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  • binds
  • Although HCMV gp68 and HSV-1 gE-gI have an overlapping binding site on Fc, the finding that the gp68/Fc interaction is stable at pH values between 5.6 and 8.1 but that gE-gI binds only at neutral or basic pH suggests distinct pH-based downstream events after IgG is internalized via receptor-mediated endocytosis into intracellular compartments. (caltech.edu)
  • Human, but not murine, erythrocytes also present complement receptor (CR1), which binds Ad5 in the presence of antibodies and complement. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Where the receptor binds and how the virion can be destabilized to release the genome are unknown. (pnas.org)
  • We have determined high-resolution cryo-EM structures of HAV full particles, empty particles, and full particles complexed with R10 Fab, revealing that R10 binds to the viral surface along the edges of the pentameric building block of the virus, and these interactions are critical for receptor binding and viral uncoating. (pnas.org)
  • The HA binds sialic acid-containing cellular receptors and mediates fusion of the viral and cell membranes, while the NA removes sialic acids from glycoproteins . (virology.ws)
  • These observations indicate that the G147R NA binds to sialic acids at the active site of the enzyme, and cleaves the same receptor that it binds. (virology.ws)
  • We show here that human CD300a, a recently identified phospholipid receptor, also binds directly DENV particles and enhances viral entry. (asm.org)
  • In principle, the methodology can be used for any virus that binds to a terminal NANA residue. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • TLRs
  • It is now apparent that multiple pattern recognition receptor (PRR) families, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs), contribute significantly to viral detection by sensing viral proteins and nucleic acids, leading to induction of cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs). (tcd.ie)
  • The activation of certain Toll-like receptors (TLRs), particularly TLR7 and TLR9, induces the production of type I IFNs, and thus primes the host for a Th1 adaptive immune response. (pnas.org)
  • Viral and microbial pathogens contain specific motifs or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are recognized by cell surface- and endosome-associated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). (nih.gov)
  • poliovirus
  • Both genomic and complementary DNA clones encoding poliovirus receptors were isolated from genomic and complementary DNA libraries prepared from HeLa S3 cells, respectively. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Nucleotide sequence analysis of these cloned DNAs revealed that the poliovirus receptor gene is approximately 20kb long and contains seven introns in the coding region, and that at least four mRNA isoforms referring to the coding sequence are generated by alternative splicing and appear to encode four different molecules, that is, PVRalpha, PVRbeta, PVRgamma, and PVRdelta. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In contrast to PVRalpha, PVRbeta was not detected on the sur … More face of the mouse cell transformants but was detected in the culture fluid by an immunological method using a monoclonal antibody against poliovirus receptor. (nii.ac.jp)
  • recognition
  • This interaction involves two defined steps: the first, usually referred to as recognition, is followed by the second step, transduction, in which the ligand-receptor interaction is translated by the cell into a biochemical action. (indigo.ca)
  • This dual mode of virus recognition by TIM and TAM receptors reveals how DVs usurp the apoptotic cell clearance pathway for infectious entry. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, we identified the region of the SVV capsid that is responsible for receptor recognition using cryoelectron microscopy of the SVV-ANTXR1-Fc complex. (jci.org)
  • In order to develop substances that show directed blocking activity, one should know which host cell and viral molecules are involved in the reciprocal recognition and interaction leading to the virus entry into the cell. (msk.ru)
  • Infection
  • In summary, we present data which we hope will further current knowledge of the activity of these receptors in relation to their role in HCV infection. (bham.ac.uk)
  • RIG-I-like receptors: sensing and responding to RNA virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • RNA virus infection is also detected through TLR-independent mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • Both are DExDH/box RNA helicases, and RIG-I specifically recognizes 5'-triphosphate containing viral RNA and transmits signals that induce type I interferon-mediated host immunity against virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • The putative role of these molecules as hepatitis C virus receptors and coreceptors in the beginning and development of the infection is discussed. (msk.ru)
  • CD300a facilitates infection of the four DENV serotypes, as well as of other mosquito-borne viruses such as West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus. (asm.org)
  • Overall, these data indicate that CD300a is a novel DENV binding receptor that recognizes PtdEth and PtdSer present on virions and enhance infection. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, consistent with previous studies demonstrating that adenovirus infection depends on attachment of a viral fiber to the target cell, CAR-transfected hamster cells bound adenovirus in a fiber-dependent fashion and showed a 100-fold increase in susceptibility to virus-mediated gene transfer. (sciencemag.org)
  • In a nonhuman primate model, infection with one of the viruses possessing HA-222G caused lung damage more severe than did infection with a virus encoding HA-222D, although these pathological differences were not observed for the other virus pair with either HA-222G or HA-222D. (nih.gov)
  • dengue virus
  • Dengue virus (DENV) is the etiological agent of the major human arboviral disease. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Dengue disease, caused by dengue virus (DENV), has emerged as the most important mosquito-borne viral disease of humans and is a major global health concern. (asm.org)
  • protein
  • we interrogate affinity differences resulting from mutations in a host-virus protein-protein interface. (peerj.com)
  • As such, these methods are poorly suited for most host-virus protein-protein systems. (peerj.com)
  • Pulled-down virus was detected using the 4G2 anti-DV E protein mAb. (nih.gov)
  • Cells were labeled with DAPI (blue) and the anti-DV E protein 4G2 (green) to detect virus uptake in unpermeabilized and permeabilized cells. (nih.gov)
  • The envelope G protein trimer is responsible for the attachment of the virus to target cells and enable the virus to be transported to the NS via the retrograde pathway. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The results of site-directed mutagenesis showed that the G147R change allowed the NA protein to serve the receptor binding function normally provided by HA. (virology.ws)
  • Although the G147R NA can serve as receptor binding protein, the HA is still required for fusion: abolishing this activity by mutation or by treatment with a fusion-blocking antibody did not allow virus growth. (virology.ws)
  • deer professor, i was wondering that how does this defective virus complete "a single amino acid change " in NA protein before it enters a cell. (virology.ws)
  • In 2007, the group determined the structure of the measles virus H protein, bound to the receptors. (or.jp)
  • In this study, Professor Yanagi's research group purified a large amount of the H protein bound to the SLAM receptor and crystallized this complex, successfully determining its three-dimensional structure using X-rays from SPring-8 beamlines, such as the Structural Biology I Beamline (BL41XU) and Macromolecular Assemblies Beamline (BL44XU). (or.jp)
  • The research results of Professor Yanagi and his colleagues strongly suggest that membrane fusion is triggered by changes in the tetramer structure of the H protein caused following the binding of the virus to its receptor. (or.jp)
  • The clarification of the structure of the complex of the H protein and the SLAM receptor will enable the design of antiviral drugs that target the sites of binding of the H protein to its receptor. (or.jp)
  • pandemic viruses
  • In addition, due to the high frequency of mutations and recombination of their genome (antigenic drift and shift), and their airborne transmission, they have a high potential to become pandemic viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • polyclonal antibody
  • Means +/− SEM are shown in panel D. (E) Polyclonal antibody binding to HA was assessed by flow cytometry after adding different dilutions of polyclonal antibody to L929 cells infected with the indicated virus followed by the addition of anti-mouse FITC. (nih.gov)
  • molecules
  • According to the localization of the three molecules, their role in entry and propagation of the virus could be as follows: RABV particles from saliva are transferred by bites to the vicinity of NMJs and sensory terminations. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This review is devoted to the problems of the identification of cell outer membrane molecules that participate in the hepatitis C virus binding and its transfer inside the cells. (msk.ru)
  • antigens
  • Production of infectious murine leukemia virus in vitro and expression of leukemia virus-induced membrane antigens did not appear to correlate with the presence of Ia8 or Thy-1.2 antigens or with the H-2 type of the cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • sialic
  • Virus-like particles that contain G147R NA but not HA can attach to sialic acid-containing red blood cells. (virology.ws)
  • After binding to red blood cells, these virus-like particles slowly fall off, a consequence of NA cleaving sialic acid receptors. (virology.ws)
  • human
  • The paucity of defined genetic systems may therefore explain part of our ignorance concerning the mole- cular details of virus receptors on human cells and possibly also on gram-positive bacteria. (indigo.ca)
  • HSV-1 gE-gI) that function as Fc receptors (FcRs) by binding to the Fc regions of human IgG. (caltech.edu)
  • JC virus (JCV) is a common human polyomavirus responsible for the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), in immunocompromised individuals. (sciencemag.org)
  • Influenza viruses are an important threat to human health and global economy, causing an annual average of 36,000 deaths and over 200,000 hospitalizations during the 1990s ( CDC, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Human hepatocyte line Huh-7 carrying an HCV replicon expressed TLR7, and activation of the receptor induced several antiviral genes including IFN regulatory factor-7. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, measles virus vaccines are considered to be very effective, unlike those against influenza viruses and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs). (or.jp)
  • molecular
  • It is hardly necessary to define the concept of receptors to readers of this series, but it should be borne in mind that in several instances receptors are undefined entities, whose molecular details remain to be established. (indigo.ca)
  • In a similar way the availability of genetic systems has also clarified the interrelationship between animal retrovirus receptors even if the molecular structure remains to be determined. (indigo.ca)
  • particles
  • This concentrates virus particles in front of the NMJs and improves the probability of RABV being taken up by the nerve terminal. (beds.ac.uk)
  • ligand
  • On the other hand the ligand, which recognizes the receptors, has been identified and characterized in most cases. (indigo.ca)
  • The current interest in the structure and function of biological membranes gives great expectations that we may understand in the near future the details of ligand-receptor interaction. (indigo.ca)
  • Here we present evidence showing that a ligand of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) can induce anti-HCV immunity not only by IFN induction, but also through an IFN-independent mechanism. (pnas.org)
  • serotypes
  • TIM receptors are used by the four DV serotypes (D). TIM receptors are shared by other flaviviruses (E). Data are represented as mean ± SEM of at least three independent experiments. (nih.gov)
  • characterization
  • The identification and characterization of the receptors for phages of gram-negative bacteria has to a large extent relied on the genetic tech- niques available for these organisms. (indigo.ca)
  • H1N1
  • The presence of this change in phylogenetic clusters of seasonal H1N1 and chicken H5N1 sequences suggests that they are also found in circulating viruses, and are not simply sequence errors or the product of passage in the laboratory. (virology.ws)
  • The first influenza pandemic of the 21st century was caused by novel H1N1 viruses that emerged in early 2009. (nih.gov)
  • We tested two 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses possessing HA-222G (isolated from severe cases) and two viruses that possessed HA-222D. (nih.gov)
  • Cells
  • Cells poorly susceptible to DV are robustly infected after ectopic expression of TIM or TAM receptors. (nih.gov)
  • B-E) Parental and 293T cells expressing TIM receptors (B) were challenged with DV2-JAM. (nih.gov)
  • The inhibitor gradient for egg white was very different from that for plasma and these in turn differed significantly from the receptor gradient for fowl red cells. (rupress.org)
  • now find that the cellular receptor for JCV on glial cells is a serotonin receptor. (sciencemag.org)
  • Treatment of G147R-containing virus with oseltamivir also blocked virus binding to cells. (virology.ws)
  • A recent report suggested that ribavirin could induce IRF-7 in cells infected with respiratory syncitial virus ( 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • there has been an attempt to modify the virus to be specifically infectious to cancer cells. (or.jp)
  • In 2000, Professor Yanagi's research group clarified that the measles virus infects cells by binding to the SLAM receptor distributed on the surface of immune cells. (or.jp)
  • mammalian
  • Rabies virus (RABV) is a pathogen well adapted to the mammalian nervous system (NS) where it infects the neurons, causing an acute myelo-encephalitis fatal in most mammalian species, and humans in particular. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These studies identify ANTXR1, a class of receptor that is shared by a mammalian virus and a bacterial toxin, as the cellular receptor for SVV. (jci.org)
  • inhibitors
  • Pharmacologic inhibitors of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), including ribavirin and mizoribine, have been reported to have activity against RNA viruses ( 18 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • amino acid
  • (B) Location of in vivo selected HA amino acid substitutions in mutant viruses. (nih.gov)
  • (A) Cellular avidities of 40 viruses with single HA amino acid substitutions were determined using RDE-treated turkey erythrocytes. (nih.gov)
  • expression
  • Expression of the receptor mRNAs in tissues of the transgenic mice was analyzed by using RNA blot hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction. (nii.ac.jp)
  • acute
  • They cause meningoencephalitis ( 4 ), are implicated in acute pancreatitis ( 5 ) and as triggering agents in childhood-onset diabetes ( 6 ), and are the viruses most frequently identified in acute infections of the heart ( 7 ). (sciencemag.org)