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  • Recognition
  • Furthermore, our data are consistent with the view that the mechanism of recognition of these compounds presented by CD1d to the Vα14 i NKT cell TCR is likely to fit a lock-and-key model. (pnas.org)
  • Overall, these findings emphasize the distinct properties of glycosphingolipid antigen recognition by Vα14 i NKT cells. (pnas.org)
  • IKK/NF-κB Transcription Factor Pathway: CD79 and other proteins, microsignalosomes, go to activate PLC-γ after antigen recognition by the BCR and before it goes to associate into the c-SMAC. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • Vα14 i NKT cells produce large amounts of cytokines rapidly after stimulation ( 4 ), and this cytokine burst may have a widespread influence on immune responses, including protection against autoimmune diseases, the host response to parasites and bacteria, and antitumor responses ( 2 , 3 , 5 - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although it may be possible that stimulation by antigen binding contributes to the proliferation of malignant B cells, increasing evidence implicates antigen-independent self-association of BCRs as a key feature in a growing number of B-cell neoplasias. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, a role for paracaspase has been shown in the innate immune response mediated by the zymosan receptor Dectin-1 in macrophages and dendritic cells, and in response to the stimulation of certain G protein-coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Such crosslinks are lethal to cells since they would prevent DNA from being copied (DNA replication) or for the genes it carries to be read (DNA transcription). (wikipedia.org)
  • antigenic
  • Initial studies of CAR T cell therapy have shown promising results in ovarian cancer, but there are some obstacles like impaired T cell trafficking, lack of antigenic targets, cytokine release syndrome and most important immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. (springer.com)
  • activation
  • Chmielewski M, Hombach AA, Abken H. Antigen-specific T-cell activation independently of the MHC: chimeric antigen receptor-redirected T cells. (springer.com)
  • Bajpai UD, Zhang K, Teutsch M, Sen R, Wortis HH (2000) Bruton's tyrosine kinase links the B-cell receptor to nuclear factor kappaB activation. (springer.com)
  • Chen D, Heath V, O'Garra A, Johnston J, McMahon M (1999) Sustained activation of the raf-MEK-ERK pathway elicits cytokine unresponsiveness in T cells. (springer.com)
  • Although this result could have reflected the unique attributes of α-GalCer, using several related glycolipid compounds, we show here that the threshold for full activation of Vα14 i NKT cells by these glycosphingolipids requires a relatively high-affinity TCR interaction with a long t 1/2 . (pnas.org)
  • α-GalCer is a very potent antigen, however, and it was not certain if those properties are linked to the peculiar nature of this antigen, or if they reflect the intrinsic requirements for the activation of Vα14 i NKT cells. (pnas.org)
  • Here, using α-GalCer-related compounds, we demonstrated that the full activation of Vα14 i NKT cells by glycolipids requires a stable and distinct type of TCR interaction. (pnas.org)
  • BTLA expression is induced during activation of T cells, and BTLA remains expressed on Th1 cells but not Th2 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • BTLA activation inhibits the function of human CD8+ cancer-specific T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This removes the last five amino acids at the C-terminus and is crucial for T cell adhesion to fibronectin, but not for NF-κB activation and IL-2 production. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, using a peptide-based inhibitor (z-VRPR-fmk) of the paracaspase proteolytic activity, it has been shown that this activity is required for a sustain NF-κB activation and IL-2 production, suggesting that paracaspase may have others substrates involved in T cell-mediated NF-κB activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • Although CAR T cell therapy has made remarkable strides in the treatment of patients with certain hematological cancers, in solid tumors success has been limited likely due to heterogeneous antigen expression, immunosuppressive networks in the tumor microenvironment limiting CAR T cell function and persistence, and suboptimal trafficking to solid tumors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Also required for BCR surface expression and for efficient differentiation of pro- and pre-B-cells. (uniprot.org)
  • Jurkat
  • The addition of monoclonal antibodies to the antigen receptor complex on the malignant human T-cell line Jurkat generates increases in inositol trisphosphate and in the concentration of cytoplasmic free calcium. (pnas.org)
  • Exposure of Jurkat cells to cholera toxin for 3 hr inhibited these receptor-mediated events and led to a selective, partial loss of the antigen receptor complex from the cellular surface. (pnas.org)
  • immune
  • CAR T cells are genetically engineered T cells with major histocompatibility complex-independent, tumor-specific, immune-mediated cytolytic actions against cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • T cells are key effectors of the adaptive immune response, with a number of important roles in the elimination of pathogens. (axonmedchem.com)
  • The self-reactivity of their T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) is thought to contribute to the development of immune regulatory cells, such as invariant NK T cells (iNKT). (pnas.org)
  • In recent years his has increasingly focused on understanding the human immune system, from developing broad systems biology approaches to inventing new methods to help unravel the complexities of T cell responses to cancer, autoimmunity and infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • BTLA-HVEM complexes negatively regulate T-cell immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • p38α MAPK is ubiquitously expressed in many cell types, in contrast, p38β MAPK is highly expressed in brain and lung, p38γ MAPK mostly in skeletal muscle and nerve system, and p38δ MAPK in uterus and pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • The receptor's binding moiety is composed of a membrane-bound antibody that, like all antibodies, has a unique and randomly determined antigen-binding site (see V(D)J recombination). (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • We demonstrate that strict "Goldilocks" conditions of affinity for self-lipids by the T-cell antigen receptor expressed on T-cell precursors are necessary for imprinting the proper developmental program toward the invariant NK T-cell lineage. (pnas.org)
  • It was previously shown that the Vα14 i T cell antigen receptor (TCR) has a high affinity for the α-GalCer/CD1d complex, driven by a long half-life ( t 1/2 ). (pnas.org)
  • We and others have shown previously that the TCR of Vα14 i NKT cells exhibits a high-affinity binding to the α-GalCer/CD1d complex and a long half-life ( t 1/2 ) ( 15 - 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • intracellular
  • None of the effects of cholera toxin on the antigen receptor complex were mimicked by the B subunit of cholera toxin or by increasing intracellular cAMP levels with either forskolin or 8-bromo cAMP. (pnas.org)
  • The intracellular domain of the receptor, which is quite long, is responsible for the transduction of highly conserved signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD19
  • Cherukuri A, Cheng PC, Pierce SK (2001a) The role of the CD19/CD21 complex in B-cell processing and presentation of complement-tagged antigens. (springer.com)
  • Complete remission (CR) rates as high as 90% have been reported in children and adults with relapsed and refractory ALL treated with CAR-modified T cells targeting the B-cell-specific antigen CD19. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells targeting CD19, the best-studied CAR T-cell therapy to date, will be discussed, with a focus on clinical trials for ALL demonstrating efficacy as well as toxicity and toxicity management. (bloodjournal.org)
  • regulation
  • Differential regulation of T-cell dependent and T-cell independent antibody responses through arginine methyltransferase PRMT1 in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The substrates of this kinase include transcription regulator ATF2, MEF2C, and MAX, cell cycle regulator CDC25B, and tumor suppressor p53, which suggest the roles of this kinase in stress-related transcription and cell cycle regulation, as well as in genotoxic stress response. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoma
  • This resulted in the development of targeted inhibitors for the treatment of several B-cell malignancies, especially chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). (haematologica.org)
  • invariant
  • Invariant Vα14 rearrangement (Vα14 i ) natural killer (NK) T cells constitute the most numerous glycolipid-reactive population identified in mice, and a homologous population of Vα24 i NKT cells is present in humans ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Vα14 i NKT cells bear a T cell antigen receptor (TCR) containing an invariant Vα14-Jα18 rearrangement paired preferentially with either Vβ8.2, Vβ7, or Vβ2 ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • 1995
  • Cheng AM, Rowley B, Pao W, Hayday A, Bolen JB, Pawson T (1995) Syk tyrosine kinase required for mouse viability and B-cell development. (springer.com)
  • gene
  • Gene-specific knockdown of ALCAM in bone-metastatic PC3 cells greatly diminished both skeletal dissemination and tumor growth in bone. (nih.gov)
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • B lymphocytes can also participate in light chain receptor editing, VH gene replacement, or be released and later undergo negative selection in the periphery. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligands
  • Soluble cytokine receptors modulate the activity of their cognate ligands. (nih.gov)
  • however it is highly homologous to other LILR genes, and can bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Therefore, if secreted, the LILRA3 might impair interactions of membrane-bound LILRs (such as LILRB1, an inhibitory receptor expressed on effector and memory CD8 T cells) with their HLA ligands, thus modulating immune reactions and influencing susceptibility to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytoplasmic
  • At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well as in the nucleus, where it is interacting with some subnuclear structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by E-cadherin with β-catenin bound to the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Conversely, under other circumstances CD34 has been shown to act as molecular "Teflon" and block mast cell, eosinophil and dendritic cell precursor adhesion, and to facilitate opening of vascular lumina. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • NADA was first described as a putative endocannabinoid (agonist for the CB1 receptor) in 2000 and was subsequently identified as an endovanilloid (agonist for TRPV1) in 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory
  • Nature Immunology, 2004;5:516 Lu L, Ikizawa K, Hu D, Werneck MBF, Wucherpfennig KW, Cantor H. Regulation of activated CD4+ T cells by NK cells via the Qa-1-NKG2A inhibitory pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • It is expressed on lymph node endothelia, whereas the L-selectin to which it binds is on the T cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone-marrow
  • Unlike DCs, FDCs are not derived from the bone-marrow hematopoietic stem cell, but are of mesenchymal origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are millions of B and T cells created in the bone marrow and thymus, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • If autoreactive cells escape clonal deletion in either the thymus or the bone marrow, there are mechanisms in the periphery involving T regulatory cells to prevent the host from obtaining an autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may also mediate the attachment of stem cells to bone marrow extracellular matrix or directly to stromal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are used to quantify and purify hematopoietic progenitor stem cells for research and for clinical bone marrow transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • Antibody/antigen complexes had been discovered using ECL Traditional western blot signal recognition reagent (GE Health care). (ovarian-cancersymptoms.com)
  • Cell-cell adhesion complexes are required for simple epithelia in higher organisms to maintain structure, function and polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-catenin participates in the formation and stabilization of adherens junctions by binding to β-catenin-cadherin complexes in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • CD2 mediates lymphocyte adhesion and is involved in T cell activation. (tonbobio.com)
  • Through biochemical analyses and loss-of-function in vivo studies, we demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecule, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), is actively shed from metastatic prostate cancer cells by the sheddase ADAM17 in response to TGF-β. (nih.gov)
  • The primary mechanical role of catenins is connecting cadherins to actin filaments, specifically in these adhesion junctions of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • in a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD34 is also an important adhesion molecule and is required for T cells to enter lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoid
  • Follicular DCs are a non-migratory population found in primary and secondary follicles of the B cell areas of lymph nodes, spleen, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). (wikipedia.org)
  • Interaction between FDCs precursors and lymphoid cells mediated by TNF-a and lymphotoxin (LT) is crucial for normal FDC development and maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • FDCs are among main producers of the chemokine CXCL13 which attracts and organises lymphoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factor Mfge produced in lymphoid tissues mainly by FDCs is known to enhance engulfment of apoptotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • B and T cells are presented with self antigen after developing receptors while they are still in the primary lymphoid organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, for both B and T cells in the primary lymphoid organs, clonal deletion is the most common form of negative selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursors
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • mononuclear cells
  • Granulysin is a cytolytic and proinflammatory molecule first identified by a screen for genes expressed "late" (3-5 days) after activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognition
  • This prevents recognition and destruction of self host cells, making it a type of negative selection or central tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Separation
  • Supposedly, this separation from the sites of earliest antigen processing and capture provide a protected environment in which opsonized antigens can be displayed for a long time without being proteolyzed or removed by phagocytic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear
  • It has been associated with heterochromatin and PML-NBs (Promyelocytic Leukaemia nuclear bodies) and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • (A) ELISA analysis of ALCAM shedding in concentrated conditioned media of PC3 cells treated with indicated exogenous cytokines. (nih.gov)
  • inhibition
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Based on the type of receptor through which they signal, human interferons have been classified into three major types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, NADA has been observed to suppress inflammatory activation of human Jurkat T cells and to inhibit the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated astrocytes, microglia and mouse brain ECs (MEC-Brain). (wikipedia.org)
  • overexpression
  • Nevertheless, it is not known whether the Fas-receptor stimuli or the ASK1 overexpression are caused by ROS or CRM1 mediated export. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the transformed cells to revert to their original non-malignant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Frank Macfarlane Burnet proposed autoreactive cells would be terminated before maturation in order to prevent further proliferation in his study in 1959. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, they block the proliferation of T helper cells type two. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptotic
  • By secreting the bridging factor MFGE8, which crosslinks apoptotic cells and phagocytes, FDCs promote selective debris removal from the GC. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is where the lymphocyte would receive apoptotic signals from antigen-presenting cell (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, incomplete clonal deletion allows for a balance between the host's ability to recognize foreign antigens and self antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rituximab destroys both normal and malignant B cells that have CD20 on their surfaces and is therefore used to treat diseases which are characterized by having too many B cells, overactive B cells, or dysfunctional B cells. (wikipedia.org)