfering with UPR er and caused perturbed mitochondrial morphology, consistent with persistent UPR mt . DVE-1 showed a nuclear localization and redistributed to nuclear puncta in response to conditions of mitochondrial unfolded protein stress. (sciencemag.org)