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  • endogenous
  • In this study, the heat and capsaicin sensitivity of PKR1 −/− mice was found to be significantly lower than wild type (WT), implying that the presence of PKR1 (and presumably its activation by endogenous PK1 or PK2) exerts a tonic activating effect on transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). (jneurosci.org)
  • opiate receptor
  • Studies from our laboratory have revealed a novel μ opiate receptor, μ 3 , which is expressed in both vascular tissues and leukocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Sequence analysis of the isolated cDNA suggests that it is a novel, alternatively spliced variant of the μ opiate receptor gene. (jimmunol.org)
  • These data suggest that this new μ opiate receptor cDNA encodes the μ 3 opiate receptor, since it exhibits biochemical characteristics known to be unique to this receptor (opiate alkaloid selective and opioid peptide insensitive). (jimmunol.org)
  • Since then, demonstration of the multiplicity of receptor types has led to the understanding that, depending on their site of action, opioid peptides as well as opiate alkaloids may bind to more than one opiate receptor subtype ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We have now identified the human μ 3 opiate receptor subtype at the molecular level as a truncated μ splice variant that when transfected into COS-1 cells exhibits the expected functionality: NO release in an opiate alkaloid-selective and opioid peptide-insensitive manner as well as the previously described binding and physiological characteristics of the μ 3 receptor ( 14 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • To obtain full-length human μ 3 receptor mRNA, we screened several human cDNA libraries, including heart, brain, kidney, and leukocytes, by PCR using the 441-bp μ opiate receptor gene (Oprm)-specific primers (see below). (jimmunol.org)
  • Even though the discovery of the third major communication system in the body began with Pert's discovery of the opiate receptor in October, 1972, and research on it has continued through the 1980's, and 1990's, knowledge of that system has still not entered mainstream medicine. (stress.org)
  • tissues
  • Functional studies have shown that μ 3 is expressed on immunocytes and neural tissues of the invertebrate Mytilus edulis as well as on human monocytes, granulocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and other cells, including those of the nervous system ( 9 , 10 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family of peptides and the corresponding family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) collectively constitute one of the most adaptable, complex, and diverse growth factor signaling systems that are involved in many developmental and repair processes in virtually all vertebrate and invertebrate tissues and cells ( Goetz and Mohammadi, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • FMRFamide
  • and on this basis, the FMRFamide and RFamide-like peptides, first discovered in molluscs, are an example of a family that is conserved throughout the animal phyla. (springer.com)
  • Armstrong EP, Halton DW, Tinsley RC, Cable J, Johnston RN, Johnston CF, Shaw C (1997) Immunocytochemical evidence for the involvement of an FMRFamide-related peptide in egg production in the flatworm parasite Polystoma nearcticum . (springer.com)
  • The wide range of actions of the FMRFamide-related peptides and the biological importance of peptidergic messengers. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • neurotransmitter
  • The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature peptide, which is primarily expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and functions as a neurotransmitter. (genecards.org)
  • The electrophysiological pharmacology of neurotransmitter receptors on locust neuronal somata. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • subtypes
  • These disulfide-rich peptides provide a large number of evolutionarily refined templates that can be used to develop conopeptides that are highly selective for the various nAChR subtypes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Molecular biology of excitatory amino acid receptors: Subtypes and subunits. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • precursor
  • Sequence analyses of the deduced precursor polypeptide revealed that the annetocin precursor is composed of three segments: a signal peptide, an annetocin sequence flanked by a Gly C-terminal amidation signal and a Lys-Arg dibasic processing site, and a neurophysin domain, similar to other oxytocin family precursors. (embl.de)
  • This is the first identification of the cDNA encoding the precursor of an invertebrate oxytocin-related peptide and also the first report of the identification of an annelid vasopressin/oxytocin-related precursor. (embl.de)
  • galanin
  • They thus report that kisspeptin should be classified in the galanin/spexin family rather than in the RF-amide peptide family. (frontiersin.org)
  • AstA receptors are homologues of galanin receptors and both of them are involved in the regulation of feeding and sleep, which appears to be conserved in evolutionary aspect. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • neuronal
  • In the 1980's medical science became aware of a third, basic communication system, the peptide "ligand-receptor system," in which a network involving the neuronal, the hormonal, the gastrointestinal and the immune system communicate with one another and the rest of the body via peptides and messenger specific peptide receptors. (stress.org)
  • dose-dependent
  • CRZR-activated cell signaling in a dose-dependent manner (EC 50 0.75 nM) and comparative studies with insect CRZ peptides suggest that the C-terminus of this peptide is important in receptor-ligand interaction. (frontiersin.org)
  • At the functional level, COS-1 cells transfected with the μ 3 receptor cDNA exhibited dose-dependent release of NO following treatment with morphine, but not opioid peptides (i.e. (jimmunol.org)
  • Receptor stimulation studies using HEK293 cells stably expressing the chicken PTH1R and PTH3R and monitoring cAMP production revealed they are activated by chicken 1-34 N-terminal PTH-family peptides in a dose dependent manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • novel
  • In addition to a previously cloned Lys-conopressin receptor (LSCPR1), we have now identified a novel Lys-conopressin receptor subtype, named LSCPR2. (embl.de)
  • family
  • The evolution of the peptide family consisting of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and the three urocortins (UCN1-3) has been puzzling due to uneven evolutionary rates. (readbyqxmd.com)