• Authors: Mrowka P, Glodkowska-Mrowka E Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor acting as a transcription factor involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, cell cycle, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. (medworm.com)
  • Authors: Schultz L, Gardner R Abstract Immunotherapies have been successfully developed for the treatment of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) with FDA approval of blinatumomab, inotuzumab, and tisagenlecleucel for relapsed or refractory patients. (medworm.com)
  • The recognition specificity of different non-self-antigens or defective self-antigens (tumors) by a well-defined B-cell clone does not result from the presence of an extensive number of receptor genes, but rather from immunogenetic mechanisms affecting a limited number of IG genes, including mechanisms of genetic recombination, mutations, deletions or insertions, and gene repair, through very complex regulatory mechanisms that are responsible for a large B-cell repertoire. (intechopen.com)
  • Another surprise is that such diverse receptors in an individual do not react with any structures contained in the self body (self-antigens) in principle, which is called self-tolerance. (springer.com)
  • We have examined the interaction of the microbial superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) with peptides corresponding to overlapping regions of the T-cell antigen receptor beta chain variable region V beta 3. (pnas.org)
  • Recently, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has shown promising results in hematological tumors and current research is going on in various solid tumors like ovarian cancer. (springer.com)
  • Although CAR T cell therapy has made remarkable strides in the treatment of patients with certain hematological cancers, in solid tumors success has been limited likely due to heterogeneous antigen expression, immunosuppressive networks in the tumor microenvironment limiting CAR T cell function and persistence, and suboptimal trafficking to solid tumors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we outline specific approaches to overcome barriers to CAR T cell effectiveness in the context of the tumor microenvironment and offer our perspective on how expanding the use of CAR T cells in solid tumors may require modifications in CAR T cell design. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we have studied the dynamic activity of proteins involved in regulating actin polymerization in live T cells after activation. (nature.com)
  • Two such adaptor proteins, Nck and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp), were recruited to the TCR during initial T cell activation, where they colocalized with the tyrosine kinase Zap70. (nature.com)
  • All the above components along with accessory proteins essential for MHC are a part of the immunological synapse that initiates T-cell activation. (wikipathways.org)
  • CD45 plays a role in antagonizing the effect of inhibitory proteins on T-cell activation. (wikipathways.org)
  • Initial studies of CAR T cell therapy have shown promising results in ovarian cancer, but there are some obstacles like impaired T cell trafficking, lack of antigenic targets, cytokine release syndrome and most important immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. (springer.com)
  • This strategy thereby avoids the requirement of antigen processing and presentation by the target cell and is applicable to non-classical T cell targets like carbohydrates ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A major barrier to developing therapeutics to prevent CAR T cell-mediated neurotoxicity is the lack of clinically relevant models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To determine the developmental potential of B cells bearing two distinct B cell antigen receptors (BCRs), one favoring B-1 and the other favoring B-2 cell development, we crossed V H 12 insertion mice with mice bearing either V H B1-8 or V H glD42. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, mice whose IgH alleles were engineered to express V H B1-8 or V H glD42 develop mainly B-2 cells. (rupress.org)
  • Two clusters of overlapping cosmid clones comprising about 100 kilobases (kb) at the human T-cell antigen-receptor alpha/delta locus were isolated from a genomic library. (pnas.org)
  • The peptide V beta 3-(57-77) also inhibited SEA-induced interferon-gamma production and SEA-induced proliferation of B10.BR spleen cells. (pnas.org)
  • Also required for BCR surface expression and for efficient differentiation of pro- and pre-B-cells. (uniprot.org)
  • Here, we generated IgH double (V H 12 and V H B1-8 or V H 12 and V H glD42) insertion mice to test whether the expression of a second H chain in V H 12-expressing B cells may act in a dominant negative manner to perturb the generation of B-1 cells. (rupress.org)
  • Data from recent knockout experiments in cell lines and mice contradict the assumption that Src-family kinase and tyrosine kinases of the Syk/Zap-70 family are the transducer elements that set signaling from these receptors in motion. (nih.gov)
  • Finkelstein, L.D. & Schwartzberg, P.L. Tec kinases: shaping T-cell activation through actin. (nature.com)
  • The activated Src kinases phosphorylate ITAMs (Immune receptor tyrosine-based activation motifs) present on CD3γ, δ, ε and ζ chain. (wikipathways.org)
  • Byth KF, Conroy LA, Howlett S, Smith AJ, May J, Alexander DR, Holmes N (1996) CD45-null transgenic mice reveal a positive regulatory role for CD45 in early thymocyte development, in the selection of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes, and B-cell maturation. (springer.com)
  • Germline DNA can be extracted from bone marrow or peripheral blood nuclear cells. (intechopen.com)
  • Bajpai UD, Zhang K, Teutsch M, Sen R, Wortis HH (2000) Bruton's tyrosine kinase links the B-cell receptor to nuclear factor kappaB activation. (springer.com)
  • Maus MV, Grupp SA, Porter DL, June CH. Antibody-modified T cells: CARs take the front seat for hematologic malignancies. (springer.com)
  • Figure 4: Nck recruitment to the T cell contact site is dependent on the functional activity of LAT. (nature.com)
  • Gallego, M.D., Santamaria, M., Pena, J. & Molina, I.J. Defective actin reorganization and polymerization of Wiskott-Aldrich T cells in response to CD3-mediated stimulation. (nature.com)
  • The health span of supercentenarians might be partly explained by the expansion of T cells that kill infected or abnormal cells. (pnas.org)
  • The B-Cell Lymphoma Moon Shot is revolutionizing the conventional medical research approach to rapidly translate findings into patient treatment options and develop personalized therapeutic strategies. (mdanderson.org)
  • Similar to conventional V H 12 transgenic mice, V H 12 insertion mice develop mainly B-1 cells. (rupress.org)
  • Two major B cell subsets, designated B-1 and B-2, exist in humans and mice. (rupress.org)
  • Optimization of design, improving tumor microenvironment and combinations with other therapies may help us in improving CAR T cell efficacy. (springer.com)
  • Chmielewski M, Hombach AA, Abken H. Antigen-specific T-cell activation independently of the MHC: chimeric antigen receptor-redirected T cells. (springer.com)
  • Acuto, O. & Cantrell, D. T cell activation and the cytoskeleton. (nature.com)
  • This event also provides a co-stimulatory signal leading to the production of IL-2 and T- cell activation. (wikipathways.org)
  • Chen D, Heath V, O'Garra A, Johnston J, McMahon M (1999) Sustained activation of the raf-MEK-ERK pathway elicits cytokine unresponsiveness in T cells. (springer.com)