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  • self-antigens
  • What are self-antigens? (brainscape.com)
  • Another surprise is that such diverse receptors in an individual do not react with any structures contained in the self body (self-antigens) in principle, which is called self-tolerance. (springer.com)
  • Transcriptional regulators AIRE and FEZ2 are expressed by the thymic medullary epithelium, and drives the transcription of organ-specific genes such as insulin to allow maturing thymocytes to be exposed to a more complex set of self-antigens than is present in the cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • It is miraculous that only a few genes generate a repertoire of receptors that match essentially all of the molecular structures existing on earth including even newly generated chemical compounds, the mechanisms for which have mostly been clarified to date as briefly mentioned below. (springer.com)
  • When antigen binds to T-cell receptor, Lck becomes autophosphorylated and phosphorylates the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor, subsequently another nRTK, Zap70, binds to this T-cell receptor and then participates in downstream signaling events that mediate transcriptional activation of cytokine genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cancer patients, about one half of the highly tumor-specific antigens recognized by spontaneous T cell responses are encoded by mutated genes, the other half being encoded by cancer-germline genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer-germline genes are an important source of tumor-specific antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptide
  • CDR3 is the main CDR responsible for recognizing processed antigen, although CDR1 of the alpha chain has also been shown to interact with the N-terminal part of the antigenic peptide, whereas CDR1 of the β-chain interacts with the C-terminal part of the peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunogenicity
  • Safety, tumor trafficking and immunogenicity of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells specific for TAG-72 in colorectal cancer. (springer.com)
  • The contribution of these antigens to tumor immunogenicity is expected to vary according to the mutation rate: higher in lung carcinomas arising in tobacco smokers, in melanomas owing to mutations induced by UV and in the 15% of colorectal carcinomas that have hypermutated DNA owing to defects in the DNA mismatch repair pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD19
  • Further, expression of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) containing 41BB and CD3ζ signal domains on NK cells enhanced the activating signals originating from CD19 antigen engagement, leading to cytotoxicity specifically against B-cell leukemia . (plos.org)
  • Complete remission (CR) rates as high as 90% have been reported in children and adults with relapsed and refractory ALL treated with CAR-modified T cells targeting the B-cell-specific antigen CD19. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells targeting CD19, the best-studied CAR T-cell therapy to date, will be discussed, with a focus on clinical trials for ALL demonstrating efficacy as well as toxicity and toxicity management. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Cherukuri A, Cheng PC, Pierce SK (2001a) The role of the CD19/CD21 complex in B-cell processing and presentation of complement-tagged antigens. (springer.com)
  • Cherukuri A, Cheng P, Sohn H, Pierce S (2001b) The CD19/CD21 complex functions to prolong B-cell antigen receptor signaling from lipid rafts. (springer.com)
  • CD19-targeting therapies employing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are a breakthrough in cancer therapy. (mdpi.com)
  • cellular
  • The alliance was formalized through an exclusive research and licensing agreement to further study and commercialize novel cellular immunotherapies using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technologies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • While the αβ lineage has been widely studied, the γδ lineage has not due to the minimal amount of defined antigens, the unusual cellular responses to their environment, and the resulting challenge of identifying and studying this population in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • avoids
  • This strategy thereby avoids the requirement of antigen processing and presentation by the target cell and is applicable to non-classical T cell targets like carbohydrates ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Antibody
  • New, proteomic approaches, including T-cell and B-cells-epitope mapping, can also accelerate the pace at which scientists discover antibody-antigen relationships. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas the antibody uses its Fc region to bind to Fc Receptors on leukocytes, TCR is already docked onto the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor's binding moiety is composed of a membrane-bound antibody that, like all antibodies, has a unique and randomly determined antigen-binding site (see V(D)J recombination). (wikipedia.org)
  • therapy
  • In August 2017, Kymriah became the first available chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy when it received FDA approval five weeks prior to its PDUFA date and was launched for patients up to 25 years of age with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that is refractory or has relapsed at least twice. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • diversity
  • The occurrence of CD79A thus coincides with the evolution of B cell receptors with greater diversity generated by recombination of multiple V, D, and J elements in bony fish contrasting the single V, D and J elements found in shark. (wikipedia.org)
  • The generation of TCR diversity is similar to that for antibodies and B cell antigen receptors. (wikipedia.org)