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  • novel
  • Considering that novel reassorted H6N6 viruses were isolated from chickens in this study, it is possible that these chickens play an important role in the generation of novel reassorted H6N6 AIVs, and these results emphasize the need for continued surveillance of the H6N6 AIVs circulating in poultry. (deepdyve.com)
  • clade
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene revealed that the isolated virus belonged to clade 2.3.4.6 ( Technical Appendix Figure) ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The H5N8 and H5N5 viruses detected in birds in Germany in 2016/2017 represent a reassortant swarm of at least five distinct genotypes, which carried closely related HA segments derived from clade 2.3.4.4b. (typepad.com)
  • However, rHA-vaccinated mice showed considerable weight loss and death following challenge with the heterovariant clade virus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Seasonal Influenza
  • Clinicians should consider animal as well as seasonal influenza virus infections in their differential diagnosis of patients who have febrile respiratory illness and who 1) live in San Diego and Imperial counties or 2) traveled to these counties or were in contact with ill persons from these counties in the 7 days preceding their illness onset, or 3) had recent exposure to pigs. (cdc.gov)
  • lineage
  • We sampled 1,129 wild birds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, one of the largest breeding areas for waterfowl in North America, during spring and summer of 2015 to test for Eurasian lineage and intercontinental reassortant HP H5 IAVs and potential progeny viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • hemagglutinin
  • Phylogenetic analysis showed that the H3 hemagglutinin (HA) tree separated into avian and human lineages ( Technical Appendix, panel A ), implying that at least 2 independent H3 sublineages of virus prevail in pigs in China. (cdc.gov)
  • The antigenic relatedness (R-value) between the turkey viruses and the swine virus (vaccine strain) was less than 30% as expressed by the Archetti and Horsfall formula [ 21 ] based on hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN) tests. (biomedcentral.com)
  • variants
  • They concluded that virus variants with two particular mammalian host determinants had spread from farm to farm. (umn.edu)
  • Reassortment between viruses leading to appearance of avian virus HA and human virus NA on the virion surface often resulted in decreasing the replicative potential of the formed variants because of disturbance of a functional balance between "alien" HA and NA. (springer.com)
  • The current evidence suggests that the 1918 influenza pandemic was caused by viruses with 2 receptor-binding variants: A/South Carolina/1/1918 (SC18) and A/Brevig Mission/1/1918, like A/London/1/1918, possess the human α2,6 SA receptor preference, whereas natural variants A/New York/1/1918 and A/London/1/1919 possess a mixed α2,6/α2,3 SA specificity ( 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • poultry
  • A genetic analysis of avian and human influenza viruses associated with the H7N7 avian flu outbreak in the Netherlands in 2003 suggests that flu viruses capable of causing a pandemic can emerge directly from poultry without passing through an intermediate host, says another report published yesterday by the Journal of Virology . (umn.edu)
  • This implies that HPAI viruses with pandemic potential can emerge directly from poultry," the authors write. (umn.edu)
  • The virus is also highly pathogenic for poultry as defined by the World Organization for Animal Health ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Detections of HP viruses in wild birds in the contiguous United States and southern Canadian provinces continued into winter and spring of 2015 raising concerns that migratory birds could potentially disperse viruses to more northerly breeding areas where they could be maintained to eventually seed future poultry outbreaks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similarly, detections of HP IAVs in wild birds and domestic poultry occurred repeatedly in North America during winter and spring of 2015, but tapered off by summer, raising the possibility that migratory birds could disperse viruses to northerly breeding areas where they may be maintained to eventually seed future poultry outbreaks as birds migrate back to wintering grounds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • avian viruses
  • Human H1 proteins that bind α2,6 SA, including the parental South Carolina HA of 1918, contain an aspartate at both positions (Asp 190 and Asp 225 ), whereas α2,3 binding avian viruses contain glutamate at position 190 (Glu 190 ) and glycine at position 225 (Gly 225 ) ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • replicate
  • The virus was shown to replicate and transmit among turkeys, replicate but does not transmit among chickens, and did not replicate in ducks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also, it was found that influenza viruses that were able to transmit efficiently in ferrets were able to replicate efficiently at the lower temperature (33 °C) found in the environment of mammalian airway. (pnas.org)
  • lethal
  • The reconstructed 1918 virus is both transmissible and lethal to ferrets ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • prevalence
  • Presently, the prevalence of influenza virus in Canadian farmed and wild mink populations is unknown. (umontreal.ca)
  • Prevalence and genetic characteristics of LP IAVs during the sampling period are concordant with previous findings of relatively low viral prevalence in geese during spring, non-detection of IAVs in geese during summer, and evidence for intercontinental exchange of viruses in western Alaska. (biomedcentral.com)