Loading...
  • catalytic
  • The mononuclear iron dioxygenases, or non-heme iron-dependent dioxygenases as they are also termed, all utilize a single catalytic iron to incorporate either one or both atoms of dioxygen into a substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The catalytic mechanism of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase was elucidated using a combination of O18 labeling experiments and crystallography. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catalytic oxidation of 3,5-di- t -butyl-catechol (3,5-DTBC) into quinone occurred without the need of an additional base when the metal complex was confined in the porous solid. (rsc.org)
  • Many industrial processes involve catalytic reactions, since they allow working under milder conditions with high selectivity and short reaction time, decreasing, therefore, the cost of the final product. (rsc.org)
  • 6-9 In particular, the manganese-dependent dioxygenase (MndD) is a system that has attracted much attention since its catalytic mechanism is still under discussion. (rsc.org)
  • 7,10-12 Therefore, the study of bioinspired systems that mimic the structural and/or catalytic function of MndD could help to understand its reaction mechanism. (rsc.org)
  • ortho cleavage
  • This diagram illustrates combination patterns of reaction modules for biodegradation of aromatic compounds, consisting of three main types of ring dihydroxylation modules, followed by meta- or ortho-cleavage modules, together with an optional preprocessing module for converting methyl group to carboxyl group on the aromatic ring. (genome.jp)
  • caffeate
  • Dihydroxyphenylalanine ammonia-lyase was presumed to use 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) to produce trans-caffeate and NH3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeate 3,4-dioxygenase is an enzyme that uses caffeic acid and oxygen to produce 3-(2-carboxyethenyl)-cis,cis-muconate. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • This degradative mechanism is analogous to the toluene degradative pathway encoded by the archetypal TOL plasmid, pWWO, in the mesophilic bacterium P. putida mt-2. (waikato.ac.nz)
  • hydroxylase
  • Chalcone is then isomerized to naringenin by chalcone isomerase which is oxidized to eriodictyol by flavonoid 3'- hydroxylase and further oxidized to taxifolin by flavanone 3-hydroxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymology
  • In enzymology, a lactoylglutathione lyase (EC 4.4.1.5) (also known as glyoxalase I) is an enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of hemithioacetal adducts, which are formed in a spontaneous reaction between a glutathionyl group and aldehydes such as methylglyoxal. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • The ability to quench singlet oxygen seems to be in relation with the chemical structure of catechin, with the presence of the catechol moiety on ring B and the presence of a hydroxyl group activating the double bond on ring C. Electrochemical experiments show that (+)-catechin oxidation mechanism proceeds in sequential steps, related with the catechol and resorcinol groups and the oxidation is pH-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemistry
  • Methylglyoxal is produced naturally as a byproduct of normal biochemistry, but is highly toxic, due to its chemical reactions with proteins, nucleic acids, and other cellular components. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical reaction
  • While controlling the chirality of chemical reaction presents a significant challenge for synthetic chemists, biological processes can be used instead to faithfully produce chiral molecules in cases where direct chemical synthesis is not feasible or efficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • microorganisms
  • however, some fundamental questions remain, including (1) how much microbial biomass is present in the oceanic crust, (2) where do the microorganisms originate, and (3) what are their metabolic functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Candida tropicalis catalyzes this reaction [A and many reports suggest that this reaction may be common in microorganisms. (ormedmedical.us)
  • moiety
  • Arthropod cuticle consists of chitin linked by a catechol moiety to protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The A ring is similar to a resorcinol moiety while the B ring is similar to a catechol moiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydroxyl groups of the resorcinol moiety oxidised afterwards were shown to undergo an irreversible oxidation reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • For instance, carbon-carbon bond cleavage, fatty acid hydroperoxidation, carbon-sulfur bond cleavage, and thiol oxidation are all reactions catalyzed by mononuclear iron dioxygenases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparision, the oxidation of 4- t -butyl-catechol (4-TBC) that always required a basic media led to a total oxidation into the ortho -quinone, contrary to the molecular analogue. (rsc.org)
  • 2 In particular, several metalloenzymes called oxygenases perform the oxidation of organic compounds by activating molecular dioxygen. (rsc.org)
  • The oxidation of the catechol 3',4'-dihydroxyl electron-donating groups occurs first, at very low positive potentials, and is a reversible reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical oxidation of caffeic acid in acidic conditions using sodium periodate leads to the formation of dimers with a furan structure (isomers of 2,5-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)tetrahydrofuran 3,4-dicarboxylic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • 3. The composition of claim 1 wherein the host organism comprises bacteria of the Bacillus or Clostridia genera. (patents.com)
  • Catechols such as DHSA are produced through the metabolism of cholesterol by bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • catechin
  • Catechol was first isolated in 1839 by Edgar Hugo Emil Reinsch (1809 - 1884) by distilling it from the solid tannic preparation catechin, which is the residuum of catechu, the boiled or concentrated juice of Mimosa catechu (Acacia catechu L.f). (wikipedia.org)
  • The single-molecule (monomer) catechin, or isomer epicatechin (see diagram), adds four hydroxyls to flavan-3-ol, making building blocks for concatenated polymers (proanthocyanidins) and higher order polymers (anthocyanidins). (wikipedia.org)
  • Catechin /ˈkætɪtʃɪn/ is a flavan-3-ol, a type of natural phenol and antioxidant. (wikipedia.org)
  • skeleton
  • Urushiols are naturally existing organic compounds that have the catechol skeleton structure and diphenol functionality but with alkyl groups substituted onto the aromatic ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catecholamines are biochemically significant hormones/neurotransmitters that are phenethylamines in which the phenyl group has a catechol skeleton structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrocarbons
  • 1,2-CTD degrades phenolic hydrocarbons key to the synthesis lipid membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, 1,2-CTD may bind to the cell lipid membrane via its terminal phospholipids and thus have greater access to the phenolic hydrocarbons vital in lipid membrane structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • methyl
  • Its methyl ether derivative, guaiacol, converts to catechol via hydrolysis of the CH3-O bond as promoted by hydriodic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism
  • Studies of Porphyrin Metabolism, 3. (unt.edu)
  • Metabolism of 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid by Bordetella sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. Role of oxygen in the metabolic regulation : Besides the well known … More role of oxygen in the energy metabolism, oxygen has been shown to play an important physiological role in metabolic regulation through oxygenase-catalyzed reactions. (nii.ac.jp)
  • carbon
  • 1,2-CTD uses Fe3+ as a cofactor to cleave the carbon-carbon bond between the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol, thus yielding muconic acid as its product. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, 2,3-CTD utilizes Fe2+ as a cofactor to cleave the carbon-carbon bond adjacent to the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol, thus yielding 2-hydroxymuconaldehye as its product. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • 3-9 Although the reaction with dioxygen is thermodynamically favourable, the electronic configuration of the O 2 molecule creates a strong kinetic barrier that requires activation, which is useful to prevent any spontaneous reaction of O 2 with organic molecules. (rsc.org)
  • There are two chiral centers on the molecule on carbons 2 and 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • iron
  • A novel non-heme iron-containing dioxygenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active site of catechol dioxygenases most frequently contains iron, but manganese-containing forms are also known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron-containing dioxygenases can be subdivided into three classes on the basis of how iron is incorporated into the active site: those employing a mononuclear iron center, those containing a Rieske [2Fe-2S] cluster, and those utilizing a heme prosthetic group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most mononculear iron dioxygenases are members of the cupin superfamily in which the overall domain structure is described as a six-stranded β-barrel fold (or jelly roll motif). (wikipedia.org)
  • At the center this barrel structure is a metal ion, most commonly ferrous iron, whose coordination environment is frequently provided by residues in two partially conserved structural motifs: G(X)5HXH(X)3-4E(X)6G and G(X)5-7PXG(X)2H(X)3N. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two important groups of mononuclear, non-heme iron dioxygenases are catechol dioxygenases and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 2OG-dependent dioxygenases, ferrous iron (Fe(II)) is also coordinated by a (His)2(Glu/Asp)1 "facial triad" motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reaction of 1 and catechol in the presence of excess triethylamine gave the catecholate (CAT) chelate b is(u -al koxo) -bridged dinuclear iron(Ill) complex [Fe(L)(CAT)12 (2). (diva-portal.org)
  • All heteroatoms (N3O) of the ligand are coordinated to the iron center in complex 1 with two pyridine nitrogen atoms on the axial bonds, while one of the pyridyl arms of the ligand is left uncoordinated in complex 2. (diva-portal.org)
  • hydroxylation
  • This powerful oxidant is then utilized to carry out various reactions, including hydroxylation, halogenation, and demethylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catechol is produced industrially by the hydroxylation of phenol using hydrogen peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • C6H5OH + H2O2 → C6H4(OH)2 + H2O Previously, it was produced by hydroxylation of salicylaldehyde using hydrogen peroxide, as well as the hydrolysis of 2-substituted phenols, especially 2-chlorophenol, with hot aqueous solutions containing alkali metal hydroxides. (wikipedia.org)