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  • Pattern Recogniti
  • In our body's Innate Immune System cells, Pathogen Recognition Receptors (PRRs) (aka Pattern Recognition Receptors) are proteins expressed to identify Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) , which are associated with microbial pathogens or cellular stress, as well as DAMPs, (damage-associated molecular patterns). (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In our body's Innate Immune System cells, Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) (aka pathogen recognition receptors) functionally may be divided into endocytic PRRS or signaling PRRS . (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In our body's Innate Immune System cells, Endocytic PRRs are a functional family of Pathogen Recognition Receptors (PRRs) (aka Pattern Recognition Receptors) that promote the attachment, engulfment and destruction of microorganisms by phagocytes, without relaying an intracellular signal. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Bacterial sepsis induced immunsuppression via antigen hyporesponsibility increases the risk of nosokomial infections and mortality.Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) might have a central role in the pathophysiology of hyporesponsibility.We found a significant higher expression of Trem-1 and TLR-2 on monocytes and neutrophils in patients compared to healthy volunteers. (nih.gov)
  • Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) might have a central role in the pathophysiology of hyporesponsibility. (nih.gov)
  • It is now clear that the environmental factors that drive airway pathology in asthma and COPD, including allergens, viruses, ozone and cigarette smoke, activate innate immune receptors known as pattern-recognition receptors, either directly or indirectly by causing the release of endogenous ligands. (edu.au)
  • Thus, there is now intense research activity focused around understanding the mechanisms by which pattern-recognition receptors sustain the airway inflammatory response, and how these mechanisms might be targeted therapeutically. (edu.au)
  • macrophages
  • In our body's Innate Immune System Endocytic PRRs recognize carbohydrates and include mannose receptors of macrophages, glucan receptors present on all phagocytes and scavenger receptors that recognize charged ligands, are found on all phagocytes and mediate removal of apoptotic cells. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Sequences of peptides from a protein specifically immunoprecipitated by an antibody, KUL01, that recognises chicken macrophages, identified a homologue of the mammalian mannose receptor, MRC1, which we called MRC1L-B. Inspection of the genomic environment of the chicken gene revealed an array of five paralogous genes, MRC1L-A to MRC1L-E, located between conserved flanking genes found either side of the single MRC1 gene in mammals. (nih.gov)
  • The macrophage scavenger receptor type A is expressed by activated macrophages and protects the host against lethal endotoxic shock. (nih.gov)
  • To avoid this, we constructed CHO and PK15 cell lines recombinantly expressing the PRRSV receptors involved in virus entry into macrophages, sialoadhesin (Sn) and CD163 (CHOSn-CD163 and PK15Sn-CD163) and evaluated their potential for production of PRRSV. (nih.gov)
  • Humans
  • Some pygmy chimpanzees (also called Bonobos) give much simpler patterns of hybridization on Southern blotting with killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) cDNA probes than do either humans or common chimpanzees. (nih.gov)
  • cells
  • Fas ligand (FasL) is a membrane protein capable of inducing apoptosis in cells bearing its receptor, Fas, primarily cells of the immune system. (ahajournals.org)
  • Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (Trem-1) on blood neutrophils is associated with cytokine inducibility in human E. coli sepsis. (nih.gov)
  • Immunologic targeting of tumor-specific gene mutations may allow precise eradication of neoplastic cells without toxicity. (duke.edu)
  • Although activation of natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity is generally inhibited by target major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression, subtle features of NK allorecognition suggest that NK cells possess receptors that are activated by target MHC I. The mouse Ly-49D receptor has been shown to activate NK cytotoxicity, although recognition of MHC class I has not been demonstrated previously. (nih.gov)
  • Upon release, IL-33 signals through its receptor ST2, which reportedly is expressed only on CD4 ⁺ T cells of the Th2 and regulatory subsets. (usda.gov)
  • ligands
  • Several different receptors on Mphi have been shown to bind LPS, including the type A scavenger receptor (SR-A). This receptor is able to bind a broad range of polyanionic ligands such as modified lipoproteins and lipoteichoic acid of gram-positive bacteria, which suggests that SR-A plays a role in host defense. (nih.gov)
  • TLR4
  • IRF3 and IRF7 are activated in response to a variety of viruses or after engagement of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and TLR4 by double-stranded RNA and lipopolysaccharide, respectively. (umassmed.edu)
  • CD14
  • Further, TLR2 recognition of HCV core and NS3 was not augmented by co-expression of the TLR co-receptor, CD14. (umassmed.edu)
  • Activation
  • Genetic analysis showed that Caspase-3, Caspase-9, and p38 MAPK interacted with Slit1a-Robo2 signaling, suggesting that localized activation of caspases lie downstream of a ligand receptor system, acting as key promoters of axonal branch tip and synaptic dynamics to restrict arbor growth in vivo in the central nervous system. (zfin.org)
  • We also demonstrate that MyD88, interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase 1, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 are required for the activation of IRF5 and IRF7 in the TLR7 signaling pathway. (umassmed.edu)
  • factor
  • It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B. (curehunter.com)
  • Immunologic escape after prolonged progression-free survival with epidermal growth factor receptor variant III peptide vaccination in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. (duke.edu)
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is a constitutively activated and immunogenic mutation not expressed in normal tissues but widely expressed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and other neoplasms.A phase II, multicenter trial was undertaken to assess the immunogenicity of an EGFRvIII-targeted peptide vaccine and to estimate the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of vaccinated patients with newly diagnosed EGFRvIII-expressing GBM with minimal residual disease. (duke.edu)
  • regulates
  • Conclusions Estradiol transcriptionally regulates endothelial FasL expression by a mechanism involving at least one of the estrogen receptors. (ahajournals.org)
  • A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. (curehunter.com)
  • expression
  • In vitro, estradiol is shown to regulate FasL expression at the transcriptional level via an estrogen receptor-mediated, NO-dependent mechanism. (ahajournals.org)
  • The ability of IL-1 to induce IL-2 receptor expression in the absence of T cell mitogen is the basis of this assay. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • engagement
  • The p46-mediated induction of Ca2+ increases or triggering of cytolytic activity was downregulated by the simultaneous engagement of inhibitory receptors including p58, p70, and CD94/NKG2A. (nih.gov)
  • Chronic
  • One pattern-recognition receptor that has recently come to attention in chronic airways disease is the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). (edu.au)
  • functions
  • By expressing in appropriate time and location, these pathways have different regulatory functions through independent receptors or on different subsets of lymphocytes. (biomedsearch.com)