• Receptor proteins can be classified by their location. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aforementioned receptors are coupled to different intracellular effector systems via G proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, receptor-mediated endocytosis enables cells to ingest molecules such as proteins that are necessary for normal cell functioning. (britannica.com)
  • Gyorke S, Terentyev D. Modulation of ryanodine receptor by luminal calcium and accessory proteins in health and cardiac disease. (springer.com)
  • Fang S, Anderson KM, Liao S. Receptor proteins for androgens. (springer.com)
  • Signalling by these receptors depends upon their association with Janus kinases (JAKs), which couple ligand binding to tyrosine phosphorylation of signalling proteins recruited to the receptor complex. (nih.gov)
  • At the molecular level, drugs like salvinorin A (the active ingredient of the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum) work by activating specific proteins, known as receptors, in the brain and body. (redorbit.com)
  • The nature of the ligand-receptor interaction poses a challenge for imaging-notably, the requirement for a low molecular concentration of the imaging probe to avoid saturating the receptor and increasing the background because of nonspecific uptake. (redorbit.com)
  • Ligand-receptor binding can activate or inhibit downstream processes through a variety of mechanisms, such as G-protein activation (e.g. (redorbit.com)
  • Alternatively, some drugs lower the level of an agonist to decrease ligand-receptor interactions, for example, levothyroxine, which suppresses thyroid- stimulating hormone levels in the treatment of thyroid cancer (12). (redorbit.com)
  • The endogenously designated -molecule for a particular receptor is referred to as its endogenous ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural basis for recognition of the nonclassical MHC molecule HLA-G by the leukocyte Ig-like receptor B2 (LILRB2/LIR2/ILT4/CD85d). (springer.com)
  • Structure of natural killer receptor 2B4 bound to CD48 reveals basis for heterophilic recognition in signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family. (springer.com)
  • Receptor , molecule , generally a protein , that receives signals for a cell . (britannica.com)
  • Type 3: Kinase-linked and related receptors (see " Receptor tyrosine kinase ", and " Enzyme-linked receptor ") - They are composed of an extracellular domain containing the ligand binding site and an intracellular domain, often with enzymatic-function, linked by a single transmembrane alpha helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knowledge of receptor expression is key for therapy directed at tumor receptors and traditionally has been obtained by assay of biopsy material. (redorbit.com)
  • Although this information traditionally has been obtained by in vitro assay of biopsy material, recent studies have highlighted the complementary value of tumor receptor imaging for measuring regional tumor receptor expression, which can be quite heterogeneous. (redorbit.com)
  • A very practical consideration is that imaging can assess receptor expression at sites that are challenging to sample and assay, such as bone metastases. (redorbit.com)
  • These cutting-edge techniques cover mining from curated databases, identifying novel receptors by high throughput screening, molecular methods to identify mRNA encoding receptors, radioligand. (google.com)
  • Advances in molecular cancer biology have revealed an ever-increasing number of tumor targets, many of which are receptors, such as the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) (4). (redorbit.com)
  • Tumor receptor imaging emphasizes important emerging themes in molecular imaging: characterizing tumor biology, identifying therapeutic targets, and delineating the pharmacodynamics of targeted cancer therapy (5,6). (redorbit.com)
  • Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding the Ca2+ release channel (ryanodine receptor) of rabbit cardiac muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. (springer.com)
  • Chang CS, Kokontis J, Liao ST. Molecular cloning of human and rat complementary DNA encoding androgen receptors. (springer.com)
  • Availability of the crystal structure of transferrin receptor 1, along with those of transferrin and HFE, opened research on molecular mapping of the transferrin-HFE- transferrin receptor interfaces by correlated synchrotron-generated hydroxyl radical footprinting and cryo-electron microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • The receptor can be activated by a range of simple amino acids including glycine, β-alanine and taurine, and can be selectively blocked by the high-affinity competitive antagonist strychnine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome contains roughly 1,000 genes for olfactory-type receptors, which are expressed in olfactory sensory neurons . (britannica.com)
  • Each receptor is linked to a specific cellular biochemical pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common to all receptors is the interaction of a ligand and the receptor, in which specific binding of the ligand to the receptor results in downstream biochemical or physiologic changes {7,8). (redorbit.com)
  • Biochemical and pharmacological studies have identified the structure of leukotrienes, the pathways that lead to their synthesis, and the signaling events they trigger when they interact with their cognate receptors. (hindawi.com)
  • Deletion of the ryanodine receptor type 3 (RyR3) impairs forms of synaptic plasticity and spatial learning. (springer.com)
  • Takeshima H, Komazaki S, Hirose K, Nishi M, Noda T, Iino M. Embryonic lethality and abnormal cardiac myocytes in mice lacking ryanodine receptor type 2. (springer.com)
  • However, for the majority of women with breast cancer, the abnormal cancer cells contain receptors that are activated in the presence of these hormones. (news-medical.net)
  • Koryakina Y, Ta HQ, Gioeli D. Androgen receptor phosphorylation: biological context and functional consequences. (springer.com)
  • The emerging challenge is to relate structure to the functional effects of receptor binding on the iron-binding and iron-releasing properties of transferrin within the iron-dependent cell. (nih.gov)
  • The α-subunits are also able to form functional homo-pentameric receptors in heterologous expression systems in African clawed frog's oocytes or mammalian cell lines, and the α1 homomeric receptor is essential for studies of channel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning of human androgen receptor complementary DNA and localization to the X chromosome. (springer.com)
  • Skin receptors respond to stimuli such as touch and pressure and signal the brain by activating portions of the nervous system. (dictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, D 1-2 receptor subtypes are found at 10-100 times the levels of the D 3-5 subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Main methods: CB1 receptor functionality was measured using CP55,940-stimulated [S-GTP gamma S autoradiography. (diva-portal.org)
  • The increased response for the 12 week animals was not accompanied by a significant change in the receptor density, measured with [H-P55,940 autoradiography. (diva-portal.org)
  • and, depending on these interactions, it can modify the binding/activity of the receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding is a critical element in effecting a cellular response to a signal and is influenced by a cell's ability to express only certain receptor genes . (britannica.com)
  • The sense of smell (olfaction) is based on small molecules in the air (odorants) binding to receptor molecules on the surface of cells in the nose. (britannica.com)
  • Blocking antibodies may sit on the receptors, preventing acetylcholine from binding. (labtestsonline.org)
  • The study found that compared to other receptors, the binding site on KOR is enormous, allowing drugs to bind to it in more than one way. (redorbit.com)
  • from Old French receptour or directly from Latin receptor , agent noun from recipere (see receive ). (dictionary.com)
  • Significance: It is concluded that HFD produces an increased CB1 receptor functionality in the prefrontal cortex of female rats. (diva-portal.org)
  • Tumor receptors have been some of the earliest targets for cancer therapy, with notable successes in the treatment of endocrine-related cancers such as breast, prostate, and thyroid cancers (1-3). (redorbit.com)
  • This book equips the researcher with techniques for exploring the unprecedented number of new receptor systems now emerging and the so-called "orphan" receptors whose activating ligand has not been identified. (google.com)
  • The B7 family member B7-H6 is a tumor cell ligand for the activating natural killer cell receptor NKp30 in human. (springer.com)
  • For this reason, much of the work to date in tumor receptor imaging has been done with radionuclide probes. (redorbit.com)
  • These topics were selected from a broad range of investigations in tumor receptor imaging (Table 1). (redorbit.com)
  • When such chemical signals bind to a receptor, they cause some form of cellular/tissue response, e.g. a change in the electrical activity of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors play key roles in many cellular processes. (britannica.com)
  • Salvinorin A, the most potent naturally occurring hallucinogen, is unusual in that it interacts with only one receptor in the human brain - the kappa opioid receptor (KOR). (redorbit.com)