• b) Inhibition of amphetamine or apomorphine induced hypothermia in rats kept at an ambient temperature of 4 degrees C. (c) Increased sleeping time to phenobarbitone which cannot be attributed to the rate of drug metabolism (5,38). (nih.gov)
  • Collagen metabolism during wound healing in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Effects of ammonia on the anaplerotic pathway and amino acid metabolism in the brain: an ex vivo 13C NMR spectroscopic study of rats after administering [2-13C]] glucose with or without ammonium acetate. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of biotin on the metabolism of ammonia and amino acids in urease-induced hyperammonemic rats]. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo binding of [3H]ketanserin on serotonin S2-receptors in rat brain. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A role for prior occupancy of vascular angiotensin II receptors for the blunted pressor response was made less likely by the observation that treatment with captopril to decrease endogenous angiotensin II did not improve the angiotensin II pressor response in 15-day pregnant rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Until the commercial development of mobile DNA technology in 2007 and zinc-finger nuclease technology in 2009, there were only two technologies that could be used to produce rat models of human disease: cloning and chemical mutagenesis using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). (wikipedia.org)
  • A congenic rat strain (WF.LEW) was derived from the susceptible Wistar-Furth (WF) (background strain) and the resistant LEW (donor strain) inbred strains and was used to evaluate the phenotypic expression of a dominant Mendelian gene that confers resistance to fatal hepatic disease caused by the ZH501 strain of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). (ajtmh.org)
  • Most are derived from the albino Wistar rat, which is still widely used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Origin: Developed in 1972 at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk) by Salganik and Solovyova from Wistar stock by selection for susceptibility to cataractogenic effect of galactose-rich diet and brother-sister mating of highly susceptible rats ( Solovyova et al 1975 ). (jax.org)
  • The effect of subanesthetic doses of sodium pentobarbital (8-12 mg kg-1, SC) delivered via a delivery system on analgesia of morphine (5 mg kg-1, SC or 1 mg kg-1, IV) acutely administered 45 min after the sodium pentobarbital pellet implantation was assessed using the warm water (55 degrees C)-induced tail-withdrawal reflex in male Wistar rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2. Longitudinal strips of the fundus from 20 week old male and female SHR and Wistar normotensive (NW) rats were used. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In male Wistar rats [light(L): 07:00-19:00 h, dark(D): 19:00-07:00 h], the effects of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine (1, 3, 10 mg/kg i.p.) on blood pressure, heart rate, and motor activity were studied by telemetric monitoring. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The most striking observation (Supplementary Table) is that Wistar rats and CD-1 mice are kept in the same housing room at Charles River GmbH (Personal communication, Charles River distributor, Scanbur employee), a particular concern to users of CD-1 mice from that supplier. (frontiersin.org)
  • They were originally derived from a Canadian colony of outbred Wistar rats that spontaneously develop hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis, characteristic of clinical onset of T1D. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 80's the research group of Marguerite Vergnes at Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in Strasbourg (France) reported the spontaneous occurrence of spike-and-wave discharges (SWD) evocative of absence seizures in Wistar rats during cortical electroencephalographic (EE]) recordings. (wikipedia.org)
  • These initial observations led to the development of two breeding colonies: (i) a fully inbred strain of rats, with 100% of animals displaying the EEG and behavioral characteristics of absence seizures, derived from an outbred Wistar colony and called the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) (ii) a strain of non epileptic control animals selected from the same initial breeding colony of Wistar rats and called the NEC. (wikipedia.org)
  • At Wistar, Helen Dean King worked to help breed the Wistar rat, a strain of genetically homogeneous white rats that became widely used in biological research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this paper I examine King's work on inbreeding, her participation in the debates over eugenics, her position at the Wistar Institute, her status as a woman working with mostly male scientists, and her involvement with popular science. (wikipedia.org)
  • https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10739-006-9117-1 Bonnie Tocher Clause, The Wistar Institute Archives: Rats (Not Mice) and History, Mendel Newsletter, Feb. 1998 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic administration of ethanol with high vitamin A supplementation in a liquid diet to rats does not cause liver fibrosis. (tudelft.nl)
  • Effect of liver glycogen content on glucose production in running rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • During treadmill running for 35 min at a speed of 21 m/min, Ra and plasma glucose increased more (P less than 0.05) and liver glucogen breakdown was larger in fasted-refed compared with control rats, although the stimuli for Ra were higher in control rats, the plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose being lower (P less than 0.05) in control compared with fasted-refed rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, the higher exercise-induced increase in Ra, plasma glucose, and liver glycogen breakdown in fasted-refed compared with control rats indicates that metabolic feedback mechanisms are not able to accurately match Ra to the metabolic needs of working muscles. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Tyrosine amino-transferase (TAT) activity in the rat liver increased significantly by GC administration, and the increased TAT activity was completely abrogated by simultaneous administration of 5 mg/kg of cycloheximide (CH). In the same experimental condition, although inhibition of histamine-induced cutaneous reaction by GC was completely abrogated, the inhibition of PCA elicited at the same time in the same rats was only partially attenuated. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, the same dose of CH little affected the dexamethasone inhibition of histamine release in the rat peritoneal cavity, although the increase of TAT activity in the liver of the same rats was completely abrogated. (nih.gov)
  • It is found that in cholestasis an API5 in serum arises which is not present in serum of normal rats, but can be detected in normal rat liver. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The in vitro omega-oxidation of C6-C16-monocarboxylic acids to corresponding dicarboxylic acids in the 100,000 Xg supernatant fraction of rat liver homogenate was measured by selected ion monitoring. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Comparison of substrate recognition by protein kinase C (type III) between rat liver cytosolic and particulate fractions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1. Phosphorylation of rat liver endogenous substrates by protein kinase C (type III) was compared between cytosolic and particulate (mitochondria, microsomes and plasma membrane) fractions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Amir, S. Brain and liver aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and voluntary ethanol consumption by rats: Relations to strain, sex and age. (springer.com)
  • A study on the metabolic and hemodynamic actions of hepatic nerve stimulation in the perfused liver of guinea pig and tree shrew as compared to rat was performed, since the density of liver innervation was reported to be different. (nih.gov)
  • 3) The content of noradrenaline in the liver in vivo was about five-fold higher in the guinea pig and again another four-fold higher in the tree shrew than in the rat. (nih.gov)
  • 4) Inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis reduced the nerve stimulation-dependent metabolic and hemodynamic alterations in guinea pig liver as in rat liver indicating a similar mechanism in these species. (nih.gov)
  • Apparently, prostaglandins might be involved as mediators or modulators of nerve actions also in the more densely innervated guinea pig liver and not only in the less densely innervated rat liver. (nih.gov)
  • In other studies, however, benzodiazepines did not change the defensive behavior of rats [ 6 , 10 ] or mice [ 1 , 10 ] exposed to cat odor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prolonged estrogen-progesterone treatment of nonpregnant ovariectomized rats: factors stimulating home-cage and maternal aggression and short-latency maternal behavior. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Importantly, SWD were always associated with a typical "arrest" of the rats' behavior with twitching of the vibrissae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of lowering plasma fibrinogen levels by Arvin injections have been investigated in a rat model of arteriosclerosis. (tudelft.nl)
  • Figure S2 - Effects of introgressed haplotypes in congenic strains on trans-regulated fat gene transcription. (g3journal.org)
  • Brandt, Kirsten and Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel (2003) The effects of organically and conventionally cultivated plant feed on fertility and health in two inbred rat strains. (orgprints.org)
  • In this experiment we study the effects of various culturing methods of plant based foods on health and fertility parameters in a two-generation study in rats. (orgprints.org)
  • Laboratory rats are frequently subject to dissection or microdialysis to study internal effects on organs and the brain, such as for cancer or pharmacological research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Repetitive loading, in vivo, of the tibia and femora of rats: effects of a single bout of treadmill running. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects and time course of a single injection of beta-bungarotoxin into E14 rat embryos were examined with an electron-microscopic study of development of the internal intercostal somatic nerve. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of ranitidine and cysteamine on intestinal metaplasia induced by X-irradiation in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To further elucidate the role played by mitochondria in steroidogenesis, we examined the effects of the perturbation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain with myxothiazol (MYX) on testosterone production by primary cultures of Brown Norway rat Leydig cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of lactation and ambient temperature on the body temperature of female Norway rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Differential effects of continuous versus intermittent administration of growth hormone to hypophysectomized female rats on serum lipoproteins and their apoproteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Effects of isolation and high helium pressure on the nucleolus of sympathetic neurons in the rat superior cervical ganglion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of excitatory amino acids on 22Na efflux rate in rat hippocampal slices were determined at various postnatal days and following removal of a major afferent system. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Effects of amlodipine on circadian rhythms in blood pressure, heart rate, and motility: a telemetric study in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The study gives evidence for a circadian phase-dependency in the cardiovascular effects amlodipine in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The reduction of damage in neutropenic rats was not due to effects of the antineutrophil serum on either gastric acid secretion or the ability of indomethacin or naproxen to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Brown, Z.W., and Amit, Z. The effects of selective catecholamine depletions by 6-hydroxydopamine on ethanol preference in rats. (springer.com)
  • The effects of biotin on ammonia concentration in blood and brain were evaluated in hyperammonemic rats and mice. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, in the present study, to clarify the existence of osteoblast progenitor cells in the periodontal ligament, as well as to investigate the mechanism of alveolar bone regeneration without any effects from the original bone, we evaluated osteoblast differentiation induced by transplantation of GFP-transgenic rat molars into the subcutaneous tissues of wild-type rats. (nii.ac.jp)
  • While the potential utility of recombinant inbred strains in mapping analysis of complex polygenic traits was obvious from the outset, the small number of strains only made it feasible to map quantitative traits with very large effects (quasi-Mendelian loci). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensorimotor impairment and elevated levels of dopamine metabolites in the neostriatum occur rapidly after intranigral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine or gamma-hydroxybutyrate in awake rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Using in vivo dialysis in the A10 region of the anesthetized rat, somatodendritic release of endogenous dopamine was demonstrated. (nih.gov)
  • Amit, Z., Brown, Z.W., Levitan, D.E., and Ogren, S.O. Noradrenergic mediation of the positive reinforcing properties of ethanol: I. Suppression of ethanol consumption in laboratory rats following dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibition. (springer.com)
  • Studies utilize in vitro measurements of mRNA, protein, enzymatic activity, enzyme kinetics, and cell signaling as well as in vivo measurements of hormone levels, blood flow, blood pressure, and other indices of renal/cardiovascular function in anesthetized and conscious rats and mice. (mcw.edu)
  • The purpose of the present in vitro study was to compare ultrastructural and quantitative changes of the nucleolus, which is the site of ribosome biogenesis, in sympathetic neurons of rat superior cervical ganglia (SCG) maintained for 2, 3 and 5 h in NCTC 109 medium and subjected to pressure or not. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, significant disparities exist suggesting that certain nerve growth factor receptor-containing non-cholinergic neurons of the rat forebrain may also be affected by nerve growth factor. (nih.gov)
  • The nucleus tractus solitarius/dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (NTS/DMV) area was perfused by the push-pull perfusion technique in anesthetized rats, and perfusates were assayed for arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) immunoreactivity. (nih.gov)
  • Mouse strain names should be registered through the Mouse Genome Database (MGD) at http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/submissions/amsp_submission.cgi . (jax.org)
  • Rat strain names should be registered through the Rat Genome Database (RGD) at http://rgd.mcw.edu/tools/strains/strainRegistrationIndex.cgi . (jax.org)
  • Beyond knockout rats: new insights into finer genome manipulation in rats. (nih.gov)
  • Rat traps: filling the toolbox for manipulating the rat genome. (nih.gov)
  • Generation of site-specific mutations in the rat genome via CRISPR/Cas9. (nih.gov)
  • Polymerase chain reaction genotyping using 60 polymorphic microsatellite markers dispersed throughout the genome confirmed the congenic status of the new strain designated SHR.BN- D1Mit3/Igf2 . (ahajournals.org)
  • Inbred strains are also available but are not as commonly used as inbred mice Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus has been sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only exception is that the Y chromosome and the mitochondrial genome, both of which are inherited intact from the paternal and maternal strain, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory is also the world's source for more than 8,000 strains of genetically defined mice and is home of the Mouse Genome Informatics database. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coisogenic strains can be induced chemically or through radiation however, other types of alterations within the genome may also occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The importance of developing the rat as a more versatile tool for human health research is evidenced by the $120 million investment made by the NIH via the Rat Genome Sequencing Project Consortium, resulting in the draft sequence of a laboratory strain of the brown or Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). (wikipedia.org)
  • While the completion of the rat genome sequence provides very key information, how these diseases relate to gene function requires an efficient method to create knockout rat models in which specific genomic sequences are manipulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • X-ray diffraction patterns of fibres from 90 day (mature) rat-tail tendons were investigated using synchrotron radiation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As it lands, the energy of the jump is converted into strain energy made when its leg tendons are stretched. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of decreased pressor responsiveness to pressor agents was examined serially throughout pregnancy in conscious rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Rats, 15 and 20 days pregnant, showed marked blunting of the pressor response to graded doses of angiotensin, whereas after only 5 days of pregnancy there was a normal response and at 10 days an intermediate pressor response. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the isolated perfused hind legs of rats with enemas induced by carrageenin, dextran or Freund's adjuvant in both paws, resting perfusion pressure was slightly increased whereas the vasopressor action of noradrenaline, lysine-vasopressin and prostaglandin F2 alpha, was decreased. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, resistance to the SA75 RVFV strain (relatively non-pathogenic for adult rats), was age- and dose-dependent in both WF and LEW rats. (ajtmh.org)
  • The resistance gene transferred to the newly derived WF.LEW congenic rat strain appears to amplify age-dependent resistance of adult rats, resulting in protection against fatal hepatic disease caused by the virulent ZH501 strain. (ajtmh.org)
  • At normal resting pressures there was no positive pressure gradient between the CSF and sinus venous blood in 2-, 10-, and 20-day-old rats, but in 31-day-old and adult rats there was a positive gradient of 16 and 12 mm H2O, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • I. Adrenocortical cells of normal adult rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Distribution of nerve growth factor receptor-like immunoreactivity in the adult rat central nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • Nerve growth factor receptor, as recognized by the monoclonal antibody 192-IgG, was localized to multiple regions of the adult rat forebrain. (nih.gov)
  • The distribution of nerve growth factor receptor-immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers in multiple sensory and motor nuclei suggests wide-spread influences of nerve growth factor throughout the adult rat forebrain. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, i.v. platelet-activating factor (PAF) causes severe bowel injury in a well-established acute model of NEC in adult rats, but PAF failed to elicit injury in the same model in germfree rats ( 8 ) and NEC does not occur in a sterile environment in utero. (jimmunol.org)
  • Tetramisole loaded into zeolite is more effective at killing adult N. brasiliensis in rats than tetramisole alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The smaller endocrine glycogenolytic signal in face of higher plasma glucose concentrations in fasted-refed compared with control rats is indicative of metabolic feedback control of glucose mobilization during exercise. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In contrast, all control rats exposed to the same oxygen concentration died within 3 days. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Control rats received 3H-fucose only. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Rats made neutropenic by prior treatment with an antibody to rat neutrophils raised in goat were found to be significantly more resistant to the gastric-damaging actions of indomethacin or naproxen than were control rats or rats pretreated with normal goat serum. (nih.gov)
  • Drug treatment reduced proteinuria (by 70% and 36% at 28 and 48 weeks of age, respectively) plasma cholesterol (by 36% and 27% at 28 and 48 weeks of age, respectively) and prevented the decrease of plasma albumin observed in untreated rats (C-MNS) 48 weeks old. (unimore.it)
  • These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of FCE 22178 on the dyslipoproteinemia of nephrotic MNS rats is secondary to the amelioration in kidney function and to the reduction of proteinuria produced by this drug. (unimore.it)
  • Developed obese and diabetic mutant rat models: WNIN/GR-Ob, WNIN/Ob, WNIN/Ob-IGT, to serve as pre-clinical animal models in drug development for chronic diseases like diabesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antiepileptic drug evaluation in a new animal model: spontaneous petit mal epilepsy in the rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockout rats can mimic human diseases and are important tools for studying gene function (functional genomics) and for drug discovery and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The different molecular weight forms of immunoreactive growth hormone (irGH) secreted by the anterior pituitary of rats were evaluated during basal and stimulated secretion in vitro and in vivo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Intraduodenal instillation of acid and hyperosmolal solution suppresses pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion but not histamine mobilization in the rat stomach. (curehunter.com)
  • In chronic gastric fistula rats provided with a duodenal loop anastomosed to the jejunum (Roux-en-Y), maximal stimulation of acid secretion by continuous intravenous infusion of pentagastrin produced a 15-fold increase of gastric histidine decarboxylase activity. (curehunter.com)
  • The purported DRY were never intended torepresent genetically appropriate controls for any strain, in particular SHR.Instead, they were intended simply as inbred normotensive controls, unrelatedto SHR and used to maximize the informativeness of the linkage analyses. (ahajournals.org)
  • To investigate this possibility, we replaced a region of chromosome 1 in the SHR (defined by the markers D1Mit3 and Igf2 ) with the corresponding chromosome segment from the normotensive Brown-Norway (BN) strain. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1982 - Began offering Fischer 344 rats and asthmatic rats from Merck-Frost, Montreal, to the product offerings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmin inhibition by rat tissue extracts were compared with rat plasma plasmin inhibition. (tudelft.nl)
  • IgE antibody-mediated histamine release in vivo in the rat peritoneal cavity was also inhibited by GC administration significantly, and the inhibition was long lasting when compared to those of the mediator-induced cutaneous reactions. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of mating by naloxone or morphine in recently castrated, but not intact male rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Inhibition of intracellular migration of membrane glycoproteins in rat intestinal columnar cells and hepatocytes as visualized by light and electron-microscope radioautography after 3H-fucose injection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The peroxisome proliferators caused an induction of acyl-CoA hydrolase of lower-molecular-weight form alone in hepatic cytosol of mice, although inductions of two long-chain acyl-CoA hydrolases (higher- and lower-molecular-weight form) were brought about in hepatic cytosol of rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The molecular weight forms of rat growth hormone secreted in response to growth hormone-releasing factor. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results suggest that the larger molecular weight forms of rat GH observed in plasma may be the result of some postsecretory process which occurs in blood and suggests a possible regulatory function for the larger molecular weight forms as it pertains to the bioavailability of GH in vivo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains , livers , kidneys , adrenal glands , and hearts are smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incidence and number of intestinal metaplasia with alkaline phosphatase-positive foci in rats given X-rays and cysteamine (group 4) were significantly low compared with those in rats given X-rays and ranitidine (group 3) (p less than 0.01). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Moreover, myoclonia were found to occur significantly later in rats which developed epileptic seizures than in other. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Blood ammonia levels after ammonia loading were lower, although not significantly, in the arginine glutamate-treated rats than in the biotin-treated animals. (nih.gov)
  • The median survival time of the rat treated with 1.5 mg/kg of intracisternal ACNU once on day 2 or on day 5 after tumor inoculation was significantly prolonged by 173%, and 214% at maximum, respectively, as compared with that of the untreated animal. (curehunter.com)
  • In male SHR congenic rats carrying the transferred BN chromosome segment, 24-hour average systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly lower than in male progenitor SHR. (ahajournals.org)
  • We found that the systolic and diastolic BPs of the SHR congenic strain carrying the chromosome 1 segment transferred from the BN rat are significantly lower than the BPs of the progenitor SHR strain. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the 1990s the utility of recombinant inbred strains for mapping was significantly improved thanks to higher density genotypes made possible by the use of microsatellite markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inductions of FABP in hepatic cytosol by administration of tiadenol and clofibric acid were studied in rats, mice and guinea-pigs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Table S10 - Details of the adipose tissue eQTL hotspot detected on chromosome 1 (49.4-59.4cM) in the GKxBN F2 cross and expression pattern of the linked gene in the congenic strain BN.GK1p. (g3journal.org)
  • The SHR congenic strain was derived from a progenitor strain of SHR (SHR/Ola) descended from inbred SHR originally obtained from the National Institutes of Health. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pharmacokinetics, toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of intrathecal ACNU , 3-[4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso urea , were studied in rats to determine if it is a new and effective method for the treatment of malignant leptomeningeal tumors . (curehunter.com)
  • Systemic and local toxicity was not observed in the rat given less than 1.5 mg/kg. (curehunter.com)