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  • proteins
  • It can be used to delete genes entirely, to replace one allele of a gene with another, to replace a gene's normal promoter with a regulatable promoter, and to tag genes with epitope tags or fluorescent proteins. (genetics.org)
  • BETA-ACTGN GENE AND REGULATORY ELEMENTS, PREPARATION AND USE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the Invention Expression in mammalian hosts offers many opportunities for the production of mammalian proteins, not available to uniceliular microorganism hosts. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Unexpectedly, studies involving primarily knockout mice also implicated MMR genes in other processes of DNA metabolism, ranging from DNA damage signaling to hypermutation of Ig genes, where the molecular roles of MMR proteins are unclear ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • hotspots
  • We suggest that yeast cells have two types of recombination hotspots, α (transcription factor dependent) and β (transcription factor independent). (genetics.org)
  • deletion
  • Deletion of nkuA ( nkuA Δ) greatly reduces the frequency of nonhomologous integration of transforming DNA fragments, leading to dramatically improved gene targeting. (genetics.org)
  • This feature has led to the frequent use of transgenic cre mice for the tissue-specific deletion or modification of floxed genes to access the function of a gene in a specific tissue ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Deletion of the SRp20 gene in the mouse germ line blocks embryonic development at the morula-to-blastocyst transition ( 12 ), but its role in B cell development is not known. (pnas.org)
  • Finally, we observed differences in repertoires between IgM and IgT, including the unequal usage frequencies of V gene segment and the biased number of nucleotides insertion/deletion at VDJ junction regions that leads to distinct distributions of CDR-H3 lengths. (frontiersin.org)
  • DSBs
  • Cells also repair DSBs by homologous recombination (HR), and modified versions of the target gene supplied by the experimenter can serve as the repair template, thereby introducing designed modifications ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • introns
  • This can be accomplished because different gene features, such as exons, introns, promoters, polyadenylation signal etc are associated with unique patterns in the DNA sequence. (tripod.com)
  • However, using population-genetic principles as a guide to understanding the evolution of duplicate genes, introns, mobile-genetic elements, and regulatory-region complexity, our work is advancing the hypothesis that much of eukaryotic genome complexity initially evolved as a passive indirect response to reduced population size (relative to the situation in prokaryotes). (asu.edu)
  • A major goal is to understand how introns eventually came to be integrated into fundamental aspects of gene-transcript processing. (asu.edu)
  • genome-wide
  • Fixation of beneficial genes in bacteria and archaea (collectively, prokaryotes) is often believed to erase pre-existing genomic diversity through the hitchhiking effect, a phenomenon known as genome-wide selective sweep. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent studies, however, indicate that beneficial genes spread through a prokaryotic population via recombination without causing genome-wide selective sweeps. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to understand regulation of both host and virus gene expression, we have utilized genome-wide approaches to analyze transcript abundance from both virus and host cells. (jove.com)
  • beneficial genes
  • As the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance by horizontal transfer so strikingly and frighteningly illustrates, bacteria can and often will acquire beneficial genes from external sources, so long as these genes exist somewhere in the prokaryotic world ( L evin and B ergstrom 2000 ). (genetics.org)
  • What happens when bacteria are faced with novel or fluctuating environmental conditions and no external sources of beneficial genes are available? (genetics.org)
  • antigen
  • GSSPs can also be used for predicting the amino acid mutational space available for antigen-driven selection and for understanding factors modulating the maturation pathways of antibody lineages in a gene-specific context. (frontiersin.org)
  • The variable regions of B cell receptors are responsible for antigen recognition and are generated by V(D)J recombination in the bone marrow. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mb1 gene encodes the Ig-α signaling subunit of the B cell antigen receptor and is expressed exclusively in B cells beginning at the very early pro-B cell stage in the bone marrow. (pnas.org)
  • The mb1 gene encodes the Ig-α signaling subunit of the B cell antigen receptor ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • duplicate genes
  • We believe that duplicate genes are frequently preserved through a partitioning of functions of ancestral genes (subfunctionalization), rather than by the evolution of new functions. (asu.edu)
  • detectable
  • Stougaard*, Jens 2004-09-30 00:00:00 We report here on strategies aimed at improving the frequency of detectable recombination in plants by increasing the efficiency of selecting double-recombinants in transgenic calli. (deepdyve.com)
  • postulates
  • One of the primary goals of our work on gene duplication is to explain the shortcomings of the classical model, which postulates that the usual fate of a duplicated gene is either conversion to a nonfunctional pseudogene or acquisition of a new function. (asu.edu)
  • roles
  • In this review, we discuss the roles the Mycs play in the body and what led us to choose them to be our candidate gene for inner ear therapies. (mdpi.com)