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  • vector
  • The BAC vector is flanked by LoxP sites and contains a Cre-recombinase gene that is modified by the insertion of an intron into its coding sequence. (pnas.org)
  • Consequently, Cre is not expressed in bacterial cells, but it is expressed when its transcript is spliced in human cells and the BAC vector is excised from the virus. (pnas.org)
  • Using a host cell to carry the vector allows for easy amplification and retrieval of specific clones from the library for analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The separated fragments can then be excised and cloned into the vector separately. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entire set of fragments must be cloned together with the vector, and separation of clones can occur after. (wikipedia.org)
  • bG47Δ-dnFGFR showed enhanced killing of both tumor (human U87 glioma and F5 malignant meningioma cells and murine MPNST 61E4 and 37-3-18-4 cells) and proliferating endothelial cells (human umbilical vascular endothelial cell and Py-4-1) in vitro compared with the control vector bG47Δ-empty without inhibiting viral replication. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using BAC recombineering we generated a single targeting vector which contained two different selection cassettes that were flanked by lox P- lox P sites or by FRT-FRT/ lox P sites so that they could be deleted sequentially by Cre- and FLPe-recombinases, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • P1 can also be used to create the P1-derived artificial chromosome cloning vector which can carry relatively large fragments of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are differences in the cloning vectors and techniques used in library preparation, but in general each DNA fragment is uniquely inserted into a cloning vector and the pool of recombinant DNA molecules is then transferred into a population of bacteria (a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome or BAC library) or yeast such that each organism contains on average one construct (vector + insert). (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "library" can refer to a population of organisms, each of which carries a DNA molecule inserted into a cloning vector, or alternatively to the collection of all of the cloned vector molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • These variants can then be ligated into an expression vector, individual clones can be created, and the encoded protein variants can be expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several protocols have been designed to optimise the synthesis of the 1st cDNA strand and the 2nd cDNA strand for this reason, and also to make directional cloning into the vector more likely. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Whereas the SLAMF-associated protein (SAP) is involved in differentiation of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and antibody responses, the precise requirements of SLAMF receptors in humoral immune responses are incompletely understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • In fact, multiple molecules have been shown to be involved in the differentiation of Tfh cells ( 3 , 4 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These findings indicate that, through their interaction, GC B cells and Tfh cells reciprocally provide each other with signaling for survival, proliferation, and differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • SLAMF receptors have been shown to function as co-stimulatory molecules and to modulate the activation and differentiation of a wide array of immune cell types involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses ( 12 - 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A future aspect of our mouse work is directed towards use of ES cell differentiation in culture as a model for epigenetic decisions and stem cell manipulations. (tu-dresden.de)
  • Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism. (wikibooks.org)
  • vivo
  • In vivo optogenetics has provided researchers with the ability to delve deeper into the neural basis of behavior by driving cell-type specific circuit connections within and between brain regions. (dovepress.com)
  • These tools and constructs are utilized in vivo and ex vivo to drive specific cell subtypes in a region and temporal specific manner. (dovepress.com)
  • Phage display, used for the high-throughput screening of protein interactions In-vivo crosslinking of protein complexes using photo-reactive amino acid analogs was introduced in 2005 by researchers from the Max Planck Institute In this method, cells are grown with photoreactive diazirine analogs to leucine and methionine, which are incorporated into proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • Drosophila melanogaster is a highly attractive model system for the study of numerous biological questions pertaining to development, genetics, cell biology, neuroscience and disease. (biologists.org)
  • These technologies and resources further the study of various aspects of developmental biology, genetics, cell biology, neuroscience and behavior. (biologists.org)
  • facilitates
  • We used a new strategy which facilitates the identification of correctly targeted conditional alleles by culturing ES cells in replicate plates after Cre-mediated deletion of a lox P-flanked resistance cassette. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genetic
  • IMPORTANCE The genomes of large DNA viruses, such as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), are difficult to manipulate using current genetic tools, and at this time, it is not possible to obtain, molecular clones of CMV without extensive tissue culture. (asm.org)
  • The cell must provide necessary substrates to support biosynthesis and coordinately express the transferred genetic cluster to produce active enzymes. (jove.com)
  • hematopoietic
  • T cell development in the thymus depends on continuous colonization by hematopoietic precursors. (rupress.org)
  • The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family (SLAMF) includes nine structurally related Ig-like proteins that are differentially expressed on the surface of hematopoietic cells ( 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • generate
  • Most ORFs have not been well studied due to the limited host range and slow growth of HCMV in cultured cells and the lack of efficient tools to generate mutant viruses. (pnas.org)
  • The LacZ coding region was amplified and cloned into the Afl II site of the above construct to generate pC107. (pnas.org)
  • To construct YD-Tn1721, the Xho I/ Fsp I fragment of pTsTm8B ( 10 ) was cloned into the Xho I/ Eco RV sites of pSP72 (Promega) to generate pC136. (pnas.org)
  • The hemagglutinin tag, the c-myc tag, and the sequencing primer (+Primer 2, Fig. 1 ) were amplified and cloned into the Xho I/ Bgl II sites of pC136 to generate pC137. (pnas.org)
  • The bovine growth hormone poly(A) signal from cDNA3 (Invitrogen), the FLAG tag, and the VSV-G tag were amplified and cloned into the Not I site of pC137 to generate pC138. (pnas.org)
  • The LacZ / GFP cassette with an FRT site at one end was amplified and cloned into pC138 to generate pC144. (pnas.org)
  • promoter
  • To construct YD-Tn5, a GFP cassette expressed under the control of the SV40 promoter and polyadenylation signals was amplified by PCR from pGET015 ( 11 ) and cloned into the Not I/ Nco I sites of Tn5 ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Biology
  • Barwy Pasażowanie ludzkich embrionalnych komórek macierzystych linii Trypsyna Erin Trish 1 , John Dimos 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard W tym filmie pokazujemy, jak w naszym laboratorium rutynowo fragmenty barwy linii ludzkich zarodkowych komórek macierzystych, z trypsyny. (jove.com)
  • Zamrażanie komórek ES człowieka Erin Trish 1 , John Dimos 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard Tutaj pokazujemy, jak w naszym laboratorium zawiesza barwy linii ludzkich zarodkowych komórek macierzystych. (jove.com)
  • Człowieka komórek ES: Kultura Od mrożone komórki Erin Trish 1 , John Dimos 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard Tutaj pokazujemy, jak w naszym laboratorium rozpoczyna odcienie ludzkich zarodkowych komórek macierzystych kultury linii mrożonych ręki. (jove.com)
  • Transfer jądra do komórki jajowej myszy Dieter Egli 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard Ten film i protokół mają pomóc nauki transfer jądra. (jove.com)
  • loci
  • Fluorescent in situ hybridization using DNA probes on 3-dimensionally preserved nuclei followed by 3D confocal microscopy (3D DNA FISH) represents the most direct way to visualize the location of gene loci, chromosomal sub-regions or entire territories in individual cells. (jove.com)
  • vascular
  • We found that granular neurons of the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus, vascular cells and ependymal cells throughout the brain, and peripheral sensory neurons expressed tdtomato in response to TAM treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • elegans
  • Until recently though, techniques that require direct access to cells and isolation of specific cell types, could not be applied in C. elegans . (jove.com)
  • stem cell
  • Using wildtype or engineered stem cell lines, researchers may use this technique to uncover the various mechanisms or treatments that may affect early brain infection and resulting microcephaly in Zika virus-infected embryos. (jove.com)
  • Viruses
  • Although not fully characterized, these gene products regulate the cell cycle and complement the mutations of these viruses ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, this protocol details a robust and reproducible method for assessing the replication capacity of the Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses on a CEM-based T cell line. (jove.com)