• He prefers a combination of neurotransmitter immunohistochemistry and receptor autoradiography as research techniques. (waterstones.com)
  • When the Eighth Inter- national Congress of Pharmacology was held in Tokyo in 1981, Dr. Segawa, Dr. Yamamura, and Dr. Kuriyama organized a Satellite Symposium on Neurotransmitter Receptors in Hiroshima. (waterstones.com)
  • These receptors are a type of excitatory neurotransmitter that are activated through an indirect metabotropic process. (news-medical.net)
  • γ‐Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, signals through ionotropic (GABA A/C ) and metabotropic (GABA B ) receptor systems. (els.net)
  • 1980) (-)Baclofen decreases neurotransmitter release in the mammalian CNS by an action at a novel GABA receptor. (els.net)
  • Where are neurotransmitter receptors located? (reference.com)
  • Neurotransmitter receptors receive signals and excite or inhibit a cellular process in response. (reference.com)
  • As each neuron connects with more than 15,000 other neurons, the majority of neurotransmitter receptors produce excitatory responses. (reference.com)
  • After receiving a neurotransmitter, the receptor usually triggers an action potential, which then leads to a cellular process elsewhere. (reference.com)
  • The discovery that additional presynaptic glutamate receptors can modulate neurotransmitter release has added complexity to the way we view glutamatergic synaptic transmission. (mendeley.com)
  • Here we review evidence of a physiological role for presynaptic glutamate receptors in neurotransmitter release. (mendeley.com)
  • Acetylcholine receptors function as "docking stations" for acetylcholine, a chemical substance (neurotransmitter) that transmits messages between nerve cells. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Tsien and others had previously demonstrated that NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate in the CA1 region of the hippocampus are critical for long-term potentiation (LTP), a strong candidate for the physiological process that creates memories for storage. (alzforum.org)
  • Also called nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, nicotinic receptors are cells that respond to nicotine , a neurotransmitter. (wisegeek.com)
  • In addition to nicotine, the action of nicotinic receptors is triggered by acetylcholine (ACh), another common neurotransmitter. (wisegeek.com)
  • A "key," or neurotransmitter, neatly binds with a receptor "lock" resulting in the propagation or dampening of the neural signal (also referred to as the action potential). (dana.org)
  • A single neurotransmitter may bind with several types of receptors, even those more commonly associated with a different neurotransmitter, and result in varied reactions depending on their location. (dana.org)
  • When a neurotransmitter binds to an ionotropic receptor, it directly opens or closes ion channels at the site of the receptor. (dana.org)
  • When the neurotransmitter connects with the metabotropic receptor, the binding action sets off a chain reaction of protein activity within the cell, altering the cell's metabolic activity or opening nearby ion channels to either enhance or diminish the cell's action potential. (dana.org)
  • Neuropsychiatric disease can result from too few or too many receptors in different parts of the brain, leading to too little or too much of a neurotransmitter binding to the postsynaptic cell. (dana.org)
  • However, by focusing on the dominant neurotransmitter at any one synapse, researchers have been able to link receptors to behaviors and disease states. (dana.org)
  • Kenakin T (1997) Differences between natural and recombinant G‐protein coupled receptor systems with varying receptor/G‐protein stoichiometry. (els.net)
  • The G protein-coupled receptor repertoires of human and mouse. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • GCRDb: a G-protein-coupled receptor database. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • G protein-coupled receptor list. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A. A. Boucard, J. Ko, T. C. Südhof, High affinity neurexin binding to cell adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor CIRL1/latrophilin-1 produces an intercellular adhesion complex. (sciencemag.org)
  • the first was the human BLT 1 receptor in 1999 from an HL-60 cell cDNA library, and shown to be a G protein-coupled receptor that had erroneously been identified as the P2Y 7 purinoceptor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The CysLT 1 and the CysLT 2 receptors, both cloned in 2000, again proved to be members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The new method, successfully demonstrated by the team on a G-protein coupled receptor and a Notch receptor, expands the possibilities to study natural behavior and pharmacology of receptors in their native setting in the membrane of live cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Binding of an agonist to a G protein-coupled receptor leads to a conformational change that allows the α subunit of the G protein to bind to the receptor. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • 2010 )). In addition to AR, the SHR family contains the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), progesterone receptor (PR), and the estrogen receptor (ER). (springer.com)
  • Tumor receptors play an important role in carcinogenesis and tumor growth and have been some of the earliest targets for tumor- specific therapy, for example, the estrogen receptor in breast cancer. (redorbit.com)
  • In this overview of tumor receptor imaging, aspects of receptor biochemistry and biology that underlie tumor receptor imaging are reviewed, with the estrogen-estrogen receptor system in breast cancer as an illustrative example. (redorbit.com)
  • This review discusses receptor pharmacology, the biology of tumor receptors, and special considerations for tumor receptor imaging, with the estrogen receptor (ER) as an illustrative example. (redorbit.com)
  • Newswise - One of the first clues pathologists look for in tissue from a newly diagnosed breast cancer patient is the estrogen receptor, a nuclear protein that converts hormonal messages in the bloodstream into instructions for the cell about how to behave. (newswise.com)
  • They also look for the presence of progesterone receptors, primarily to confirm that the estrogen receptor is active. (newswise.com)
  • Previous studies from many labs, including a group at Cambridge University, showed that when exposed to the primary female sex hormone, estradiol, the estrogen receptor activates genes that encourage tumor cells to grow and divide. (newswise.com)
  • It opens up a whole new set of binding sites for the estrogen receptor that now work in conjunction with the progesterone receptor. (newswise.com)
  • Our data further suggest that, despite the historical bias toward the effects of estrogen on the estrogen receptor, it's the progesterone receptor that dominantly controls estrogen receptor activity when both receptors are present and activated. (newswise.com)
  • These findings," the authors note, "emphasize the clinical value of assessing both progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor expression in breast cancer samples. (newswise.com)
  • Not only is the progesterone receptor an "essential modulator of estrogen-receptor-regulated genes," but it also significantly contributes to the "prognostic value of estrogen receptors in ER+/PR+ breast cancers. (newswise.com)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Rather than protecting against all breast cancers, high levels of soy food consumption appears to specifically reduce the risk of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative tumors, Japanese researchers report in the International Journal of Cancer. (reuters.com)
  • Estrogen receptor downregulators, called ERDs for short, block the effects of estrogen in breast tissue. (breastcancer.org)
  • If an ERD is in the estrogen receptor, there is no room for estrogen and it can't attach to the cell. (breastcancer.org)
  • Tamoxifen is the oldest and most-prescribed selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). (breastcancer.org)
  • A Nuclear G Protein-coupled Estrogen Receptor, GPER. (rsc.org)
  • Acetylcholine receptors are ion channels that span the postsynaptic membrane, and they have extracellular, intramembranous, and cytoplasmic portions. (britannica.com)
  • 6. How does Cell surface Receptor elicits its action: Cell Membrane Unbound Endogenous Activator (Agonist) of Receptor Inactive Cell Surface Receptor Extracellular Compartment Intracellular Compartment N.B : Receptors are Present in equilibrium state of active and inactive conformation. (slideshare.net)
  • The immune fluorescence (IF) method allows the visualization of GPCRs in living cell membranes, and utilizes either antibodies that are targeted against the extracellular receptor domains or an N-terminal epitope tag. (news-medical.net)
  • The extracellular matrix protein vitronectin is recognized as an adhesive substrate by cells expressing at least one of four known vitronectin receptors: integrins alpha v beta 1, alpha v beta 3, alpha v beta 5 or alpha IIb beta 3. (nih.gov)
  • The extracellular parts of most human Fc receptors are composed of varying amounts (1-5) of immunoglobulin domains. (els.net)
  • Death receptors detect the presence of extracellular death signals and, in response, they rapidly ignite the cell's intrinsic apoptosis machinery. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hence, fluorescent assays can be developed that not only read out the localization of the receptor, but also report on conformational changes involved in sensing the environment and transducing extracellular signals to the cells' interior. (innovations-report.com)
  • Therefore, a common property of CB1 and CB2 receptors is the ability to modulate the continuous release of diverse chemical messengers - CB1 receptors from neurons and CB2 receptors from immune cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Neurons and glia, including immune cells, integrate a functional network that uses several serotonin receptors to regulate their roles in this particular part of the limbic system. (hindawi.com)
  • Nicotinic cholinergic receptors stimulate sympathetic postganglionic neurons, adrenal chromaffin cells, and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons to release their chemicals. (britannica.com)
  • 1998) Presynaptic and postsynaptic localization of GABAB receptors in neurons of the rat retina. (els.net)
  • Mintz IM and Bean PB (1993) GABAB receptor inhibition of P‐type Ca2+ channels in central neurons. (els.net)
  • Glutamate acts on postsynaptic glutamate receptors to mediate excitatory communication between neurons. (mendeley.com)
  • In a project that is also at home at the two sites of the SFB, the neurologist from Jena, Professor Christian Geis and the biophysicist PD Dr. Sören Doose examine the molecular mechanisms of an encephalitis, where patients form autoantibodies against a glutamate receptor in the cell membrane of neurons. (innovations-report.com)
  • The Metabotropic glutamate-like receptor (mGluRs) family consists of 15 metabotropic receptors that are attached to the cell membrane via their associated G protein. (news-medical.net)
  • GABA B receptors modulate synaptic transmission and are structurally related to the metabotropic glutamate receptors. (els.net)
  • 1997) Expression cloning of GABAB receptors uncovers similarity to metabotropic glutamate receptors. (els.net)
  • We compare the physiological roles of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors in short- and long-term regulation of synaptic transmission. (mendeley.com)
  • No sequence homology with other seven transmembrane spanning receptors was observed, although 20% similarity to metabotropic glutamate receptors was noted. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • With their quick-fire means of function, ionotropic receptors are in contrast with metabotropic receptors. (wisegeek.com)
  • Metabotropic receptors send their biological messages through the cell using a somewhat slower diffusion of chemicals throughout the body of the cell in which the receptor is located. (wisegeek.com)
  • One example of a metabotropic receptor is the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, a receptor charged with regulating the distribution of acetylcholine in the body, as well as other tasks within the body and brain . (wisegeek.com)
  • In contrast, metabotropic receptors do not have channels and work in a more indirect fashion through G-protein coupled receptors. (dana.org)
  • Recent data demonstrates that these are the prototypes of a large family of receptors for small lipophilic signaling molecules including steroid hormone, fat soluble vitamins fatty acid metabolites and cholesterol metabolites. (slideshare.net)
  • By identifying molecules that can activate or block this receptor, we could change the course of prostate cancer," senior study author Dr. Hiroaki Matsunami, a professor of molecular genetics and microbiology at Duke's School of Medicine, said in a press release . (upi.com)
  • The researchers believe blocking the receptor with specific molecules or even with specific scents could provide a new way to treat prostate cancer. (upi.com)
  • Some molecules that transmit signals from death receptors contain death domains themselves. (sciencemag.org)
  • Membrane receptors are participating as important switching molecules in almost all biological processes. (innovations-report.com)
  • [ii] In any one synapse, there may be hundreds of molecules moving between cells and making alterations to the action potential by interacting with different receptor types. (dana.org)
  • An expanding family of immune inhibitory receptors can be identified by a consensus amino acid sequence, the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), present in the cytoplasmic domain of these molecules ( 2 , 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The complement system, interacting with its regulatory molecules and cellular receptors, plays a central role in the induction and regulation of immunity. (medscape.com)
  • The research suggests that treatment strategies that modulate the activity of glucocorticoids and the androgen receptor-perhaps in combination-may help combat obesity. (redorbit.com)
  • Non-signaling co-receptors also modulate VEGF RTK signaling. (nature.com)
  • Endocannabinoids both act in the brain to increase appetite and also modulate taste receptors on the tongue to increase the response to sweets," said study senior author Dr Yuzo Ninomiya, Professor of Oral Neuroscience in the Graduate School of Dental Sciences at Kyushu University in Japan. (medindia.net)
  • LT receptors may couple, albeit not exclusively, via G i to inhibit adenylate cyclase, and G q/11 to modulate inositol phospholipid hydrolysis and calcium mobilization. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • From the detailed analysis of some inhibitory receptor systems, a central paradigm has emerged in which the pairing of activation and inhibition is necessary to modulate immune responses ( 1-3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Chemical receptors, or chemoreceptors , are sensitive to substances taken into the mouth (taste or gustatory receptors), inhaled through the nose (smell or olfactory receptors), or found in the body itself (detectors of glucose or of acid-base balance in the blood). (britannica.com)
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Olfactory Receptors - 2 in minutes with SmartDraw. (smartdraw.com)
  • The odorant must possess certain molecular properties-it must be water soluble and have high vapor pressure and low polarity-in order to interact with the olfactory receptors and produce signals that can be interpreted as odor. (smartdraw.com)
  • The human genome encodes around 800 individual G coupled protein receptors, of which the olfactory receptors constitute a major segment (nearly 460 GPCRs). (news-medical.net)
  • Lead author Dr. Tatjana Abaffy, a research assistant professor working with Matsunami, studied the olfactory receptors outside the nose. (upi.com)
  • currently, 13% of FDA-approved drugs target nuclear receptors. (rsc.org)
  • This meeting will address the new roles and novel crosstalk mechanisms that are emerging for many of the 48 human nuclear receptors, in health and disease. (rsc.org)
  • Steroid receptors of the nuclear receptor family are all transcription factors . (google.com)
  • Nuclear hormone receptors in chordates. (google.com)
  • Nuclear receptor is also called as true receptors which involved in increase or decrease in the production of certain RNAs and mRNA along with corresponding enzyme and protein. (slideshare.net)
  • It has been almost 30 years since the first human nuclear receptor (NR) disorders were characterized at the molecular level ( Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • LabRoots will host the webinar on May 22, in which attendees will learn from data demonstrating that animals models lacking particular nuclear receptor genes appear to demonstrate suppression of basal expression levels of specific drug metabolism genes. (prweb.com)
  • The nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are closely related transcription factors that regulate the expression of Phase I (Cytochrome P450s), Phase II drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporter genes in response to stimulation from xenobiotics including prescription drugs. (prweb.com)
  • Whereas, the expression of phase I and II enzymes and transporter genes were not upregulated by nuclear receptor-specific agonists in the knockout rats, confirming the disruption of respective nuclear receptor(s). (prweb.com)
  • This invention relates to receptors, particularly nuclear hormone receptors. (google.com)
  • The Experimental 3D Structure of Nuclear Receptors. (rsc.org)
  • The aim of this book is to provide a state of the art review on investigations into Nuclear Receptors. (rsc.org)
  • Nicotinic receptors are a type of acetylcholine receptor , which can also be called a cholinergic receptor. (wisegeek.com)
  • The muscarinic receptor and the nicotinic receptor are the two major types of cholinergic receptor, another name for an acetylcholine receptor. (wisegeek.com)
  • A decoy receptor is a receptor that is able to recognize and bind specific growth factors or cytokines efficiently, but is not structurally able to signal or activate the intended receptor complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decoy receptors are being designed that bind to Gas6 and prevent Axl activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the few cases where it has been possible to characterize these receptors pharmacologically, they have been found to bind a broad spectrum of either CC chemokines, US28 from human cytomegalovirus, or CXC chemokines, ORF74 from human herpesvirus 8. (nih.gov)
  • The finding makes sense because androgens such as testosterone, which bind to androgen receptors, are known to favorably direct muscle differentiation, regulate muscle mass, and increase lean body mass as humans age. (redorbit.com)
  • For example, when a mast cell within the body encounters an allergen, specialized receptors on the mast cell bind to the allergen, resulting in the release of histamine by the mast cell. (dictionary.com)
  • Better understanding of the driving forces for eating and overeating could lead to interventions to stem the burgeoning rise in obesity and related diseases," he added.hey are produced in the brain and body, and bind with cannabinoid receptors to help regulate appetite and many other processes involved in health and disease. (medindia.net)
  • Cholecystokinin receptors or CCK receptors are a group of G-protein coupled receptors which bind the peptide hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin . (rug.nl)
  • These cytokines bind and activate their respective receptors to promote inflammatory responses. (qiagen.com)
  • The conventional receptors in this P box-defined subgroup include those that bind estrogen, vitamin D, T3 and RA, and nearly all of the orphan receptors identified to date also fall into this class. (google.com)
  • As a consequence of this overlap in binding specificity, many hormone response elements can bind more than one type of receptor. (google.com)
  • Are you sure you want to remove Hormone receptors from your list? (openlibrary.org)
  • Although significant advances have been made in the purification, characterization, immunochemistry and molecular biology of steroid receptors, the precise molecular mechanism of steroid hormone action has remained obscure. (worldcat.org)
  • And plant cell receptors are also in the focus of scientists: Würzburg plant scientists professor Rainer Hedrich and Professor Dietmar Geiger are researching the switching behaviour of receptors of the dry stress hormone which regulates the stomata, by means of high-resolution fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer. (innovations-report.com)
  • Hormone receptors are like ears or antennae on a cell. (breastcancer.org)
  • Most mammalian muscles abound with sensory receptors that subserve a variety of mechanoreceptive, thermoreceptive, ergoreceptive, and nociceptive functions. (springer.com)
  • Hazan Z, Stuart DG (1984): Mammalian muscle receptors. (springer.com)
  • Stuart D.G. (1988) Muscle Receptors, Mammalian. (springer.com)
  • To date, three mammalian cognate receptor genes, lp(A1)/vzg-1/Edg2, lp(A2)/Edg4, and lp(A3)/Edg7, have been identified that encode high-affinity LPA receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Misgeld U, Bijak M and Jarolimek W (1995) A physiological role for GABAB receptors and the effects of baclofen in the mammalian central nervous system. (els.net)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 , wherein said CAR receptor polypeptide is mammalian. (google.com)
  • Repression of target genes by unliganded wild-type receptor maintains a normal hair growth cycle, and the loss of such inhibition that accompanies a subset of VDR mutants (right) is thought to mediate this variable phenotype. (jci.org)
  • As such, much effort is focussed on identifying which single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variations in Fc receptor genes are linked with disease and understanding of how these affect therapeutic options. (els.net)
  • Rearrangements in certain parts of their DNA called receptor genes are a normal part of their development. (labtestsonline.org)
  • The Human Inflammatory Cytokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes mediating the inflammatory response. (qiagen.com)
  • The Mouse Inflammatory Cytokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes mediating the inflammatory response. (qiagen.com)
  • The Rat Inflammatory Cytokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes mediating the inflammatory response. (qiagen.com)
  • Females with depression, Sodhi discovered, had the highest levels of expression of several glutamate receptor genes, perhaps making them more prone to depression. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Matsumoto, T. & Claesson-Welsh, L. VEGF receptor signal transduction. (nature.com)
  • Examples of progress in radionuclide receptor imaging for 3 receptor systems- steroid receptors, somatostatin receptors, and growth factor receptors-are highlighted, and recent investigations of receptor imaging with other molecular imaging modalities are reviewed. (redorbit.com)
  • This discussion is followed by highlights of recent work in the imaging of steroid receptors, somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), and growth factor receptors, as examples of 3 different types of tumor receptors. (redorbit.com)
  • 1997) Pharmacologically distinct GABAB receptors that mediate inhibition of GABA and glutamate release in human neocortex. (els.net)
  • Death domains typically enable death receptors to engage the cell's apoptotic machinery, but in some instances they mediate functions that are distinct from or even counteract apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Abnormal dopamine receptor signaling and dopaminergic nerve function is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biological effects of VEGF are mediated by two receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, which differ considerably in signaling properties. (nature.com)
  • The contribution of different androgen receptor domains to receptor dimerization and signaling. (springer.com)
  • Class E of the GPCR constitutes cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) receptors from a protozoan amoeba ( Dictyostelium discoideum ) that is involved in several chemotaxis signaling systems. (news-medical.net)
  • 2006) Signaling through mutants of the IgA receptor CD89 and consequences for Fc receptor gamma‐chain interaction. (els.net)
  • Bound by Fate: Reactive Oxygen Species in Receptor-Like Kinase Signaling. (helsinki.fi)
  • In Chemokine Receptors, leading investigators attempt to distill the large body of literature ranging from basic molecular and cellular mechanism of chemokine receptors, to physiological and pathological roles of chemokines. (springer.com)
  • The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion, cellular reprogramming, tissue targeting or for cell entry. (nih.gov)
  • Through their efficient evolutionary machinery and through in vivo selection performed directly on the human cellular and molecular targets, virus have been able to optimize the encoded receptors for distinct pharmacological profiles to help in various parts of the viral life cyclus. (nih.gov)
  • The primary cellular receptor for HIV is CD4, but this molecule is insufficient to permit viral fusion. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, TV is considered an excellent surrogate for studying huNoV-host interactions, particularly for understanding the process of viral attachment and entry into host cells through interaction with cellular receptors and/or co-receptors. (nature.com)
  • Receptors for the Fc region of immunoglobulins (Igs) play a central role during an immune response as they link humoral responses to cellular activities. (els.net)
  • Fc receptors link the humoral and cellular arms of the immune system. (els.net)
  • Cellular activities may be triggered by Fc receptor α chains independent of FcR γ chains. (els.net)
  • When bound to their cognate receptors, interferons (IFNs) induce cellular resistance to viral infection. (sciencemag.org)
  • Acetylcholine receptors (also called cholinergic receptors) appear in clusters on muscle-cell membranes opposite the active zones of presynaptic terminals. (britannica.com)
  • Cholinergic receptors (receptors binding acetylcholine) also are found in the sympathetic system (as well as the parasympathetic system). (britannica.com)
  • Cholinergic receptors are a type of autonomic receptor that are activated by ACh, which mainly work on organs and vital processes like the digestive and cardiovascular systems. (wisegeek.com)
  • Endogenous agonists specific for cannabinoid receptors are all eicosanoids. (news-medical.net)
  • A corticoid receptor and a progesterone receptor evolved in cyclostomes, and an androgen receptor evolved in gnathostomes. (google.com)
  • In the June 24 issue of Science Advances , however, researchers radically upgrade the significance of the progesterone receptor. (newswise.com)
  • Soy intake was not significantly associated with HER2-positive or ER-negative tumors, or with the presence or absence of the progesterone receptor (PR). (reuters.com)
  • Presynaptic glutamate receptors: physiological functions and mechanisms of action. (mendeley.com)
  • So while areas like the basal ganglia, an area linked to risk and reward processing, show a high density of dopamine receptors and the neocortex, the brain region responsible for sensory processing and executive fuction, has a wealth of glutamate receptors, you can find various receptor types spread across the brain. (dana.org)
  • Advances in the Biosciences, Volume 82: Presynaptic Receptors and Neuronal Transporters documents the proceedings of the Official Satellite Symposium to the IUPHAR 1990 Congress held in Rouen, France on June 26-29, 1990. (elsevier.com)
  • This compilation concludes with insights on the function of presynaptic receptors and neuronal transporters both in the periphery and in the CNS, as well as their ubiquitous locations and physiological roles. (elsevier.com)
  • Decoy receptors participate in a common methods of signal inhibition and are also abundant in malignant tissues, making up a significant topic in cancer research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a custom-developed image analysis software platform usually found only in large pharmaceutical screening centers, we applied specific algorithms to sensitively detect the glucocorticoid inhibition of androgen receptor activity," says Dr. Mancini. (redorbit.com)
  • Crunelli V and Leresche N (1991) A role for GABAB receptors in excitation and inhibition of thalamorcortical cells. (els.net)
  • Knowing that mixtures of saccharin and cyclamate exert reduced bitterness compared to the single compounds raised the question [of] whether this might be due to mutual inhibition of bitter taste receptor responses," Behrens says. (idw-online.de)
  • For the time being, it remains unclear whether the components of other sweetener blends also show mutual inhibition of bitter taste receptors. (idw-online.de)
  • Once the activation and inhibition profiles of the 25 human bitter taste receptors have been investigated in great detail, it will be possible to tailor the composition of mixtures to develop novel sweetener formulations and to improve the taste of medicine," Meyerhof says. (idw-online.de)
  • Now researchers reporting in the September issue of the Cell Press Journal Chemistry & Biology have discovered that naturally occurring steroids called glucocorticoids can thwart the receptors' activity, ultimately encouraging fat buildup. (redorbit.com)
  • Lamb DJ, Weigel NL, Marcelli M. Androgen receptors and their biology. (springer.com)
  • A study published September 14th in the journal Cell Chemical Biology solves this long-standing mystery, revealing that saccharin inhibits the activity of bitter taste receptors stimulated by cyclamate and, conversely, that cyclamate reduces the off-taste elicited by saccharin. (idw-online.de)
  • Kenneth Korach, Ph.D. leads the Receptor Biology Group. (nih.gov)
  • Starting from the characterization of a crk T-DNA insertion collection and the transcriptional regulation of the CRKs we are now addressing the molecular biology of these receptors. (helsinki.fi)
  • This led Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology members Jens Meiler and Heidi Hamm and their laboratories to combine the crystal structure with experimental data to develop a dynamic model of the G-protein-receptor interaction [N. S. Alexander, et al. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Receptors can result in both direct and indirect effects on synaptic transmission, depending on the receptor type. (dana.org)
  • Androgen receptor-mediated non-genomic regulation of prostate cancer cell proliferation. (springer.com)
  • Transcriptional regulation of the CRK/DUF26 group of Receptor-like protein kinases by ozone and plant hormones in Arabidopsis. (helsinki.fi)
  • Both pharmacological and genetic approaches to the analysis of 5-HT(2C) receptor function reveal that it contributes substantially to the serotonergic regulation of a wide variety of behavioral and physiological processes. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Further evidence for a role of these receptors in affect regulation arises from recent findings that alterations in 5-HT(2C) mRNA editing are observed in the brains of suicide victims with a history of depression and in animals exposed to antidepressant drug treatment. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Finally, we will review a growing body of evidence indicating a role of 5-HT(2C) receptors in the serotonergic regulation of energy balance. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • In the hypothalamus, the binding of leptin to its receptor triggers a series of chemical signals that affect hunger and help produce a feeling of fullness (satiety). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fc receptor ITAM and ITIM motifs transmit opposite signals to control leucocyte activation. (els.net)
  • The activated receptor then transmits signals to the cell cytoplasm and/or nucleus, thereby effectuating migration and proliferation. (google.ca)
  • Estrogen sends signals through the receptors that tell breast cancer cells to grow. (breastcancer.org)
  • They induced depression in mice, which were then treated with either the antidepressant amitriptyline or a nicotine receptor blocker for three to four weeks. (yaledailynews.com)
  • In addition, when augmented with a nicotine receptor blocker, the short term administration of an antidepressant also improved the behavior of the mice, said Picciotto. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Picciotto's lab then engineered mice without nicotine receptors and found that these mice did not respond to either the antidepressant or nicotine receptor blockers. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Slesinger PA, Stoffel M, Jan YN and Jan LY (1997) Defective γ‐amino butyric acid type B receptor‐activated inwardly rectifying K+ currents in cerebellar granule cells isolated from weaver and GIRK2 null mutant mice. (els.net)
  • Numerous studies using cloned leukotriene receptors and genetically engineered mice have unveiled new pathophysiological roles for leukotrienes. (jci.org)
  • In experiments using human and mouse lung tissue and mice with asthma, they found stimulating these receptors in the lungs with bitter substances decreased airway obstruction. (abc.net.au)
  • However, the effects were abolished when the experiments were repeated using knockout mice lacking the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. (medindia.net)
  • Correlated with these results are findings that mice lacking NMDA receptors in CA1 have severely impaired spatial learning and memory. (alzforum.org)
  • In the current paper, Tsien and his coauthors show that mice whose CA1 NMDA receptors have been selectively knocked out also have deficits in nonspatial memory formation such as object recognition, olfactory discrimination, and contextual fear memories. (alzforum.org)
  • So, Martemyanov and colleagues examined the behavior of this brain receptor in mice that had been subjected to chronic stress . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Mice with C5a receptor-deficient dendritic cells promote induction of Treg and Th17 cells. (medscape.com)
  • Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • The D 1 and D 5 receptors are members of the D 1 -like family of dopamine receptors, whereas the D 2 , D 3 and D 4 receptors are members of the D 2 -like family . (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also some evidence that suggests the existence of possible D 6 and D 7 dopamine receptors, but such receptors have not been conclusively identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maximum expression of dopamine D 3 receptors is noted in the islands of Calleja and nucleus accumbens . (wikipedia.org)
  • Dopamine receptors have been shown to heterodimerize with a number of other G protein-coupled receptors . (wikipedia.org)
  • Dopamine receptor D 1 and Dopamine receptor D 5 are G s coupled receptors that stimulate adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP , increasing intracellular calcium among other cAMP mediated processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dopamine receptor activation of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II can be cAMP dependent or independent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from the ACh that triggers nicotinic receptors, other types of neurotransmitters include serotonin , dopamine , and norepinephrine. (wisegeek.com)
  • While the antipsychotic drugs then permitted the discovery of dopamine receptors, the cloned dopamine receptors are now in turn facilitating the search and discovery of more selective antipsychotic drugs and antiparkinson drugs. (acnp.org)
  • All five known and cloned dopamine receptors fall into these two classes. (acnp.org)
  • The pseudogenes are so named because they code for incomplete forms of the dopamine D5 receptor, wherein the protein stops at 154 amino acids instead of an expected full-length dopamine D5 receptor of 477 amino acids. (acnp.org)
  • There are three types of dopamine D2-like receptors: D2, D3 and D4. (acnp.org)
  • Dutar P and Nicoll RA (1988) A physiological role for GABAB receptors in the central nervous system. (els.net)
  • These cutting-edge techniques cover mining from curated databases, identifying novel receptors by high throughput screening, molecular methods to identify mRNA encoding receptors, radioligand. (google.com)
  • Chang CS, Kokontis J, Liao ST. Molecular cloning of human and rat complementary DNA encoding androgen receptors. (springer.com)
  • Second, because AT 2 receptors clearly induce vasodilation in younger animals, what is the molecular switch that converts agonist activation of AT 2 receptors from vasodilator to vasoconstrictor during the aging process? (ahajournals.org)
  • The first indication of the structure of the GABA B receptor emerged in 1997 when Bettler and colleagues identified a large molecular weight (130 kDa), seven transmembrane spanning receptor protein, GABA B1 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • But in addition to stimulating sweet taste receptors, sugar substitutes also activate bitter taste receptors (known as TAS2Rs) at high concentrations, resulting in an undesired off-taste. (idw-online.de)
  • A clue to this mystery came when Behrens and his team discovered that some bitter compounds not only activate a subset of the 25 human bitter taste receptors, but also can inhibit different bitter taste receptors. (idw-online.de)
  • To explore this possibility, Behrens and senior author Wolfgang Meyerhof of the German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke expressed various human taste receptors in human cells and tested their responses to different concentrations of saccharin and cyclamate. (idw-online.de)
  • Using this cell-based system, they discovered that cyclamate strongly inhibits the saccharin-induced activation of two bitter taste receptors called TAS2R31 and TAS2R43. (idw-online.de)
  • I initially thought the bitter-taste receptors in the lungs would prompt a 'fight or flight' response to a noxious inhalant, causing chest tightness and coughing so you would leave the toxic environment, but that's not what we found," says Liggett. (abc.net.au)
  • Use these social-bookmarking links to share Taste receptors found in lungs . (abc.net.au)
  • They found that endocannabinoids, substances similar to THC, the active ingredient in marijuana, act directly on taste receptors on the tongue to enhance sweet taste. (medindia.net)
  • International Symposium on Hormonal Receptors in Digestive Tract Physiology Royaumont, France 1976. (openlibrary.org)
  • International Symposium on Hormonal Receptors in Digestive Tract Physiology Montpellier, France 1979. (openlibrary.org)
  • Wojcik JW and Holopainen I (1992) Role of central GABAB receptors in physiology and pathology. (els.net)
  • There are thousands of non-toxic, bitter compounds that are known to activate these receptors, the scientists say. (abc.net.au)
  • 12. A receptor as claimed in claim 1 wherein the sensing means is connected to automatically activate said monitoring device when said finger is properly positioned in said channel. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/851818705 Title: Steroid Receptors in Health and Disease Author: Virinder K Moudgil Publisher: Boston, MA : Springer US, 1988. (worldcat.org)
  • Finally, we summarise what is known about the chemokine receptors in teleosts and provide some analysis using recently available data to help characterise them more clearly. (mdpi.com)
  • Link to a stereo view of a steroid receptor complex bound to its response element. (google.com)
  • vitamin D ..." "... receptors for the classic steroid hormones (glucocorticoid, progesterone, aldosterone, androgen, and estrogen) appeared more recently in evolutionary time. (google.com)
  • Origin of the response to adrenal and sex steroids: Roles of promiscuity and co-evolution of enzymes and steroid receptors. (google.com)
  • This book captures the detailed presentations made at the first conference on Steroid Receptors in Health and Disease held at Meadow Brook Hall, Oakland University in the fall of 1987. (worldcat.org)
  • If you can reduce glucocorticoids, you might be able to upregulate, or increase, androgen receptor activity and regulate fat storage. (redorbit.com)
  • The approach showed that the androgen receptor is both expressed and functional during the early stages of fat cell differentiation. (redorbit.com)
  • Activation of the androgen receptor can inhibit the early stages of human fat maturation," says first author Dr. Sean Hartig, also from Baylor College of Medicine. (redorbit.com)
  • The researchers also found that glucocorticoids decrease androgen receptor activity and alter the effects of androgens on fat storage. (redorbit.com)
  • Caffo O, Maines F, Veccia A, Kinspergher S, Galligioni E. Splice variants of androgen receptor and prostate cancer. (springer.com)
  • Alternatively spliced androgen receptor variants. (springer.com)
  • Post-translational modification of the androgen receptor. (springer.com)
  • Koryakina Y, Ta HQ, Gioeli D. Androgen receptor phosphorylation: biological context and functional consequences. (springer.com)
  • Kumar R, Atamna H, Zakharov MN, Bhasin S, Khan SH, Jasuja R. Role of the androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism in prostate cancer, and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. (springer.com)
  • Cloning of human androgen receptor complementary DNA and localization to the X chromosome. (springer.com)
  • A soluble androgen receptor in the cytoplasm of rat prostate. (springer.com)
  • The androgen receptor in health and disease. (springer.com)
  • Maintaining and reprogramming genomic androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer. (springer.com)
  • Shukla GC, Plaga AR, Shankar E, Gupta S. Androgen receptor-related diseases: what do we know? (springer.com)
  • During 1996, the necessary entry co-factors (co-receptors or second receptors) were identified as being members of the seven-transmembrane-spanning receptor family fusin: CXCR4 for T-tropic strains and CCR5, principally, for M-tropic strains. (nih.gov)
  • This class constitutes about 20 distinct, highly diverged protein receptors that are specific for peptide pheromones. (news-medical.net)
  • GRI is processed by proteases and the resulting peptide is perceived by a receptor-like kinase. (helsinki.fi)
  • Tumor receptor imaging offers complementary information that includes evaluation of the entire tumor burden and characterization of the heterogeneity of tumor receptor expression. (redorbit.com)
  • While the role of the better characterized conventional receptors in regulating important processes in developing and adult individuals is becoming clearer, the function of the orphan receptors has been uncertain. (google.com)
  • So-called orphan brain receptors may explain why some people develop depression after a traumatic event. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 3,4 In capacitance vessels, Ang II binding to the AT 2 receptor activates the BK B 2 receptor, stimulating the phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase at its serine 633 and serine 1177 residues by a protein kinase A-dependent mechanism, inducing NO generation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Though muscarinic receptors primarily respond to muscarine, they do also respond to nicotine to a lesser degree. (wisegeek.com)
  • It acts as a decoy receptor for TNF cytokine members: FasL, LIGHT, and TL1A, inhibiting the ability of the cytokines to signal for cell death or apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Figure 2: Role of the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases in different cell types. (nature.com)
  • Attachment to a host cell receptor is the first, essential step for a virus to initiate a successful infection. (nature.com)
  • In these time-lapse videos of an invading C. elegans anchor cell, 60 images taken over an hour show cell receptors and their associated actin filaments moving around the cell surface in search of the missing signal that will tell the cell where to go. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers have found a cell receptor responsible for the sense of smell plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression. (upi.com)
  • May 31 (UPI) -- A cell receptor responsible for the sense of smell plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression, according to a study. (upi.com)
  • The receptor then changes its chemical form and therefore its properties and thus gives the starting signal for other signal or material transports in the cell. (innovations-report.com)
  • A receptor is a part of a cell that attaches to certain chemicals in a process called binding, which triggers the cell to react within the body. (wisegeek.com)
  • Methods and compositions are provided for treating several acute disease states associated with smooth muscle cell proliferation as well as the chronic process of atherogenesis utilizing oligopeptides corresponding to regions of the PDGF receptor protein. (google.ca)
  • 5. A pharmaceutical formulation comprising a blocking oligopeptide according to claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 in combination with a pharmaceutically-acceptable carrier, wherein the blocking oligopeptide is present in an amount sufficient to inhibit smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation by interfering with the binding of platelet-derived growth factor to the platelet-derived growth factor receptor. (google.ca)
  • PDGF acts by binding to and activating a specific cell surface receptor. (google.ca)
  • The density of CR1 receptors on cell surfaces varies with the cell type and with the activation of the cell for neutrophils and monocytes. (medscape.com)
  • CR1 and CR2 have been shown to influence the immune environment in a B-cell receptor-independent manner. (medscape.com)
  • T cell receptors are likewise formed from constant and variable domains. (washington.edu)
  • In this case, we are looking at domains from a T cell receptor. (washington.edu)
  • What secondary structure is characteristic of the antigen binding domains of a T cell receptor? (washington.edu)
  • Anandamide behaves as a partial agonist of cannabinoid receptors with slightly greater CB1 than CB2 affinity, but with much lower CB2 than CB1 efficacy . (news-medical.net)
  • The cannabinoid receptor agonists that have been used extensively in pharmacological experiments show equal binding affinity for both CB1 and CB2 receptors, or show merely marginal CB1 or CB2 selectivity. (news-medical.net)
  • Significant attention has focused on the 5-HT(2C) receptor subtype, which is abundantly expressed throughout the central nervous system and displays high-affinity interactions with a wide variety of psychiatric medications. (biopsychiatry.com)