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  • Antibody
  • Anti-gp340 Monoclonal Antibody Description: 100 g Research Focus: cancer & cell proliferation Storage: -20C Shipping Temperature: 4C. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Using the WM78 monoclonal antibody, which recognizes the common extracellular domain of the PZR isoforms, we demonstrate that the PZR molecules are expressed on mesenchymal and haematopoietic cells, being present on the majority of CD34(+)CD38(+) and early clonogenic progenitors, and at lower levels on CD34(+)CD38(-) cells and the hierarchically more primitive pre-colony forming units. (ox.ac.uk)
  • of several peptide sequences which can be both foreign and self in nature, a single antibody or TCR (T cell receptor) can be activated by even a few[clarification needed Maybe just a few? (wikipedia.org)
  • This diminishes both B cell clone expansion and antibody synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, it acts on some B cells, via receptor-specific binding, as a growth factor and antibody production stimulant. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • A platelet type TXA2 receptor from the megakaryocyte-like HEL cell was cloned with a deduced amino acid sequenced identical to that previously reported for the human placental TXA2 receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Fomina et al 2000, Single channel properties and regulated expression of Ca 2+ -release activated Ca 2+ (CRAC) channels in human T cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Human self-reactive T cell clones expressing identical T cell receptor beta chains differ in their ability to recognize a cryptic self-epitope. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We have studied five human in vivo activated T cell clones specific for the region 535-551 of human thyroid peroxidase (TPO) established from a Graves' patient. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our findings define a route by which human self-reactive T cells may escape thymic selection and become activated in vivo, thus possibly leading to autoimmunity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Work in this thesis was primarily involved with the characterisation of four receptors, the turkey and bovine P2Y1, and the human P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors, transfected into the human astrocytoma cell line, 1321N1. (le.ac.uk)
  • Pertussis toxin reduced the responses to the P2Y2 receptors, but not to the P2Y1 and P2Y4 receptors, and responses to each of the receptors was inhibited by activation of protein kinase C.;A preliminary study with human saphenous vein smooth muscle cells showed that responses to nucleotides were small and difficult to characterise. (le.ac.uk)
  • Structural and functional studies on the human hepatic interleukin-6 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human synovial fibroblasts coexpress IL-1 receptor type I and type II mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, S1PR2 and S1PR3 were cloned from rat brain and a human genomic library respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two types of IL-1 receptor, each with three extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, limited sequence similarity (28%) and different pharmacological characteristics have been cloned from mouse and human cell lines: these have been termed type I and type II receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • As its name suggests, NGF is involved primarily in the growth, as well as the maintenance, proliferation, and survival of nerve cells (neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • NGF can drive the expression of genes such as bcl-2 by binding to the TrkA receptor, which stimulates the proliferation and survival of the target neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • They affect the proliferation of both T cells and B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors regulate fundamental biological processes such as cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, cytoskeleton organization, endothelial cell chemotaxis, immune cell trafficking and mitogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-1RI signalling is involved in thymocyte proliferation, B cells development, IL-2 and IL-6 production, stress responses, inflammatory responses, sleep regulation and appetite. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL2 is a lymphokine that induces the proliferation of responsive T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • GCs affect cells by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The activated GR complex, in turn, up-regulates the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins in the nucleus (a process known as transactivation) and represses the expression of proinflammatory proteins in the cytosol by preventing the translocation of other transcription factors from the cytosol into the nucleus (transrepression). (wikipedia.org)
  • signal transduction
  • Survival occurs when recruited cytoplasmic adaptor proteins facilitate signal transduction through tumor necrosis factor receptor members such as TRAF6, which results in the release of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcription activator. (wikipedia.org)
  • self-epitopes
  • Upon the activation of B or T cells, it is believed that these "peptide mimic" specific T or B cells can cross-react with self-epitopes, thus leading to tissue pathology (autoimmunity). (wikipedia.org)
  • autoimmune
  • These findings indicate that the T-cell response in autoimmune thyroiditis is multiclonal and may have implications for the epitopes recognized by autoreactive T cells and for the mechanisms of the disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Dysregulated production of IL6 and this receptor are implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as multiple myeloma, autoimmune diseases and prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • This recognition initiates T cell activation and expansion, ultimately leading to destruction of the pathogen. (thermofisher.com)
  • For successful T cell activation, Ca 2+ influx needs to be sustained for at least two hours. (thermofisher.com)
  • The time course of PLC activation appeared to rapidly desensitise with each of the receptors. (le.ac.uk)
  • Binding and activation of the receptor stimulates Janus protein kinases, which in turn phosphorylate several proteins, including STAT1 and STAT2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decoy receptors are being designed that bind to Gas6 and prevent Axl activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • B cells that bind with low avidity to self-MHC receptors are positively selected for maturation, those that do not die by apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that survive positive selection, but bind strongly to self-antigens are negatively selected also by active induction of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoids are corticosteroids that bind to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), that is present in almost every vertebrate animal cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A decoy receptor is a receptor that is able to recognize and bind specific growth factors or cytokines efficiently, but is not structurally able to signal or activate the intended receptor complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-1RII is a surface receptor able to bind IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-1RI. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • As discussed in more detail below, glucocorticoids function through interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor: up-regulate the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • After pre-B cells leave the bone marrow where they are synthesized, they are moved to the bone marrow where the maturation of B cells occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In acquired immunity, NGF is produced by the Thymus as well as CD4+ T cell clones, inducing a cascade of maturation of T cells under infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenesis
  • When individuals developed arthritis, dominant BCR clones disappeared from peripheral blood and appeared in synovial tissue, suggesting a direct role of these clones in disease pathogenesis. (bmj.com)
  • Proteins
  • T-cell receptor T3 delta chain Monoclonal detects proteins from variouse species most likely human. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • It is used for finding new ligands (enzyme inhibitors, receptor agonists and antagonists) to target proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retention within the lumen of the ER correlates with an additional signal located at the C terminus, represented by the sequence Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu, known to be responsible for preventing secretion of proteins from the lumen of the ER in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clathrin coated vesicles enable neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal membranes and across the membranes of other types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enables a turnover of neuroreceptors or other proteins to be maintained and thus the numbers of receptors can be fine tuned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beyond these two proteins, other notable protein substrates include Cholecystokinin (CCK), Factor V and Factor VIII, gastrin, the leech enzyme hirudin, fibrinogen, Complement component 4, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), and other chemokine and G-protein coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid
  • However, counting CD34+ mononuclear cells may overestimate myeloid blasts in bone marrow smears due to hematogones (B lymphocyte precursors) and CD34+ megakaryocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well as in the nucleus, where it is interacting with some subnuclear structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Activation of PPARδ in the macrophage leads to lipid accumulation, with an increase in mRNA levels of the scavenger receptors SR-A and CD36. (biomedcentral.com)
  • GHS receptor (GHS-R) mRNA has been identified mainly in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and in the pituitary. (jci.org)
  • Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the transformed cells to revert to their original non-malignant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • In response to interferon, cells produce large amounts of an enzyme known as protein kinase R (PKR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein synthesis of both viral and host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • monocytes
  • 9kD granulysin is also a chemoattractant for T lymphocytes, monocytes, and other inflammatory cells and activates the expression of a number of cytokines, including RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1α, IL-10, IL-1, IL-6 and IFNα. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell's
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many tiny hair-like cilia protrude from the olfactory receptor cell's dendrite into the mucus covering the surface of the olfactory epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • CD2, also known as LFA-2, is a receptor for CD58 in the human and is expressed on the cell surface of 80-90% of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, a subset of NK cells, and all mature T cells. (tonbobio.com)
  • Granulysin is a cytolytic and proinflammatory molecule first identified by a screen for genes expressed "late" (3-5 days) after activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the type of receptor through which they signal, human interferons have been classified into three major types. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) has been extensively studied as a substrate for TPST and the importance of sulfation in PSGL-1 and its ability to bind its receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another substrate for TPST, CC-chemokine Receptor 5 (CCR5), has generated interest because of its role as the target protein for the viral entrance of HIV into cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • It has been associated with heterochromatin and PML-NBs (Promyelocytic Leukaemia nuclear bodies) and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus exits the host cell by nuclear pore export. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic cells
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tissue
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • thyroid cells
  • The heterodimer also stimulated cAMP production and thymidine incorporation by cultured thyroid cells and increased serum thyroxine levels in TSH-suppressed rats in vivo. (jci.org)
  • tissues
  • The expression of these Src family members are not the same throughout all tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of CD34 on non-hematopoietic cells in various tissues has been linked to progenitor and adult stem cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)