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  • muscarinic receptor
  • The contractile responses, the 45Ca uptake and the specific [3H]QNB binding were all blocked by atropine and so are taken to represent muscarinic receptor-mediated phenomena. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It is concluded that the mechanical response requires a much lower concentration of carbachol than that needed for stimulating 45Ca uptake or for occupying [3H]QNB binding sites and that there appears to be approximately a 150-fold muscarinic receptor excess. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, the magnitude of carbachol-induced contractions correlated with muscarinic receptor upregulation, whereas the magnitude of isoproterenol-induced relaxation did not correlate with changes in the density of the β-adrenergic receptors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • neurons
  • Ventral tegmental area (VTA) glutamate neurons are important components of reward circuitry, but whether they are subject to cholinergic modulation is unknown. (janelia.org)
  • To study this, we used molecular, physiological, and photostimulation techniques to examine nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in VTA glutamate neurons. (janelia.org)
  • Cells in the medial VTA, where glutamate neurons are enriched, are responsive to acetylcholine (ACh) released from cholinergic axons. (janelia.org)
  • We conclude that afferents arising from periventricular osmosensitive neurons to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which are involved in non-pressure-associated osmotically induced AVP release, are both angiotensinergic and cholinergic, whereas those mediating pressure-associated AVP release are cholinergic in nature. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Lesions of intrinsic cholinergic neurons by quinolinic acid produced extensive gliosis in the medial, central, and lateral caudate-putamen, yet 125I-rhNGF binding was decreased in each of these regions. (jneurosci.org)
  • The cholinergiclike topography of NGF binding sites throughout the intact caudate-putamen, the parallel decreases of cholinergic neurons and NGF binding sites following intrinsic neuronal loss, and the uniform neostriatal gradient of NGF-LI are consistent with the trophic role of endogenous NGF for cholinergic interneurons of the caudate-putamen. (jneurosci.org)
  • Tissues
  • The present invention relates to radiolabelled compounds particularly 1-azabicyclo[2.2.ctane compounds (i.e., quinuclidine compounds) which are labeled with one or more radioisotopes and which are suitable for imaging or therapeutic treatment of tissues, organs, or tumors which express the α7-nicotinic cholinergic receptor. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In another embodiment, the invention relates to methods of imaging tissues, organs, or tumors using radiolabeled compounds of the invention, particularly tissues, organs, or tumors which express α7-nicotinic cholinergic receptor to which the compounds of the invention have an affinity. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • stimulus
  • To investigate whether cholinergic ganglionic stimulus modifies the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), catecholamines, and progesterone at the ovarian level. (fertstertforum.com)
  • Pharmacology
  • 2005 ). An arguably more important difference in receptor pharmacology between CLZ and NDMC is that CLZ is usually reported to be an antagonist (Schotte et al. (springer.com)
  • pathways
  • We studied the involvement of periventricular and hypothalamic angiotensinergic and cholinergic pathways in osmotically induced arginine vasopressin (AVP) release into the blood. (aspetjournals.org)
  • stimulation
  • Stimulation of muscarinic receptors with pilocarpine leads to a marked rise of norepinephrine concentration in the esophageal mucosa and in the mucosa of the lesser curvature. (springer.com)
  • It is supposed that stimulation of muscarinic receptors of the gastrointestinal tract after injection of exogenous norepinephrine induces accumulation of this transmitter in structures with abundant cholinergic innervation. (springer.com)
  • cardiac
  • Further studies are required to establish the physiologic significance of these receptor alterations, but these data support the hypothesis that altered adrenergic receptor properties may underlie, at least in part, the chronotropic and inotropic abnormalities of cardiac performance that are associated with the diabetic state. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • hyperactivity
  • 2006 ). For example, NDMC reverses hyperactivity induced by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and by the dopamine (DA) agonist amphetamine (see Lameh et al. (springer.com)
  • The administration of oxotremorine exhibited an enhanced hypothermia in levamisole treated group as compared to control group suggesting hyperactivity of the cholinergic system. (ac.ir)
  • Levamisole causes hyperactivity and cyclosporine causes hypo activity of central cholinergic system. (ac.ir)
  • Central cholinergic system hypo activity impairs and hyperactivity improves the learning and memory. (ac.ir)
  • oxotremorine
  • On the other hand oxotremorine administration failed to produce significant hypothermia in cyclosporine treated group as compared to control suggesting hypo activity of the cholinergic system. (ac.ir)
  • significantly
  • We found that neither double blockade of mACh and NK1 receptors, nor triple blockade of mACh, NK1, and 5-HT2A receptors significantly affected breathing (P ≥ 0.05) in goats that were awake or in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • activity
  • While the specific roles for both of these types of cholinergic receptors are not fully understood, we do know that greater levels of activity at these receptors leads to improvements in memory, attention, learning, reasoning, and a number of other cognitive functions. (nootriment.com)
  • The medial-to-lateral receptor gradient was correlated (r = +0.99) with a 2-3-fold medial-to-lateral increase in ChAT activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • sites
  • Supplements that are able to improve mental performance are referred to as nootropics and there are a number of ways that they can be used to positively affect cholinergic receptor sites . (nootriment.com)