Loading...
  • agonists
  • The results thus suggest that the dopamine receptor agonists inhibit the ganglionic transmission by reducting acetylcholine release via preganglionic DA1 receptor stimulation and by inhibiting postganglionic nicotinic and muscarinic activation via postganglionic DA2 receptor stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Neighboring presynaptic varicosities showed strikingly heterogeneous responses to DA agonists, suggesting that DA receptors may be differentially trafficked to individual varicosities on the same medium-spiny neuron axon. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Watkins JC, Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Honoré T (1990) Structure-activity relationship in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists. (springer.com)
  • However, because α7 receptors rapidly desensitize in the continuous presence of agonists, a repetitive stimulation protocol was used to evaluate the possible significance of desensitization. (jneurosci.org)
  • synaptic transmission
  • Synaptic transmission is dynamically modulated by neuropeptides, which often act on receptors that belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Both natriuretic peptides and their receptors are expressed in several discrete brain areas ( 10 ⇓ ⇓ - 13 ), but it remains unclear how ANP affects behaviors and modulates synaptic transmission in the brain. (pnas.org)
  • nAChRs
  • Localization of functional nAChRs at presynaptic structures has only been possible under the best of circumstances where the presynaptic structure is very large allowing direct nAChR channel recording. (sacredheart.edu)
  • Thus, the approach described allows one to readily map the distribution of activated nAChRs on presynaptic inputs in vitro. (sacredheart.edu)
  • hippocampal
  • To establish the precise localization of presynaptic mGluRs in the rat hippocampus, we used subtype-specific antibodies for eight mGluRs (mGluR1-mGluR8) for immunohistochemistry combined with lesioning of the three major hippocampal pathways: the perforant path, mossy fiber, and Schaffer collateral. (jneurosci.org)
  • hippocampus
  • In the present study, we systematically used 10 subtype-specific mGluR antibodies, including a newly developed mGluR7b-specific antibody, to examine the precise localization of presynaptic mGluRs in the rat hippocampus by light and electron microscopy, in combination with lesion experiments to establish the origins of presynaptic mGluR-bearing pathways. (jneurosci.org)
  • neuron
  • Assuming that post-receptor signaling is restricted to the microdomains of medium-spiny neuron varicosities, the heterogeneous distribution of dopamine receptors on individual varicosities is likely to encode patterns in striatal information processing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report here a novel and simple method that allows the visualization of stimulus-evoked changes in Fura-2 fluorescence in the presynaptic structures of essentially any neuron type in vitro. (sacredheart.edu)
  • vitro
  • Classification of the presynaptic muscarinic receptor subtype that regulates 3H-acetylcholine secretion in the guinea pig urinary bladder in vitro. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the present in vitro electrophysiological studies, we used four different mutant mice, in which the expression of specific DA receptors is either ablated or altered to clarify the involvement of the most abundant DA receptors expressed in the striatum, D1 and D2, in these functions. (jneurosci.org)
  • inhibit
  • Presynaptic imidazoline receptors (IRs) which inhibit norepinephrine (NE) release from sympathetic nerve endings have been identified in cardiovascular tissue of man, rabbit, rat, and guinea pig. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Group I mGlu receptors include mGlu1 and mGlu5, which when expressed are coupled via Gq to phospholipase C. Group II (mGlu2 and mGlu3) and group III (mGlu4,6,7,8) receptors are coupled to Gi and inhibit stimulated cAMP formation when expressed in cell lines. (aspetjournals.org)
  • secretion
  • These results suggest that the 3H-acetylcholine secretion in the guinea pig urinary bladder is regulated by a presynaptic muscarinic autoreceptor of the M4 subtype that is not coupled to adenylate cyclase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Elevation of extracellular Ca 2+ (↑[Ca 2+ ] e ) stimulates the Ca 2+ receptor (CaR) to induce secretion of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from the calcium-sensing parafollicular (PF) cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, secretion of 5-HT was antagonized by the expression of a minigene encoding a peptide scavenger of Gβγ subunits (C-terminal fragment peptide of bovine β-adrenergic receptor kinase). (jneurosci.org)
  • mGluRs
  • Immunoreactivity for group II (mGluR2) and group III (mGluR4a, mGluR7a, mGluR7b, and mGluR8) mGluRs was predominantly localized to presynaptic elements, whereas that for group I mGluRs (mGluR1 and mGluR5) was localized to postsynaptic elements. (jneurosci.org)
  • Electron microscopy further revealed the spatial segregation of group II and group III mGluRs within presynaptic elements. (jneurosci.org)
  • ethanol
  • The present study extends these findings using selective CRF receptor ligands, gene KO models, and miniature IPSC (mIPSC) analysis to assess further a presynaptic role for the CRF receptors in mediating ethanol effects in the CeA. (hindawi.com)
  • Ethanol (EtOH) has a number of behavioral effects, including intoxication, amnesia, and/or sedation, that are thought to relate to the activation of GABA A receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Ethanol probably acts at this receptor system. (springer.com)
  • mice
  • To overcome this issue, in the present study we used four different mutant mice in which the expression of specific DA receptors was ablated. (jneurosci.org)
  • In D1 receptor null mice, D1R-/-, DA dose-dependently depolarized both LA and FS interneurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • To do this, D1 and D2 receptor-deficient mice were used to identify the receptor subtype involved in the depolarizing and presynaptic effects, respectively, of DA on both LA and FS interneurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • P2X4 Receptor Reporter Mice: Sparse Brain Expression and Feeding-Related Presynaptic Facilitation in the Arcuate Nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • To identify P2X4 receptor-expressing cells, we generated BAC transgenic mice expressing tdTomato under the control of the P2X4 receptor gene (P2rx4). (nih.gov)
  • membrane
  • In addition to GPCRs, a unique family of receptors known as membrane guanylyl cyclases (GCs) can be activated by neuropeptides such as natriuretic peptides to catalyze the intracellular production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Another member of the membrane GC family, GC-A (also named NPR-A), is the receptor for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and its activation reduces blood pressure and volume in the cardiovascular system ( 7 ⇓ - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • novel
  • For the most part, the cloning and identification of a novel heterogeneous family of mGlu receptors has driven this progress. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We are characterizing a novel presynaptic mechanism for the prevention of synapse loss and neurodegeneration involving the co-chaperone Cysteine String Protein alpha. (yale.edu)
  • gene
  • Three new studies demonstrate that they are allelic disorders caused by mutations in the vanilloid transient receptor potential cation-channel gene TRPV4 . (nature.com)