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  • pattern recogniti
  • Compared with infected wild-type mice, fewer HSCs accumulated in the spleens of infected mice lacking Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) or receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2 (RIPK2), a downstream effector of signaling through NOD pattern recognition receptors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a crucial role in the proper function of the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also called primitive pattern recognition receptors because they evolved before other parts of the immune system, particularly before adaptive immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • NOD1, NOD2, NLRP3, and NLRC4/NAIP act as bona fide pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) but also react to endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). (asmscience.org)
  • neutrophils
  • G-CSF is a growth factor for neutrophils (a common type of white blood cells), and may act by increasing the activity of neutrophil-derived proteases such as neutrophil elastase in the bone marrow leading to proteolytic degradation of SDF-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another explanation of this observation is provided by a study that shows the ability of CXCL12 (and CCL2) producing tumors to entrain neutrophils that inhibit seeding of tumor cells in the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • found that systemic infection of mice with Escherichia coli mobilized HSCs from the bone marrow to the spleen, resulting in a reduction in bone marrow HSCs and an increase in splenic HSCs. (sciencemag.org)
  • 6 , 11 - 15 Mice and non-human primates treated with recombinant FL for 3 to 10 days have increased numbers of colony-forming units in bone marrow, spleen and peripheral blood, with the highest frequency after 10 days of administration, showing that FL is a relatively slow mobilizing agent. (haematologica.org)
  • LPS was also administered to TLR4 KO and G-CSF receptor (GCSFR) KO mice. (asnevents.com.au)
  • F) Evaluation of KLS cells in the hematopoetic organs of IAP+/+ and IAP-/- mice mobilized on days 2 through 5. (nih.gov)
  • C) Survival curve of recipient mice given lethal radiation and transplanted with the cells shown, n=5 for each group. (nih.gov)
  • Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr −/− ) mice were irradiated and reconstituted with hematopoietic stem cells obtained from NOR1−/− or wild-type littermate mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Briefly, bone marrow cells were isolated from femurs of NOR1-deficient mice and their wild-type littermates [ 17 ], and differentiated in DMEM medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum and 30% L929 cell-conditioned medium for 10 days. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NSG branded mice lack mature T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice homozygous for the mutation have severely reduced numbers of mature T and B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to mention that Long-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cells (LT-HSCs) in mice and humans are the hematopoietic cells with the greatest self-renewal capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obese mice administered anti-B cell CD-20 antibodies, however, did not become less responsive to insulin and as a result did not develop diabetes mellitus or the metabolic syndrome, the posited mechanism being that anti-CD20 antibodies rendered the T cell antibodies dysfunctional and therefore powerless to cause insulin desensitivity by a B cell antibody-modulated autoimmune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • monocytes
  • These original, early outgrowth, CFU-Hill or CACs are also shown to express CD14, a lipopolysaccharide receptor expressed by monocytes but not endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • orphan nuclear
  • The NR4A3 orphan nuclear hormone receptor, NOR1, functions as a constitutively active transcription factor to regulate inflammation, proliferation, and cell survival during pathological vascular remodeling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CD34
  • Leukemic blasts (mostly CD34 + ) from patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) expressed variable amounts of CXCR-4, which was functionally active, as demonstrated by a positive correlation between the SDF-1-induced transendothelial migration and the cell surface density of CXCR-4 (r = 0.97). (bloodjournal.org)
  • In contrast, CD34 + leukemic cell lines (KG1, KG1a, Kasumi-1, MOLM-1) expressed low levels or were negative for CXCR-4, and did not migrate. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 13 This concept is supported by the finding that SDF-1 is chemotactic for CD34 + hematopoietic progenitor cells from bone marrow and peripheral blood. (bloodjournal.org)
  • CD34 is also an important adhesion molecule and is required for T cells to enter lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, under other circumstances CD34 has been shown to act as molecular "Teflon" and block mast cell, eosinophil and dendritic cell precursor adhesion, and to facilitate opening of vascular lumina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of its mode of action, under all circumstances CD34, and its relatives podocalyxin and endoglycan, facilitates cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokine
  • Upon infection, sensing of invading pathogens and likely of DAMPs that are released in response to tissue injury is a process that involves multiple PRRs in both myeloid and epithelial cells, and these act in concert to design tailored, pathogen-adapted immune responses by induction of different cytokine profiles, giving rise to appropriate lymphocyte polarization. (asmscience.org)
  • FL is a cytokine that is involved in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation during early hematopoiesis. (haematologica.org)
  • macrophage
  • Ultimately, activation of these receptors achieves macrophage activation and maturation of dendritic cells to drive antigen-specific adaptive immune responses. (asmscience.org)
  • 2004). "Chemokine receptor utilization and macrophage signaling by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120: Implications for neuropathogenesis. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The genetic background, derived from inbred NOD mouse strain NOD/ShiLtJ, contributes reductions in innate immunity that include an absent hemolytic complement system, reduced dendritic cell function, and defective macrophage activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The syndrome results from deletions in human chromosome 5 that remove three adjacent genes, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, Platelet-derived growth factor receptor B, and Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • mobilizer
  • Rather than classic chemotherapeutic agents, the investigators will utilize a targeted stem cell mobilizer, plerixafor, in combination with alemtuzumab, a monoclonal antibody. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • immune
  • These HSC populations can replenish circulating immune cells during periods of high demand, such as systemic bacterial infection. (sciencemag.org)
  • Toll-like receptors were first discovered in Drosophila and trigger the synthesis and secretion of cytokines and activation of other host defense programs that are necessary for both innate or adaptive immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecules released following TLR activation signal to other cells of the immune system making TLRs key elements of innate immunity and adaptive immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many different cells of the innate immune system express a myriad of CLRs which shape innate immunity by virtue of their pattern recognition ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • FLT3L and its receptor are involved in the mammalian immune response to malaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • A link between the immune system's B cells and diabetes mellitus has been determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • 6 In addition, FL is important for lymphocyte (B-cell and T-cell) development, but not for differentiation into myeloid lineages. (haematologica.org)
  • White blood cells The G-CSF-receptor is present on precursor cells in the bone marrow, and, in response to stimulation by G-CSF, initiates proliferation and differentiation into mature granulocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This meant that the cells can change their differentiation pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila imaginal discs, cells have to choose from a limited number of standard discrete differentiation states. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that transdetermination (change of the path of differentiation) often occurs for a group of cells rather than single cells shows that it is induced rather than part of maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling through IL2Rγ is required for the differentiation and function of many hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small CTCs have been implicated in progressive disease and differentiation into small cell carcinomas, which often require a different therapeutic course. (wikipedia.org)
  • mononuclear
  • However, counting CD34+ mononuclear cells may overestimate myeloid blasts in bone marrow smears due to hematogones (B lymphocyte precursors) and CD34+ megakaryocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar method is to culture the peripheral blood mononuclear fraction in supplemented endothelial growth medium, removing the non-adherent cells, and isolating the remaining. (wikipedia.org)
  • ECFCs are isolated by plating peripheral blood mononuclear fraction on collagen-coated plates, removing non-adherent cells, and culturing for weeks until the emergence of colonies with a distinctive cobblestone morphology. (wikipedia.org)
  • agonist
  • who found that signaling induced by a microbe-derived agonist of NOD2 promoted survival of intestinal stem cells and improved their resistance to oxidative stress-induced cell death. (sciencemag.org)
  • tumor cells
  • Previously-developed principles and strategies of highly-selective tumor concentrating on can take benefit of molecular concentrating on of tumors, including tissue-selective therapy which targets unique variations between regular and tumor cells [40C (healthandwellnesssource.org)
  • Mobilisation of tumor cells has occurred in patients with leukaemia treated with plerixafor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cells that have shed into the vasculature or lymphatics from a primary tumor and are carried around the body in the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The significant efforts put into understanding the CTCs biological properties have demonstrated the critical role circulating tumor cells play in the metastatic spread of carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • The same paper suggested that FLT3L release was caused by stimulation of mast cells with uric acid, produced from a precursor secreted by the plasmodium parasite. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Recognition of extracellular or endosomal pathogen-associated molecular patterns is mediated by transmembrane proteins known as toll-like receptors (TLRs). (wikipedia.org)