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  • agonist
  • The D 2 Lh form may function as a classical post-synaptic receptor, i.e., transmit information (in either an excitatory or an inhibitory fashion) unless blocked by a receptor antagonist or a synthetic partial agonist . (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor was first named the "quisqualate receptor" by Watkins and colleagues after a naturally occurring agonist quisqualate and was only later given the label "AMPA receptor" after the selective agonist developed by Tage Honore and colleagues at the Royal Danish School of Pharmacy in Copenhagen. (wikipedia.org)
  • An optical section of the fluorescent receptors is obtained by epifluorescence confocal microscopy from insulin‐treated (a), untreated (b) and β‐adrenergic agonist‐treated (c) cells. (els.net)
  • Hadcock JR and Malbon CC (1988) Down‐regulation of beta‐adrenergic receptors: agonist‐induced reduction in receptor mRNA levels. (els.net)
  • Kallal L, Gagnon AW, Penn RB and Benovic JL (1998) Visualization of agonist‐induced sequestration and down‐regulation of a green fluorescent protein‐tagged beta2‐adrenergic receptor. (els.net)
  • 2004) Characterization of agonist stimulation of cAMP‐dependent protein kinase and G protein‐coupled receptor kinase phosphorylation of the beta2‐adrenergic receptor using phosphoserine‐specific antibodies. (els.net)
  • Molecular cloning of leukotactin-1: a novel human beta-chemokine, a chemoattractant for neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, and a potent agonist at CC chemokine receptors 1 and 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • The critical survey and synthesis offered by The P2 Nucleotide Receptors lays a strong foundation for future work on P2 receptors-some no doubt yet to be cloned-as well as for establishing conclusively the identity of the cloned P2 receptor subtype(s) involved in the varied physiologic effects of extracellular nucleotides. (springer.com)
  • The extracellular parts of most human Fc receptors are composed of varying amounts (1-5) of immunoglobulin domains. (els.net)
  • The rhodopsin-like GPCRs themselves represent a widespread protein family that includes hormones, neurotransmitters, and light receptors, all of which transduce extracellular signals through interaction with guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 3D crystallographic structures of the seven transmembrane helical domain (7TM) and the extracellular domain (ECD) and an electron microscopy (EM) map of full length glucagon receptor have been determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • similarity
  • However it was subsequently found that it shares little sequence similarity with the other opioid receptors, and has quite different function. (wikipedia.org)
  • This molecule was originally designated CCR11 due to its ability to bind several CC chemokines (including CCL19, CCL21 and CCL25) and its structural similarity to chemokine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCR6 was formerly called three different names (STRL33, BONZO, and TYMSTR) before being assigned CXCR6 based on its chromosomal location (within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, while a similar 3D framework has been proposed to account for this, there is no significant sequence similarity between these families: the cAMP receptors thus bear their own unique '7TM' signature. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are around 55 to 110 kDa and some studies have found them to react with animal anti-β1 antibodies suggesting the structural similarity between animal integrins and these plant integrin-like receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • Their authoritative contributions cover the major aspects of these receptors, describing the relationships between the physiological and pharmacological effects of ATP and other nucleotides and the various cloned P2 receptors, as well as providing an historical perspective and discussing current issues of nomenclature. (springer.com)
  • chemokine receptor
  • To date, ten true members of the CC chemokine receptor subfamily have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is some suggestion that this chemokine receptor is restricted to memory T-cells within the lymphocyte pool. (wikipedia.org)
  • To note, the chemokine binding protein D6 had previously been named CCR9, but this molecule is a scavenger receptor not a true (signaling) chemokine receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is expressed on B cells and CD4+ Tfh cells and is involved in lymphocyte homing and the development of normal lymphoid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural
  • Structural model of GABA B receptors. (els.net)
  • Furthermore, the structural dynamics of an active state complex of the Glucagon receptor, Glucagon, the Receptor activity-modifying protein, and the G-protein C-terminus has been determined using a computational and experimental approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Neurons and glia, including immune cells, integrate a functional network that uses several serotonin receptors to regulate their roles in this particular part of the limbic system. (hindawi.com)
  • Shumay E, Gavi S, Wang HY and Malbon CC (2004) Trafficking of beta2‐adrenergic receptors: insulin and beta‐agonists regulate internalisation by distinct cytoskeletal pathways. (els.net)
  • In D. discoideum, the cyclic AMP receptors coordinate aggregation of individual cells into a multicellular organism, and regulate the expression of a large number of developmentally-regulated genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • ionotropic
  • γ‐Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, signals through ionotropic (GABA A/C ) and metabotropic (GABA B ) receptor systems. (els.net)
  • localization
  • 1998) Presynaptic and postsynaptic localization of GABAB receptors in neurons of the rat retina. (els.net)
  • Localization of stimuli in the environment depends to a great extent on pairs of receptors, one on each side of the body. (britannica.com)
  • intracellular
  • The majority of these leucocyte Fc receptors exist as heterooligomeric complexes with unique ligand‐binding α chains and promiscuous accessory subunits involved in intracellular signal transduction. (els.net)
  • The ITAM can either be located on the intracellular part of the receptors (FcγRIIa and FcγRIIc) or on the associated γ chain (FcγRI, FcγRIIIa, FcɛRI and FcαRI). (els.net)
  • FcγRIIIb is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)‐linked activating receptor that has no intracellular tail. (els.net)
  • Bracke M, Lammers JW, Coffer PJ and Koenderman L (2001) Cytokine‐induced inside‐out activation of FcalphaR (CD89) is mediated by a single serine residue (S263) in the intracellular domain of the receptor. (els.net)
  • Stimulation of the receptor results in activation of adenylate cyclase and increased levels of intracellular cAMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The existence of a specific GHB receptor was predicted by observing the action of GHB and related compounds that primarily act on the GABA B receptor , but also exhibit a range of effects which were found not to be produced by GABA B activity, and so were suspected of being produced by a novel and at the time unidentified receptor target. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptors were first identified as specific molecules through the use of binding studies, in which opiates that had been labeled with radioisotopes were found to bind to brain membrane homogenates. (wikipedia.org)
  • AMPARs are found in many parts of the brain and are the most commonly found receptor in the nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical receptors, or chemoreceptors , are sensitive to substances taken into the mouth (taste or gustatory receptors), inhaled through the nose (smell or olfactory receptors), or found in the body itself (detectors of glucose or of acid-base balance in the blood). (britannica.com)
  • In humans, this receptor can be found on peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these receptors have been found in the walls of bronchi, the larynx, and the nose, they appear to be part of a widespread population of nociceptors found in most tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some β1 integrin-like receptors on the root caps of Tabaco plants are found to play a role in the plant's ability to detect gravitational pull and aid in root elongation in a process known as gravitropism. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACVR2B receptors were found to be localized in the rete testis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, melatonin receptors are found in the brain and some peripheral organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galanin receptors can be found throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems and the endocrine system. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • Slesinger PA, Stoffel M, Jan YN and Jan LY (1997) Defective γ‐amino butyric acid type B receptor‐activated inwardly rectifying K+ currents in cerebellar granule cells isolated from weaver and GIRK2 null mutant mice. (els.net)
  • Bowery NG, Kerr DIB and Ong J (1997) GABAB receptors: role and therapeutic implications in CNS disorders. (els.net)
  • 6-Hydroxymelatonin Agomelatine GR-196,429 Melatonin N-Acetylserotonin Piromelatine Ramelteon Tasimelteon TIK-301 (LY-156,735) Afobazole Luzindole Prazosin Discovery and development of melatonin receptor agonists Reppert SM (1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory
  • Integration of both activating and inhibitory signals occurs on Ig‐Fc engagement of Fc receptors. (els.net)
  • 2012) Both activating and inhibitory Fc gamma receptors mediate rituximab‐induced trogocytosis of CD20 in mice. (els.net)
  • kinases
  • Counterregulation by growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases and homologous desensitization by GRKs both stimulate the sequestration of β2‐AR. (els.net)
  • gene
  • The D 4 receptor gene displays polymorphisms that differ in a variable number tandem repeat present within the coding sequence of exon 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taken together, this indicates that the NOP receptor gene, OPRL1, has equal evolutionary origin, but a higher mutation rate, than the other receptor genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the glucagon receptor is encoded by the GCGR gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Shenoy SK, McDonal PH, Kohout TA and Lefkowitz RJ (2001) Regulation of receptor fate by ubiquitination of activated beta2‐adrenergic receptor and beta‐arrestin. (els.net)
  • Atrial
  • In addition, stretching of atrial receptors increases secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), which promotes increased water and sodium excretion through the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • It stores a manual annotation of all GPCR crystal structures, the largest collections of receptor mutants and reference sequence alignments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tools run directly in the web browser allowing for swift analysis of structures, sequence similarities, receptor relationships, homology models, drug trends, genetic variants and ligand target profiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1984
  • Wojcik WJ and Neff NH (1984) GABAB receptors are negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase and in the cerebellum these receptors may associate with granule cells. (els.net)
  • nomenclature
  • It crosslinks to GuideToPharmacology database and has adopted the official NC-IUPHAR receptor naming nomenclature, has exchange with GPCR servers, and has also recently become part of the GPCR Consortium set out to generate an unprecedented number of crystal structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • As the strength of a stimulus increases, the rate of change in electrical potential of the receptor increases, and the frequency of nerve impulse generation likewise increases. (britannica.com)
  • sequences
  • The core region has two zinc fingers that are responsible for recognizing the DNA sequences specific to this receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagrams illustrate receptor sequences (snake-plot and helix box diagrams) and relationships (phylogenetic trees). (wikipedia.org)