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  • subtypes
  • BK is generated from the action of kallikreins on their substrate kininogen and acts by at least two BK receptor subtypes, B 1 and B 2 . (ahajournals.org)
  • Bradykinin acts through two receptor subtypes in mammals and generates a variety of responses including pain, inflammation and hypotension. (diva-portal.org)
  • We describe here two receptor subtypes and the bradykinin precursor in three species of bony fish (the zebrafish Danio rerio, the Japanese pufferfish Takifugu rubripes, and the green spotted pufferfish Tetraodon nigroviridis ) and chicken and analyze the relationships to mammals by a combination of phylogeny, conserved synteny and exon-intron organization. (diva-portal.org)
  • The two bradykinin receptor subtypes B1 and B2 are well characterized in mammals, but have received little attention in non-mammals. (diva-portal.org)
  • Renal
  • In the kidney, B 2 receptors have been localized to cortical epithelium, medullary interstitium, and glomeruli and mesangial cells ( 13 ) and bradykinin, which activates B 2 receptors, is known to regulate renal hemodynamics as well as glomerular ultrafiltration and tubular function. (physiology.org)
  • There is also an increase in renal cortical kallikrein activity as maturation proceeds in the rat, consistent with an enhancement of kinin production and subsequently B 2 -receptor activation ( 2 ). (physiology.org)
  • Bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors both have protective roles in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, both the B1 and B2 bradykinin receptors play an important role in reducing DNA damage, apoptosis, morphological and functional kidney changes, and mortality during renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. (nih.gov)
  • regulation
  • The tissue distribution of mRNA in T. rubripes is similar for B1 and B2, suggesting more similar regulation for the two genes than in mammals. (diva-portal.org)
  • IL-1{beta} Induced Transcriptional Up-regulation of Bradykinin B1 and B2 Receptors in Murine Airways. (lu.se)
  • Remicade, an anti-TNF-a antibody, markedly suppressed IL-1 beta-incluced up-regulation of bradykinin B-1 and B-2 receptors, suggesting that TNF-alpha was involved in the up-regulation, which is further supported by the fact that IL-1 beta enhanced TNF-alpha mRNA expression in the tracheae. (lu.se)
  • Thus, calreticulin can act as an important modulator of the regulation of gene transcription by nuclear hormone receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormone
  • ELABELA: a hormone essential for heart development signals via the apelin receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calreticulin can inhibit the binding of androgen receptor to its hormone-responsive DNA element and can inhibit androgen receptor and retinoic acid receptor transcriptional activities in vivo, as well as retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • apelin receptor
  • Studies performed on mice knocked out for the apelin receptor gene have suggested the existence of a balance between angiotensin II signalling, which increases blood pressure and apelin signalling, which lowers blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apelin receptor is expressed early during the embryonic development of the heart, where it regulates the migration of cell progenitors fated to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, the contractile cells of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apelin receptor is also expressed in the neurons of brain areas involved in regulating water and food intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • BDKRB2
  • To explore the role of the kallikrein-kinin system in relation to ischemia/reperfusion injury in the kidney, we generated mice lacking both the bradykinin B1 and B2 receptor genes (B1RB2R-null, Bdkrb1-/-/Bdkrb2-/-) by deleting the genomic region encoding the two receptors. (nih.gov)
  • inflammation
  • We have previously demonstrated, using a murine in vitro model of chronic airway inflammation, that TNF-alpha up-regulated bradykinin B-1 and B-2 receptors in the airway smooth muscle. (lu.se)
  • Surplus bradykinin is responsible for the typical symptoms of inflammation, such as swelling, redness, overheating and pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This receptor has been also described to play a role in inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Both of the receptor genes are now disrupted. (nih.gov)
  • Coding and noncoding exons of the receptor genes are shown as black and white bars, respectively, and are numbered. (nih.gov)
  • All of these species have two receptor genes located close to each other in a tandem formation, with the B2 gene 5′ to the B1 gene, in chromosomal regions displaying conserved synteny between the species (albeit conservation of synteny in zebrafish is still unclear due to poor genome assembly). (diva-portal.org)
  • responses
  • Icv administration of both Ang II and Ang III evokes pressor and dipsogenic responses via the Ang II type-1 (AT1) receptor [ 14 ], and Faber et al. (hindawi.com)
  • Most of the physiological responses to bradykinin appear to be mediated through activation of the B 2 receptor, which is the most prevalent receptor subtype within the body. (physiology.org)
  • mice
  • Thus, absence of the bradykinin B2 receptor increases the oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA damage, and many senescence-associated phenotypes already present in untreated Akita diabetic mice. (jci.org)
  • In recent experiments in transgenic mice by the same group ( 9 ), B 2 -receptor mRNA was shown to be expressed on the apical membrane of the ureteric bud branches during fetal life and on both apical and basolateral membranes of collecting ducts later in life. (physiology.org)
  • Furthermore, it was shown that mice deficient in the B 2 -receptor gene and salt loaded during embryogenesis acquired an aberrant kidney phenotype incompatible with postnatal survival ( 9 ). (physiology.org)
  • tissues
  • We demonstrate here that this is part of a more general phenomenon - diabetes and, to a lesser degree, absence of the B2 receptor, independently but also largely additively when combined, enhance senescence-associated phenotypes in multiple tissues. (jci.org)
  • amino acid
  • The amino acid sequence of bradykinin is: Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg (RPPGFSPFR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although their activating ligands vary widely in structure and character, the amino acid sequences of the receptors are very similar and are believed to adopt a common structural framework comprising 7 transmembrane (TM) helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Calreticulin can inhibit the binding of androgen receptor to its hormone-responsive DNA element and can inhibit androgen receptor and retinoic acid receptor transcriptional activities in vivo, as well as retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • thromboxane
  • 2,3,4',5-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-D-glucoside isolats from the roots of Polygonum species, inhibits the formation of 5-HETE, HHT and thromboxane B2, although less strongly. (medchemexpress.com)
  • proteins
  • Coupling with G proteins, they are called seven-transmembrane receptors because they pass through the cell membrane seven times. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ligands that bind and activate these receptors include light-sensitive compounds, odors, pheromones, hormones, and neurotransmitters, and vary in size from small molecules to peptides to large proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • It displayed binding Ki values of 0.35 and 6.5 nM at cloned human and mouse B1 receptors, respectively, while having no affinity for either human, mouse, or rat B2 receptors at concentrations up to 10 μM. (wikipedia.org)
  • phospholipase
  • These results suggest that hyperalgesia induced by Bothrops asper venom is, at least partially, mediated by bradykinin, phospholipase A2 activity and leukotrienes. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • inhibit
  • In stomach, activation of receptors on enterochromaffine-like cells by apelin secreted by parietal cells can inhibit histamine release by enterochromaffine-like cells, which in turn decreases acid secretion by parietal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood vessels
  • Bradykinin dilates blood vessels via the release of prostacyclin, nitric oxide, and Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vascular expression of the receptor participates in the control of blood pressure and its activation promotes the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • hypotensive
  • Together with colleagues Wilson Teixeira Beraldo and Gastão Rosenfeld, they discovered the powerful hypotensive effects of bradykinin in animal preparations. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • The kinin-kallikrein system makes bradykinin by proteolytic cleavage of its kininogen precursor, high-molecular-weight kininogen (HMWK or HK), by the enzyme kallikrein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, there is compelling evidence that plasmin, a fibrinolytic enzyme, is able to generate bradykinin after HMWK cleavage. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that bradykinin is converted to inactive metabolites by ACE, therefore inhibition of this enzyme leads to increased levels of bradykinin, which causes a dry cough via bronchoconstriction. (wikipedia.org)