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  • secretory
  • This was the first demonstration that subtilisin-like pro-protein convertases, which are serine proteases implicated in proteolytic processing of neurohormone precursors, are involved in the processing of a major secretory protein. (ucr.edu)
  • certain proteins
  • Polypeptide toxins and many antibacterial peptides, such as colicins or hemolysins, and certain proteins involved in apoptosis, are sometimes considered a separate category. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conformation
  • Compared to other classes of proteins, the determination of membrane protein structures has remained a challenge in large part due to the difficulty in establishing experimental conditions where the correct conformation of the protein in isolation from its native environment is preserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Proteins are also increasingly used as "industrial components," e.g., in biosensors and immobilized enzymes, because of their specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity. (springer.com)
  • amino acid
  • Cystinuria is an inherited (genetic) disorder of the transport of an amino acid (a building block of protein) called cystine resulting in cystinuria (an excess of cystine in the urine) and the formation of cystine stones. (medicinenet.com)
  • STAR is homologous to a family of proteins containing a 200- to 210-amino acid STAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain, including STARD5. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidermal
  • Adamson ED, Meek J (1984) The ontogeny of epidermal growth factor receptors during mouse development. (springer.com)
  • Assoian RK, Frolik CA, Roberts AB, Miller DM, Sporn MB (1984) Transforming growth factor-beta controls receptor levels for epidermal growth factor in NRK fibroblasts. (springer.com)
  • Bargmann CI, Hung MC, Weinberg RA (1986) The neu oncogene encodes an epidermal growth factor receptor-related protein. (springer.com)
  • Structural
  • Structural information about receptors and other system components will undoubtedly follow, allowing one to investigate structure-function relationships and further understand the mechanism of heme transport. (asmscience.org)
  • peripheral
  • Peripheral proteins dissociate following treatment with a polar reagent, such as a solution with an elevated pH or high salt concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • IPLEX's manufacturing company, Insmed, after selling its protein production facility, can no longer develop proteins, thus can no longer manufacture IPLEX as of a statement released in July 2009. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipoprotein
  • An unrooted phylogenetic tree of heme and hemoprotein receptors from Table 1 , excluding HbpA ( T. denticola ), Pap31 ( B. henselae ), HbpA ( B. quintana ), HxuA ( H. influenzae ), lipoprotein e ( H. influenzae ), and the gram-positive receptors, is shown. (asmscience.org)
  • In my laboratory, the first insect Vg receptor (VgR), which represents a novel group of membrane receptors belonging to the family of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, has been isolated and characterized. (ucr.edu)
  • biological
  • Cell biological studies of the synthesis of yolk protein precursors by the insect's metabolic tissue and their accumulation by developing oocytes were followed by biochemical investigation of vitellogenin (Vg) biosynthesis, the major yolk protein precursor. (ucr.edu)
  • The biological effects of P2Y receptor activation depends on how they couple to downstream signalling pathways, either via Gi, Gq/11 or Gs G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane-bound
  • The membrane-bound protein is the principal transporter that clears the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate from the extracellular space at synapses in the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Negative regulation of urokinase receptor activity by a GPI-specific phospholipase C in breast cancer cells van Veen M, Matas-Rico E, van de Wetering K, Leyton-Puig D, Kedziora K, et. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Current research suggests that the protein is associated with regulation of the GH supply in the circulatory system as well as GH receptor function. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • This requires novel and refined proce- ing methods by which the protein isolate can be converted into a form in which it can be utilized. (springer.com)
  • Background: The enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase enzyme (FabI) is the target for a series of antimicrobial agents including novel compounds in clinical trial and the biocide triclosan. (ebscohost.com)
  • recognize
  • These receptors recognize either free heme or heme bound to host-carrier proteins. (asmscience.org)
  • Three examples of general heme receptors, which can recognize numerous heme-containing substrates, are HmuR of Yersinia pestis , HemR of Yersinia enterocolitica, and HmuR of Porphyromonas gingivalis. (asmscience.org)
  • Specialized transmembrane proteins recognize the substance and allow it to move across the membrane when it otherwise would not, either because the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane is impermeable to the substance moved or because the substance is moved against the direction of its concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each carrier protein is designed to recognize only one substance or one group of very similar substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • In support of this hypothesis, carrier proteins were demonstrated in the media at the end of the binding incubation with fibroblast monolayers, and the concentration of unsaturated binding sites in the media correlated inversely with tracer binding to the cells. (jci.org)
  • A carrier protein is required to move particles from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • albumins
  • For example, the membrane pores of the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys are very small, and only albumins, the smallest of the proteins, have any chance of being filtered through. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lipophilicity of T3 and T4 requires their binding to the protein carrier thyroid-binding protein (TBG) (thyroxine-binding globulins, thyroxine binding prealbumins, and albumins) for transport in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acids
  • The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • The induction of this gene by ionizing radiation occurs in certain cell lines regardless of p53 status, and its protein response is correlated with apoptosis following ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same results were found for certain inducers of apoptosis particularly stimulators of receptors in a class of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) called B-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • The H3 receptor has also been shown to presynaptically inhibit the release of a number of other neurotransmitters (i.e. it acts as an inhibitory heteroreceptor) including, but probably not limited to dopamine, GABA, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, histamine and serotonin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Class 4 mutations inhibit the internalisation of the receptor-ligand complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Serum ferritin" presents a paradox, as the iron storage protein ferritin is not synthesised in serum yet is to be found there. (rsc.org)
  • The protein in serum ferritin is considered benign, but it has lost ( i.e. dumped) most of its normal complement of iron which when unliganded is highly toxic. (rsc.org)
  • Taking a systems approach, we develop and summarise the view that "serum ferritin" actually originates from damaged cells (and thus reflects cellular damage), that it contains some iron but has lost or liberated most of its normal content, and that since the protein part of ferritin is assumed to be benign, that it is this (initially) free iron that correlates with and is causative of disease. (rsc.org)
  • As such, many lipid signaling molecules cannot circulate freely in solution but, rather, exist bound to special carrier proteins in serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphatase
  • Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) (EC 3.1.3.1) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is uncommonly soluble and active within elevated temperature conditions such as 80 °C. Due to the kinetic energy induced by this temperature the weak hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions of common proteins become degraded and therefore coalesce and precipitate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is located in the periplasmic space and can thus be released using techniques that weaken the cell wall and release the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 15A also known as growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD34 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPP1R15A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include enzymes called ceramide-activated Ser-Thr phosphatases (CAPPs), such as protein phosphatase 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A), which were found to interact with ceramide in studies done in a controlled environment outside of a living organism (in vitro). (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Histamine H3 receptors are expressed in the central nervous system and to a lesser extent the peripheral nervous system, where they act as autoreceptors in presynaptic histaminergic neurons, and also control histamine turnover by feedback inhibition of histamine synthesis and release. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization. (rupress.org)
  • Ca 2+ sparks are the elementary units of Ca 2+ signaling in the striated muscle fibers that appear as highly localized Ca 2+ release events mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca 2+ release channels on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane. (jove.com)
  • Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to their selection and concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • These inorganic phosphates are then bound to carrier proteins which deliver the inorganic phosphates to a specific high-affinity transport system, known as the Pst system, which transports phosphate across the cytoplasmic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • These are subunit vaccines, consisting of specific protein antigens (such as tetanus or diphtheria toxoid) or recombinant protein components (such as the hepatitis B surface antigen). (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • It can be activated by collectin proteins which recognize the structural pattern of polysaccharide on the surface of microorganisms. (scirp.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • NPs may interact with these proteins in a similar way, and the interaction may lead to beneficial outcomes in vaccine delivery. (scirp.org)
  • SCP2 has been shown to interact with Caveolin 1 and peroxisomal receptor PEX5. (wikipedia.org)
  • chain fatty
  • Evidence suggests that the SCPx protein is a peroxisome-associated thiolase that is involved in the oxidation of branched chain fatty acids, while the SCP2 protein is thought to be an intracellular lipid transfer protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • selective
  • There are currently no therapeutic products acting as selective agonists for H3 receptors, although there are several compounds used as research tools which are reasonably selective agonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • belongs
  • It belongs to the Low density lipoprotein receptor gene family. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein belongs to the LDLR family and is made up of a number of functionally distinct domains, including 3 EGF-like domains, 7 LDL-R class A domains, and 6 LDL-R class B repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukocyte
  • Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2) is a protein first described in 1996 as a chemotactic factor for neutrophils, i.e. it stimulated human neutrophils to move directionally in an in vitro assay system. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • H3 receptors function as presynaptic autoreceptors on histamine-containing neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent studies have defined LECT2 as a hepatokine, i.e. a substance made and released into the circulation by liver hepatocyte cells that regulates the function of other cells: it is a hepatocyte-derived, hormone-like, signaling protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • A third domain of the protein is rich in O-linked oligosaccharides but appears to show little function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family
  • Carrier testing is typically offered to individuals who are considering pregnancy or are already pregnant, have a family history of a specific genetic disorder and to people in ethnic backgrounds that have an increased risk of specific genetic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • These findings indicate that LECT is an evolutionary conserved protein, has one or more important functions, and may be involved in various diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminal domain of Beta2-adaptin is a protein domain is involved in cell trafficking by aiding import and export of substances in and out of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein was detected in and purified from cultures of Phytohaemagglutinin-activated human T-cell leukemia SKW-3 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, the DNA may be encapsulated in protein to facilitate cell entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later on it has been characterized as a gene playing a role in ER stress-induced cell death, being a target of ATF4 that plays a role in ER-mediated cell death via promoting protein dephosphorylation of eIF2α and reversing translational inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Portions of the cytosolic sequence have been found in other lipoprotein receptors, as well as in more distant receptor relatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • PGD can be utilized by individuals or couples who are affected by a condition of genetic origin, or if both individuals are found to be carriers of a recessive genetic condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • The carriers of C alleles presented with lower thickness of subcutaneous tissue and higher concentrations of HDL-C than the wild type. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mutation
  • Carrier testing is used to identify people who carry one copy of a gene change (also referred to as a variant or mutation) that, when present in two copies, causes a genetic disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • Glycine-induced activation of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors may also result in hyper- or depolarising reactions of the prospective cells with regards to the intracellular Cl? (biomasswars.com)
  • immune responses
  • Because these proteins are recognised as foreign, when they are processed by the host cells and displayed on their surface, the immune system is alerted, which then triggers immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Viral tropism for the decidua and placenta is then dependent on viral entry receptor expression in these tissues as well as on the maternal immune response to the virus. (jci.org)
  • Because the plasmid is the "vehicle" from which the immunogen is expressed, optimising vector design for maximal protein expression is essential. (wikipedia.org)
  • One way of enhancing protein expression is by optimising the codon usage of pathogenic mRNAs for eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • These vesicles have specific coat proteins (such as clathrin or coatomer) that are important for cargo selection and direction of transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also evidence that the H3-receptor plays an important role in Tourette syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • involvement
  • There is a lot of interest in the histamine H3 receptor as a potential therapeutic target because of its involvement in the neuronal mechanism behind many cognitive H3R-disorders and especially its location in the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are highly regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which led to their involvement in lipid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • This process may allow for intimate contact with engulfed microbes and fits with the role that these receptors play in the innate immune response (Underbill, D. M.. ct al. (allindianpatents.com)
  • structure
  • However, their binding is shown to have different effect on the structure of the protein. (scirp.org)
  • On the other hand the fluorescence emission of the protein increased upon binding to the PLGA-PEG-NH2 indicating conformational changes in the protein structure. (scirp.org)
  • domain
  • The N-terminal domain of the LDL receptor, which is responsible for ligand binding, is composed of seven sequence repeats (~50% identical). (wikipedia.org)
  • e.g. a truncation of the receptor protein at residue number 660 leads to domains 3,4 and 5 of the EGF precursor domain being missing. (wikipedia.org)