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  • genes
  • In humans, this paralogon resulting from a double tetraploidization event resulted in the receptor genes being located on chromosomes 1, 6, 8, and 20. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetraploidization events often result in the loss of one or more of the duplicated genes , but in this case, nearly all species retain all four opioid receptors, indicating important and specific function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taken together, this indicates that the NOP receptor gene, OPRL1, has equal evolutionary origin, but a higher mutation rate, than the other receptor genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These LPL receptor genes are also sometimes referred to as "Edg" (an acronym for endothelial differentiation gene). (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the two forms of the estrogen receptor are encoded by different genes, ESR1 and ESR2 on the sixth and fourteenth chromosome (6q25.1 and 14q23.2), respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor, upon the binding of its ligand aldosterone, results in its translocation to the cell nucleus, homodimerization and binding to hormone response elements present in the promoter of some genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene belongs to a family of genes that function as receptors for tachykinins . (wikipedia.org)
  • T polymorphism, and this association is still observed in the presence of the cholecystokinin-A receptor TC/CC genotype, indicating a possible interaction of these two genes in the visual hallucinogenesis in Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • antagonist
  • An animated view of the human k-opioid receptor in complex with the antagonist JDTic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first attempt to purify the receptor involved the use of a novel opioid receptor antagonist called chlornaltrexamine that was demonstrated to bind to the opioid receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor can be activated by a range of simple amino acids including glycine, β-alanine and taurine, and can be selectively blocked by the high-affinity competitive antagonist strychnine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endothelin receptor antagonist Walter F. Boron, Emile L. Boulpaep, eds. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • The existence of a specific GHB receptor was predicted by observing the action of GHB and related compounds that primarily act on the GABA B receptor , but also exhibit a range of effects which were found not to be produced by GABA B activity, and so were suspected of being produced by a novel and at the time unidentified receptor target. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relying on RET , Javitch and coworkers showed that RET signals were more characteristic of random proximity between receptors, rather than an actual bond formation between receptors, suggesting that discrepancies in binding profiles may be the result of downstream interactions, rather than novel effects due to oligomerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • When such chemical signals bind to a receptor, they cause some form of cellular/tissue response, e.g. a change in the electrical activity of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptors were first identified as specific molecules through the use of binding studies, in which opiates that had been labeled with radioisotopes were found to bind to brain membrane homogenates. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are named based on the prostanoid to which they preferentially bind and respond, e.g. the receptor responsive to PGI2 at lower concentrations than any other prostanoid is named the Prostacyclin receptor (IP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostanoid receptors bind and respond principally to metabolites of the straight chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), arachidonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, receptors for the series 2 prostanoids also bind with and respond to the series 1 and 3 prostanoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokine receptors are divided into different families, CXC chemokine receptors, CC chemokine receptors, CX3C chemokine receptors and XC chemokine receptors that correspond to the 4 distinct subfamilies of chemokines they bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokine receptors are redundant in their function as more than one chemokine is able to bind to a single receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with this allele are resistant to AIDS as HIV cannot bind to the non-functional CCR5 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The angiopoietin receptors are receptors that bind angiopoietin. (wikipedia.org)
  • TIE-1 and TIE-2 comprise the cell-surface receptors that bind and are activated by the angiopoietins, (Ang1, Ang2, Ang3, Ang4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fc receptors bind to antibodies that are attached to infected cells or invading pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, those that bind the most common class of antibody, IgG, are called Fc-gamma receptors (FcγR), those that bind IgA are called Fc-alpha receptors (FcαR) and those that bind IgE are called Fc-epsilon receptors (FcεR). (wikipedia.org)
  • This property allows FcγRI to bind a sole IgG molecule (or monomer), but all Fcγ receptors must bind multiple IgG molecules within an immune complex to be activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another receptor can also bind IgA, although it has higher affinity for another antibody called IgM. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a member of the class of prostaglandin receptors which bind with and respond to various prostaglandins . (wikipedia.org)
  • heterologous expression
  • The α-subunits are also able to form functional homo-pentameric receptors in heterologous expression systems in African clawed frog's oocytes or mammalian cell lines, and the α1 homomeric receptor is essential for studies of channel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In humans, there are eight LPL receptors, each encoded by a separate gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • There have been 20 distinct chemokine receptors discovered in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human Immunodeficiency virus uses CCR5 receptor to target and infect host T-cells in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the MT2 subtype's expression in the retina is suggestive of melatonin's effect on the mammalian retina occurring through this receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the glucagon receptor is encoded by the GCGR gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inactivating mutation of glucagon receptor in humans causes resistance to glucagon and is associated with pancreatic alpha cell hyperplasia, nesidioblastosis, hyperglucagonemia, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only in fish, but not in humans, an ERγ receptor has been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bile acid receptor ( BAR ), also known as farnesoid X receptor ( FXR ) or NR1H4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4) is a nuclear receptor that is encoded by the NR1H4 gene in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the δ-opioid receptor is most heavily expressed in the basal ganglia and neocortical regions of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • opioid receptors
  • The opioid receptors are ~40% identical to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Opioid receptors are distributed widely in the brain , in the spinal cord , on peripheral neurons, and digestive tract . (wikipedia.org)
  • However it was subsequently found that it shares little sequence similarity with the other opioid receptors, and has quite different function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that the family of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates over 450 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory receptors
  • It is one of the most widely distributed inhibitory receptors in the central nervous system and has important roles in a variety of physiological processes, especially in mediating inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord and brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cell effector functions are governed by the balance of potentially opposing signals from a diverse array of both activating and inhibitory receptors on the cell surface that are not rearranged from germ-line receptor segments, unlike B and T cell receptors (BCRs, TCRs) on lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • heterodimers
  • Hormone-activated estrogen receptors form dimers, and, since the two forms are coexpressed in many cell types, the receptors may form ERα (αα) or ERβ (ββ) homodimers or ERαβ (αβ) heterodimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • At a finer scale, we discovered robust differences in glutamate receptor expression between the species. (sciencemag.org)
  • At a global level, D 1 receptors have widespread expression throughout the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maximum expression of dopamine D 3 receptors is noted in the islands of Calleja and nucleus accumbens . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is considerable variation in the density and location of MT receptor expression between species. (wikipedia.org)
  • It belongs to the nuclear receptor family where the ligand diffuses into cells, interacts with the receptor and results in a signal transduction affecting specific gene expression in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtype
  • ETA is a subtype for vasoconstriction These receptors are found in the smooth muscle tissue of blood vessels, and binding of endothelin to ETA increases vasoconstriction (contraction of the blood vessel walls) and the retention of sodium, leading to increased blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • Membrane receptors may be isolated from cell membranes by complex extraction procedures using solvents , detergents , and/or affinity purification . (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, prostanoid receptors show somewhat less affinity and responsiveness to the 1 and 3 series prostanoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fc-gamma receptors differ in their affinity for IgG and likewise the different IgG subclasses have unique affinities for each of the Fc gamma receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • the low-affinity receptor FcεRII (CD23) is a C-type lectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • MR is a receptor with equal affinity for mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AT1 and AT2 receptors share a sequence identity of ~30%, but have a similar affinity for angiotensin II, which is their main ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • It is somewhat controversial which of the Tie receptors mediate functional signals downstream of Ang stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of growth hormone to the receptor leads to receptor dimerization (the receptor may however also exist as a pre-assembled non-functional dimer ) and the activation of an intra- and intercellular signal transduction pathway leading to growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • When the four subunits of the tetramer come together, this second membranous domain forms the ion-permeable pore of the receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors of this family are arranged as five subunits surrounding a central pore, with each subunit composed of four α helical transmembrane segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adult form of the GlyR is the heteromeric α1β receptor, which is believed to have a stoichiometry (proportion) of three α1 subunits and two β subunits or four α1 subunits and one β subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • GABAС receptors are exclusively composed of ρ (rho) subunits that are related to GABAA receptor subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • and, activation of these receptors results in changes in ion movement across a membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, activation of GABA receptors lead to the so-called shunting inhibition, which reduces the excitability of the cell independent of the changes in membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the exact role of δ-opioid receptor activation in pain modulation is largely up for debate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structure of natural killer receptor 2B4 bound to CD48 reveals basis for heterophilic recognition in signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family. (springer.com)