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  • pathogens
  • and concurrently pathogens, including viruses, have developed a variety of ingenious strategies to interfere with the immune defense mechanisms and hence promote their persistence at the individual or population level. (springer.com)
  • This recognition leads to the expression of cytokines, chemokines and co-stimulatory molecules that eliminate pathogens like viruses for the activation of antigen presenting cells and for the activation of specific adaptive response [ 4 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • This ancient system, established about 1000 million years ago ( Nonaka and Kimura, 2006 ), has the ability to recognize and eliminate varied invading pathogens including viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Casali P, Rice GP, Oldstone MBA (1984) Viruses distrupt functions of human lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • Another two molecules of wide cellular distribution, DAF (CD55) and MCP (CD46), are expressed by lymphocytes to inactivate C3b- and C4b-containing C convertases deposited on their cell surface (reviewed in Ref. 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • ligands
  • using combinatorial biology approaches, novel ligands for receptors, which may have altered activities, that may serve as therapeutic starting points. (stanford.edu)
  • Induction of autophagy during microbial illness Several studies possess demonstrated the ability of microbial ligands to result in autophagy and autophagy-related pathways through activation of pattern acknowledgement receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) NPS-2143 [12- (flora2world.com)
  • gene
  • Adenoviruses are well suited to development as a virotherapy agent due to excellent stability, unparalleled infectivity, efficient gene transfer, and biologic plasticity compared to other viruses ( 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CD8-LV mediated stable in vitro and in vivo reporter gene transfer as well as efficient transfer of genes encoding TCRs recognizing the melanoma antigen tyrosinase. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Whereas TCR gene-modified T cells recognize peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC), CAR recognize antigen in an MHC-independent fashion. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Although clinical trials of several naturally-occurring oncolytic viruses were started back in the 1950s, it was only in 1991 that a herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) with deletion of its thymidine kinase UL23 gene became the first genetically-engineered, replication-selective oncolytic virus to be tested in the laboratory [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • CHO-Anti-Human CD46 MAb stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an Anti-human CD46 MAb gene to allow expression of the MAb. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Among the PRRs, there are Toll Like Receptors (TLRs) that can be either endosomal or extracellular [ 5 , 6 ] and retinoic acid-inducible gene- (RIG-)I/MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene) [ 7 ] known as RNA helicase-like receptors (RLRs). (intechopen.com)
  • IRE-1/XBP-1 promote cell survival and enhanced the levels of the adenoviral immediate early gene product E1A, virus spreading, and killing of cancer cells. (asm.org)
  • immune
  • To determine whether JNKs are involved in antiviral T cell immunity, and whether JNK1 and JNK2 bear biological differences, we investigated the immune responses of JNK1-deficient and JNK2-deficient mice to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). (jove.com)
  • Measles is an enormous problem in developing countries, where infections often occur in very young children with immature immune systems, many of whom are also malnourished, which further impairs their immune response to the virus. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • During the period of coexistence with their hosts, viruses have learned how to manipulate host immune control mechanism. (intechopen.com)
  • The present review will highlight the different complex mechanisms associated with the host immune evasion by the viruses with special reference to the Classical Swine Fever Virus. (intechopen.com)
  • The main sensors of the innate immune response are pattern recognition receptors (PRR) which can recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). (intechopen.com)
  • There are certain cellular components which are manipulated by viruses to evade the innate immune response. (intechopen.com)
  • Being a major first line of immune defense, the complement system keeps a constant vigil against viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Eventually the macrophage or DC mounts a primary antimicrobial NPS-2143 activity to get rid of the pathogen and could also procedure and present microbial antigens to teach the acquired immune system response. (flora2world.com)
  • strains
  • Attenuated strains of Measles Virus (MV) are now being used as oncolytic viruses in clinical trials to treat several types of cancer. (omicsonline.org)
  • During the current funding period of the Mayo Brain SPORE, our group was the first to demonstrate that engineered measles virus (MV) strains have significant antitumor activity against gliomas. (grantome.com)
  • In preclinical models, measles vaccine strains have potent antitumor activity against gliomas and demonstrate synergy with existing therapies. (grantome.com)
  • This application proposes to investigate strategies optimizing the use of measles vaccine strains as novel antitumor agents in the treatment of gliomas. (grantome.com)
  • oncolytic viruses
  • Targeted therapy of cancer using oncolytic viruses has generated much interest over the past few years in the light of the limited efficacy and side effects of standard cancer therapeutics for advanced disease. (mdpi.com)
  • Although encouraging results have been demonstrated in vitro and in animal models, most oncolytic viruses have failed to impress in the clinical setting. (mdpi.com)
  • Adenovirus H101 is now approved in China for the treatment of head and neck cancer, and several other oncolytic viruses, such as HSV, adenovirus, and reovirus have entered phase III clinical trials [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Cancer cells are susceptible to oncolytic viruses, albeit variably. (asm.org)
  • A wide range of oncolytic viruses show promise for killing cancer cells, yet the efficacy of oncolytic killing is low. (asm.org)
  • Treatment with oncolytic viruses is an emerging therapeutic practice (reviewed in references 3 and 4 ). (asm.org)
  • cells
  • CD46 acts as a co-factor for complement factor I, a serine protease which protects autologous cells against complement-mediated injury by cleaving C3b and C4b deposited on host tissue. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • It has been known for many years that viruses have the ability to replicate in and lyse cancer cells. (mdpi.com)
  • The ability of viruses to kill cancer cells has been recognized for more than a century [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • For example, retroviral vectors selectively transduce nonspecifically activated or antigen sensitized T cells as they proliferate. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 8 , 9 They also showed that a vector bearing ScFvs specific for the AMPA glutamate receptor subunits GluA2 and GluA4 in mice would selectively transduce murine neuronal cells both in vitro and when injected into the hippocampus of mice in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Its ability to recognize large panoply of viruses and virus-infected cells, and trigger the effector pathways, results in neutralization of viruses and killing of the infected cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Class II MHC restricted, the CD4 antigen is a receptor for binding HIV-1, and the onset of AIDS is associated with marked depletion of CD4 cells in the blood. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • novel
  • This situation signifies a need for novel therapeutic strategies, and one such approach is the use of viruses. (mdpi.com)