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  • highly reactive
  • In normal circumstances, the deleterious effects caused by the highly reactive nature of ROS are balanced by the presence of antioxidants, including glutathione, carotenoids, and antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase. (rupress.org)
  • Side reactions that can occur in the chloroplasts are the metal catalyzed Haber-weiss/Fenton reactions that result in the formation of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical (5). (nih.gov)
  • superoxide
  • Candeias LP, Patel KB, Stratford MRL, Wardman P: Free hydroxyl radicals are formed as reaction between the neutrophil derived species superoxide and hypochlorous acid. (springer.com)
  • The superoxide anion is formed directly from the one-electron reduction of molecular oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Blough & Zepp, superoxide is one of the hardest reactive oxygen species to quantify because it is present in low concentrations: 2×10−12 M in the open ocean and up to 2×10−10M in coastal areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main sources of biological superoxide in the ocean come from the reduction of oxygen at the cell surface and metabolites released into the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since superoxide is also moderately reactive towards trace metals and dissolved organic matter, any remaining superoxide is thought to be removed from the water column through reactions with these species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The water-water cycle or the Mehler-peroxidase reaction involves the leakage of electrons from the photosynthetic electron transport chain to oxygen with the generation of superoxide (1), which is further dismutated by SOD forming H 2 O 2 (2). (nih.gov)
  • experiments
  • Our experiments show that administration of broad-range scavengers of oxidative species into the ovarian bursa of mice, hormonally induced to ovulate, significantly reduced the rate of ovulation. (pnas.org)
  • Effects
  • The free radical theory of aging, formulated 50 years ago by Harman ( 1 ), proposes that aging and associated degenerative diseases can be attributed to deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (pnas.org)