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  • inflammation
  • Involved in the recruitment of leukocytes to the sites of inflammation and is the major PAR receptor capable of modulating eosinophil function such as proinflammatory cytokine secretion, superoxide production and degranulation. (nih.gov)
  • mast
  • Allergen-specific IgE Abs bind to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI), poising the mast cell for activation and degranulation upon subsequent exposure to Ag. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mast cells (named Mastzellen by Paul Ehrlich in the late 1800s because of their appearance as "fattened well-fed cells") ( 2 ) have been ignored as major players in conventional, nonallergic immune responses until recently for a number of reasons. (jimmunol.org)
  • These cells exhibit some (but not all) characteristics of terminally differentiated tissue mast cells, including high expression of FcεRI and c- kit , the stem cell factor receptor, and the production of many mediators. (jimmunol.org)
  • Transient
  • Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) is a sensory neuron-specific cation channel that responds to capsaicin, protons, or heat stimulus. (jneurosci.org)
  • The capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1), a member of TRP ion channel super family, is a nonselective cation channel expressed predominantly in unmyelinated C-fibers ( Julius and Basbaum, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • inhibition
  • In summary, our findings suggest that inhibition of PAR 2 sensitizes EGFR-TKI-induced apoptosis via downregulation of bcl-xL in colorectal cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We addressed whether PAR-2 deficiency persistently reduces bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis or merely delays disease progression and whether pharmacological PAR-2 inhibition limits experimental pulmonary fibrosis. (springer.com)
  • expression
  • We now know that these cells can be stimulated by complement components, neuropeptides, and stress hormones and by both viral and bacterial pathogens through TLRs, resulting in the increased expression of cell surface molecules that can modulate T cell and dendritic cell (DC) 2 function (reviewed in Ref. 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Moreover, PAR-2 expression significantly correlates with the extent of honeycombing ( 18 ), and PAR-2 activation has been shown to be highly relevant to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis in experimental animal models of bleomycin-induced injury. (springer.com)
  • allergic
  • Here, we studied immediate changes in transepithelial short circuit current ( I sc ) induced by PAR-2 activation in the tracheas of naive and allergic mice. (springer.com)
  • In conclusion, basolateral PAR-2 activation in the mouse airways led to increased anion secretion through apical CaCC, which was more pronounced in allergic animals. (springer.com)
  • airways
  • Barro-Soria R, Schreiber R, Kunzelmann K (2008) Bestrophin 1 and 2 are components of the Ca(2+) activated Cl(−) conductance in mouse airways. (springer.com)
  • pathogenesis
  • With respect to lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis, there is increasing evidence that PAR-2 is a critical contributor in the pathogenesis of IPF. (springer.com)