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  • antigen
  • A typical recombinant antigen project at MBS will begin with a careful analysis of the protein sequence and characteristics to assess its suitability for bacterial expression. (prweb.com)
  • Immunogenicity is influenced by multiple characteristics of an antigen: Phylogenetic distance Molecular size Epitope density Chemical composition and heterogeneity Protein structure, aa-polymers, Glu-Lys, Tyr, Phe Degradability (ability to be processed & presented to T cells) D-amino acids In silico screening. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • A glycosylated recombinant subunit candidate vaccine consisting of Ehrlichia ruminantium major antigenic protein1 induces specific humoral and Th1 type cell responses in sheep. (abcam.com)
  • Recombinant Proteins are used as antigens in vaccine development to disease study as well as an experimental control for validating research findings to discovering tomorrow's breakthrough. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Fortunately, years of thorough study of the parameters influencing vaccine efficacy allow parallels to be drawn for protein therapeutics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors including delivery route, delivery vehicle, dose regimen, aggregation, innate immune system activation, and the ability of the protein to interface with the humoral (B cell) and cellular (T cell) immune systems, all impact the potential immunogenicity of vaccine immunogens when delivered to humans (for reviews related to unwanted immunogenicity determinants, see references below). (wikipedia.org)
  • A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compounds
  • Ogataea polymorpha with its unusual characteristics provides an excellent platform for the gene technological production of proteins, especially of pharmaceuticals like insulin for treatment of diabetes, hepatitis B vaccines or IFNalpha-2a for the treatment of hepatitis C. Derivatives of both CBS4732 and DL-1 are employed in the production of such recombinant compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • I'm part of a structural genomics group and we do high though put protein production in E. coli. (bio.net)
  • The model is based on a set of proteins reported to have been expressed in E. coli in either soluble or insoluble form. (springer.com)
  • Protein production in E. coli is usually faster than in Pichia pastoris for several reasons: Competent E. coli cells can be stored frozen, and thawed immediately before use, whereas Pichia cells have to be produced immediately before use. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major advantage of Pichia over E. coli is that Pichia is capable of producing disulfide bonds and glycosylations in proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that in cases where disulfides are necessary, E. coli might produce a misfolded protein, that is usually inactive or insoluble. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristics
  • Although engineered and modified in a laboratory setting, ELPs share structural characteristics with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) naturally found in the body, such as tropoelastin, from which ELPs were given their name. (wikipedia.org)
  • commercially available
  • These include both commercially available proteins (for example most of the enzymes used in the molecular biology laboratory), and those that are generated in the course specific research projects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Situ
  • With the electron microscopic imaging, FlAsH-EDT2 is also used to study the processes of protein trafficking in situ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detection
  • In this case, IP was with goat anti HP1-alpha ab77256 on Protein G beads, and detection was with goat anti HP1-alpha ab77256 , and Protein G HRP ab7460. (abcam.com)
  • gene
  • Interferon beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFNB1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a protein with 3' exonuclease activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thrombospondin 1, abbreviated as THBS1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the THBS1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually the gene for the desired protein is introduced under the control of the AOX1 promoter, which means that protein production can be induced by the addition of methanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugation
  • Since lipids and nucleic acids are non-immunogenic haptens, they require conjugation with an epitope such as a protein or polysaccharide before they can evoke an immunologic response. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • It displays non-specific binding to endogenous cysteine-rich proteins, meaning it binds to sites other than the one of interest (CCXXCC), FlAsH-EDT2 can be prepared in three steps from fluorescein (see figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • Focusing on the large-scale, cost-effective production of such proteins for use as specialist industrial or therapeutic biomolecules, these authoritative scientists also include promising experimental techniques that will become increasingly important in the future-such techniques as those for the efficient transformation of monocots with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, for optimizing the stability of recombinant proteins, and for exploiting the immunotherapeutic potential of plant-expressed proteins. (springer.com)
  • Here, the absence of a cell wall can allow production of large amounts of secreted proteins that would otherwise accumulate in the periplasmic space of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can provide attractive genetic components for an efficient production of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pichia is widely used for protein production using recombinant DNA techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is due to E. coli's fast growth rate, good protein production rate and undemanding growth conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is used in bioanalytical research as a fluorescent label for visualising proteins in living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past, FlAsH-EDT2 has been widely used to study a number of in vivo cellular events and subcellular structures in animal cells, Ebola virus matrix protein, and protein misfolding. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • One approach is to parse protein sequences into overlapping 9-mer peptide frames, each of which is then evaluated for binding potential to each of eight common class II HLA alleles that "cover" the genetic backgrounds of most humans worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pichia
  • Additionally, since Pichia can grow in media containing only one carbon source and one nitrogen source, it is suitable for isotopic labelling applications in e.g. protein NMR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, Pichia is unable to produce a number of proteins for which the host lacks the appropriate chaperones. (wikipedia.org)
  • insoluble
  • In: García-Fruitós E. (eds) Insoluble Proteins. (springer.com)
  • Play media Although ELPs generally form reversible spherical aggregates due to their proline and glycine content, there is a possibility that, under certain conditions such as exceedingly high temperatures, ELPs will form amyloids, or irreversible aggregates of insoluble protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • There are two types of bonds involved in a glycoprotein: bonds between the saccharides residues in the glycan and the linkage between the glycan chain and the protein molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors
  • In the rush to deliver novel biologics to market, developers have, on occasion, overlooked factors that contribute to protein immunogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • addition
  • It is at this temperature that the ELPs move from a linear, relatively disordered state to a more densely aggregated, partially ordered state Although given as a single temperature, Tt, the ELP phase change process generally begins and ends within a temperature range of approximately 2 °C. Also, Tt is altered by the addition of unique proteins to the free ELPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycoprotein
  • The nature of N-linked glycans attached to a glycoprotein is determined by the protein and the cell in which it is expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is an adhesive glycoprotein that mediates cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • proven
  • It has been proven to be a good alternative to green fluorescent proteins (GFP) with the advantage that FlAsH-EDT2 is much smaller (molar mass (wikipedia.org)
  • glycans
  • O. polymorpha produces glycoproteins with two types of sugar chains, N- and O-linked glycans are attached to protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes
  • 2000 ). Because GadA and GadB are intracellular enzymes, and most MSG are out of the cells, the recombinant E. coli cells have to be specially treated by sonication, ethyl acetate, toluene, and thermal activation to increase the permeability (Zhao et al. (springeropen.com)
  • The book's somewhat controversial argument is that evolution in animals (though no doubt similar processes occur in other organisms) proceeds mostly by modifying the way that regulatory genes, which do not code for structural proteins (such as enzymes), control embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The institute is engaged in research in many areas of modern biological sciences and microbe-related biotechnology, with special emphasis on research that is interdisciplinary and of a collaborative nature, such as immunity and infectious diseases, protein design and engineering, fermentation science, microbial physiology and genetics, yeast biology, bioinformatics, microbial systematics, exploitation of microbial diversity for bioactives and enzymes for biotransformations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two enzymes facilitate the production of such recombinant DNA molecules: 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Conversely, the expression of uncoupling protein-1 and of the same mitochondrial genes was increased in brown adipose tissue. (jci.org)
  • The vaccine works with a combined DNA vaccine and MVA (modified vaccinia Ankara) vaccine both of which lead to the insertion of genes into primate DNA which leads to foreign protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the GeoVax vaccine a variety of HIV proteins (both surface and internal) are expressed from genes which include the Env, Pol and Gag genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes involved in controlling cell death encode proteins with three distinct functions: "Killer" proteins are required for a cell to begin the apoptotic process "Destruction" proteins do things such as digest DNA in a dying cell "Engulfment" proteins are required for phagocytosis of the dying cell by another cell The cleavage of chromosomal DNA into smaller fragments is an integral part, and biochemical hallmark, of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than twenty distinct IFN genes and proteins have been identified in animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein synthesis of both viral and host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, interferons induce production of hundreds of other proteins-known collectively as interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)-that have roles in combating viruses and other actions produced by interferon. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragment
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a single recombinant DNA molecule (composed of a vector plus an inserted DNA fragment) is introduced into a host cell, the inserted DNA can be replicated along with the vector, generating a large number of identical DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic scheme for this can be summarized as follows: Vector + DNA FragmentRecombinant DNA ↓ Replication of recombinant DNA within host cell ↓ Isolation, sequencing, and manipulation of purified DNA fragment There are numerous experimental variations to this scheme, but these steps are essential to DNA cloning in a laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • This technology was further developed and improved by groups at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology with Greg Winter and John McCafferty, The Scripps Research Institute with Lerner and Barbas and the German Cancer Research Center with Breitling and Dübel for display of proteins such as antibodies for therapeutic protein engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Here, DNA fragmentation is a molecular genetic technique that permits researchers to use recombinant DNA technology to prepare large numbers of identical DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Recombinant 9 kD granulysin is broadly cytolytic against tumors and microbes, including gram positive and gram negative bacteria, fungi/yeast and parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • In HIV, a synthetic peptide corresponding to the immunosuppressive domain (amino acids 574-592) of HIV-1 gp41 downregulates the expression of fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) in peptide-treated PBMCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • tyrosine
  • We have created transgenic (Tg) rats expressing an antisense GHS-R mRNA under the control of the promoter for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), thus selectively attenuating GHS-R protein expression in the Arc. (jci.org)
  • vitro
  • In this way, large libraries of proteins can be screened and amplified in a process called in vitro selection, which is analogous to natural selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phage display is also a widely used method for in vitro protein evolution (also called protein engineering). (wikipedia.org)
  • Competing methods for in vitro protein evolution include yeast display, bacterial display, ribosome display, and mRNA display. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Outcomes Elevated STC-1 mRNA (4.0- to 25.2-fold) and protein expression (1.9- to 5.1-fold) was noticed within 12 hours subsequent latanoprost treatment. (ovarian-cancersymptoms.com)
  • Knockout of Amyloid β Protein Precursor (APP) Expression Alters Synaptogenesis, Neurite Branching and Axonal Morphology of Hippocampal Neurons. (sysy.com)
  • This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and its expression is induced by phenobarbital. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • the phosphorylated eIF-2 forms an inactive complex with another protein, called eIF2B, to reduce protein synthesis within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibited protein synthesis destroys both the virus and infected host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The mathematical relations that we have formulated can quantitatively determine how ablation of an oncogene's protein activity can result in apoptosis and/or a decrease in proliferation within a population of tumor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequent studies have defined LECT2 as a hepatokine, i.e. a substance made and released into the circulation by liver hepatocyte cells that regulates the function of other cells: it is a hepatocyte-derived, hormone-like, signaling protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using very sensitive methods, LECT2 protein can also be detected at low levels in the endothelial cells of hepatic arteries and veins including central veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • NPs may interact with these proteins in a similar way, and the interaction may lead to beneficial outcomes in vaccine delivery. (scirp.org)
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • The DNA vaccine is used to prime immune responses that are subsequently boosted by vaccination with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vectored vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell
  • There is also a group of tracers that consist of protein products that can be taken up by the cell and transported across the synapse into the next cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small
  • Heart-type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (H-FABP) is a small cytoplasmic protein (15 kDa) released from cardiac myocytes following an ischemic episode. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • Phage eluted in the final step can be used to infect a suitable bacterial host, from which the phagemids can be collected and the relevant DNA sequence excised and sequenced to identify the relevant, interacting proteins or protein fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • technology
  • That task was finally undertaken at the end of the 20th century with the arrival of recombinant DNA technology, when biologists were able to start to explore how development was actually controlled. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Like the two-hybrid system, phage display is used for the high-throughput screening of protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study
  • Study done using fluorescence spectroscopy displayed a decrease in fluorescence emission of the protein upon binding to PLGA-COOH. (scirp.org)
  • known
  • FABP3 is known to interact with TNNI3K in the context of interacting with cardiac troponin I. The protein also interacts with, VPS28, KIAA159,NUP62, PLK1, UBC, and Xpo1. (wikipedia.org)
  • technique
  • The technique is also used to determine tumour antigens (for use in diagnosis and therapeutic targeting) and in searching for protein-DNA interactions using specially-constructed DNA libraries with randomised segments. (wikipedia.org)