• As potential standards, the F344 inbred strain and an outbred stock of Long Evans were tested with three other inbred strains. (springer.com)
  • The inclusion of a 'standard strain or stock' in phenotyping protocols involving multiple inbred strains or lines of rats, mice and flies has obvious advantages by providing a reference point for inter-laboratory comparisons. (springer.com)
  • The DA rat strain was used to establish a lung exposure model. (wiley.com)
  • DRH strain rats were established by inbreeding a closed colony of Donryu rats continuously fed the chemical hepatocarcinogen 3′-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene for over 10 years. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fischer 344 (F344) rats represent a strain that is frequently used as a model for fast aging. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, the inbred rat strain LEW has been shown to self-administer stimulant drugs more readily than the F344 strain. (drugabuse.gov)
  • The enriched rats of both strains showed less amphetamine self-administration, while the isolated rats of both strains were more prone to self-administration of amphetamine, with the IC condition causing even greater self-administration in the F344 strain than the LEW strain. (drugabuse.gov)
  • These genetic factors therefore seem to be dependent on the rat strain used in the cross, i.e., influenced by a differing genome background. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The backcrosses of reciprocally mated F 1 hybrids into both the highly responding ACI strain of inbred rats and the poorly responding F344 strain yielded offspring with low, moderate and high responses in a ratio compatible with that predicted by the polygenic model. (jimmunol.org)
  • Our results showed that, as in other strains, dietary supplementation with selenium (3 ppm) in the form of methylselenocysteine for 30 days following N -nitroso- N -methylurea (NMU) exposure reduced the incidence of mammary carcinogenesis by ∼60% in the F344 strain. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings indicated that WS/Shi is the most sensitive strain to NNM and may be the most suitable strain for use as a spontaneous metastatic model of HCC among the strains of rats examined in the present study. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • This study was performed to test whether a strongly photoresponsive rat strain (F344) and strongly nonphotoresponsive rat strain (HSD) have similar circadian urinary excretion profiles of the major metabolite of melatonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), in long-day (L:D 16:8) and short-day (L:D 8:16) photoperiods. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Urinary 24-hour aMT6s profiles were measured under L:D 8:16 and L:D 16:8 in young male laboratory rats of a strain known to be reproductively responsive to the short-day photoperiod (F344) and another known to be nonresponsive (HSD). (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Male Fischer (F344) rats that develop benign interstitial testicular (Leydig cell) tumors (ITT) linked to low physiological levels of endogenous testosterone (T) and prevented by high levels of T, were mated with female Lobund-Wistar (LW) rats, a strain that develops prostate cancer (PC) linked to abnormally high levels of endogenous T and prevented by early T-deprivation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A strain is inbred when it has undergone at least 20 generations of brother x sister or offspring x parent mating, at which point at least 98.6% of the loci in an individual of the strain will be homozygous, and each individual can be treated effectively as clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is effectively wildtype in nature, where there is as little inbreeding as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • One type of inbred strain that either has been altered, or naturally mutated so that it is different at a single locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences would be due to the single genetic change, or to a difference in environmental conditions between two individuals of the same strain, one of the more specific uses of Drosophila inbred strains are the use of Gal4/UAS lines in research. (wikipedia.org)
  • A separate set of rats from each strain were allowed to recover from WF exposure until the end of the 24 wk period. (cdc.gov)
  • Generally, the exposome components of diet and WF exposure had the greater influence on the parameters measured compared to the changes associated with rat strain except for the body weight changes observed with the HF diet that were more pronounced in the inbred F344 and BN strains. (cdc.gov)
  • In F344 rats BBG caused a significant reduction in blood pressure and a decrease in renal vascular resistance, suggesting that P2X 7 receptor activation may enhance vasoconstrictor tone in this rat strain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Based upon these results, the F-344 inbred strain is designated a rapid acetylator phenotype, the WKY inbred strain is designated a slow acetylator phenotype, and F1 hybrids of the two parental strains are designated intermediate acetylator phenotype. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We also developed a novel congenic rat strain harboring the Ctns ugl mutation on the F344 genetic background. (springer.com)
  • A deletion in the intergenic region upstream of Ednrb causes head spot in the rat strain KFRS4/Kyo. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
  • This strain, the F344 , was selected by Curtis and Dunning in 1920 at the Columbia University Institute for Cancer Research. (janvier-labs.com)
  • Fully differentiated rat thyroid epithelial cells (FRT-L cells) infected with another strain of the Kirsten murine sarcoma virus, the KiMSV(MolMuLV), were also transformed as demonstrated by the ability also of these cells to grow as carcinomas (after in vitro transformation) in syngeneic animals. (elsevier.com)
  • Between 1992 and 2000, 21papers 1-21 were published that used rats from inbred colonies in Melbourne and Tokyo thatwere believed to be of the Donryu (DRY) strain. (ahajournals.org)
  • These rats were thought tohave been the same strain as DRY used by Dr Tanase in early breedingexperiments in relation to blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR). (ahajournals.org)
  • Accompanying documentation attributed specific geneticbiochemical profiles of the DRY strain to these animals and differentiatedthem from the F344, BUF (Buffalo), and LEW (Lewis) strains. (ahajournals.org)
  • The purported DRY were never intended torepresent genetically appropriate controls for any strain, in particular SHR.Instead, they were intended simply as inbred normotensive controls, unrelatedto SHR and used to maximize the informativeness of the linkage analyses. (ahajournals.org)
  • Infact, it is fortuitous that the control strain for crossbreeding studies ofcardiac size should transpire to be the F344, which has one of the smallesthearts among normotensiverats. (ahajournals.org)
  • An F 1 backcross was made to the parental LEW/Jms strain from a cross with non-hydrocephalic Fischer 344 rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Seven rats of the strain were received at the University of Florida in year 2000 and their DNA was tested with 87 selected microsatellite markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore the strain is maintained by breeding from apparently non-hydrocephalic rats because pups with overt disease do not survive to reproduce. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Methods: Bacteria S. aureus (ATCC #49775) and F98 and 9L glioma cells were injected stereotactically in the brains of F344 rats to form abscesses and tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results further showed that the expression of Per2 and DBP mRNAs was significantly decreased in mammary tumors arising in rats on the selenium-enriched diet, but not in tumors of rats on the control diet, suggesting that selenium-induced elevation in the expression of circadian genes was incompatible with mammary carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transferring a Tp53 -knockout allele from an outbred rat stock to the F344 inbred rat genetic background alters the spectrum of tumors, providing a model of early-onset brain and bone sarcomas. (biologists.org)
  • F344 rats had a total of 62 tumors with 26% in males and 36% in females. (elsevier.com)
  • Topographical distribution of the IMP of urinary bladder epithelial cell membranes in normal Fischer rat bladder and noninvasive and invasive N-(4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl)formamide (FANFT)-induced bladder tumors are shown to be significantly different. (elsevier.com)
  • Using several statistical methods that test IMP topography vis-a-vis the Poisson (random) hypothesis, it is demonstrated that IMP are mathematically randomly distributed in the large majority of plasma membranes of cells in normal rat bladder epithelium and in invasive N-(4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl)formamide tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • Materials and Methods: Tumors with various stages were formed in 20 female Fischer F344 rats by implanting AY-27 rat bladder carcinoma cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: All rats showed bladder tumors 7 to 10 days after cancer cell implantation, of which stages varied from superficial to advanced disease. (elsevier.com)
  • An independent Pathology Working Group (PWG) re-evaluated the kidney changes in National Toxicology Program (NTP) toxicology/carcinogenicity studies of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in F344/N rats to determine possible mode(s) of action underlying renal tubule tumors in male rats at 2-years. (nebraska.edu)
  • In the current study, we performed an age-based comparison of proteasome function and composition of subunits and regulatory proteins in the neural retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in Fischer 344 rats. (umn.edu)
  • Also, a specific antibody response in sera of cholangiocyte-immunized rats was demonstrated by immunoblots against cholangiocyte proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • The first aim of the study was to determine the age-related changes in levels of N ε -(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) present on proteins of the cardiovascular system of Fischer 344 rats and identify the particular polypeptides being modified. (nebraska.edu)
  • CML content in serum, aorta, and heart proteins from 28-month-old rats was double of that found in 4-month-old animals. (nebraska.edu)
  • Given the important role of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the regulation of fat oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis, we examined AMPK activity in young and old rats and found that acute stimulation of AMPK-alpha(2) activity by 5'-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and exercise was blunted in skeletal muscle of old rats. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake in male Fischer 344 rats, age 6, 12, and 27 mo, fed either a sucrose (S: 66.6% sucrose, 17.6% protein, 6.4% fat) or sucrose-free (SF: 66.6% starch, 17.6% protein, 6.4% fat) diet for 3 mo. (elsevier.com)
  • We hypothesized that glucose utilization by skeletal muscle is less in cold-exposed older male versus female Fischer 344 (F344) rats and that this reduction may contribute to the poorer cold-exposed thermoregulatory ability of the older males. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, when data were expressed relative to total tissue weight (nmol/min), skeletal muscle glucose utilization was significantly higher in male than in female rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, our hypothesis that reduced skeletal muscle glucose utilization contributes to the blunted thermoregulatory ability of older male versus female F344 rats is negated. (elsevier.com)
  • McDonald, RB, Murtagh, CM & Horwitz, BA 1994, ' Age and gender effects on glucose utilization in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue of cold-exposed rats ', Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine , vol. 207, no. 1, pp. 102-109. (elsevier.com)
  • The goal of this study was to determine if skeletal muscle injury induced by exposure to injurious stretch-shortening cycles (iSSCs), resulted in hyperalgesia in the hind limb and changes in calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) immunolabeling in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in young and old male rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Gimap5 is a member of seven related genes located within 150 Kb on rat chromosome 4. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Nlrp1 genes from sensitive rat macrophages can confer sensitivity to this rapid cell death when expressed in Toxoplasma resistant rat macrophages. (prolekare.cz)
  • Two novel candidate genes, P2rx7 and P2rx4 , were identified, having a 7− and 3− fold increased expression in F344 rats. (frontiersin.org)
  • To identify a gene or genes regulating fracture risk at the femoral neck, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for femoral neck density and structure phenotypes using a 595 F2 progeny derived from the inbred F344 and LEW strains of rats. (galileo-training.com)
  • We give some examples of this in the present paper, while also highlighting that microarray gene expression studies reveal that HPA-axisand prolactin-related genes (among others) in the amygdala appear to be related with (or associated to) the coping style and anxiety/fearfulness responses of NIH-HS rats. (scirp.org)
  • Identification of candidate genes for generalized tonic-clonic seizures in Noda epileptic rat. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
  • It is now possible to identify homologous regions between rat and human or rat and mouse, and to place disease-related genes from the human or mouse on the rat genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, the identification of candidate genes for specific traits in rats is possible through comparative mapping. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study of disease-related genes in the rat will lead to a better understanding of inherited conditions in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glutathione was measured in well-defined subcompartments of the lung of both rats and monkeys to compare alterations occurring in both target (distal trachea and terminal bronchiole) and nontarget areas (lobar bronchus, major daughter, minor daughter bronchus, and parenchyma) of the lung in species that differ in sensitivity to ozone exposure (rat is less susceptible than monkey). (nih.gov)
  • Such gene-by-environment interactions can be explored by studying rats that have been specifically bred to be genetically susceptible or resistant to drug use. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Whereas exposure of virgin female rats to a variety of carcinogens during puberty results in close to 100% incidence of mammary carcinomas in many susceptible strains, animals fed with garlic grown in selenium-enriched soil showed dramatic reductions in tumor incidence ( 2 - 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fischer (CDF) and Brown Norway (BN) rats, however, are susceptible to chronic infection and develop transmissible cysts in their brain and muscle tissue , . (prolekare.cz)
  • Hybrids were free of overt and of microscopic biomarkers of PC, however a) a subset of hybrids (37%) developed overt PC following IV inoculation of mutagenic methylnitrosourea plus implants of exogenous testosterone propionate ,and b) like LW control rats, hybrids were susceptible to the unique hormone refractory PC (PAIII) transplanted cell, that was rejected by control Fischer rats. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have shown previously that the Fischer (F344) rat has lower GFR than the Lewis rat, and is more susceptible to renal injury induced by hypertension. (frontiersin.org)
  • Inbred strains of male F344 and WKAH rats were purchased from Charles River Japan (Atsugi, Kanagawa, Japan) and Japan SLC (Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan), respectively. (jimmunol.org)
  • With a novel focus on the immune system this paper investigate whether late phase pulmonary effects developed in rats exposed to the nitrogen mustard melphalan are linked to the acute responses and whether the reactions are genetically regulated. (wiley.com)
  • We initiated a large-scale bidirectional selection experiment in a genetically heterogeneous rat population (N/NIH stock, n = 152) to develop lines of low response trainers (LRT) and high response trainers (HRT) as a contrasting animal model system. (physiology.org)
  • What can we learn on rodent fearfulness/anxiety from the genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rat stock? (scirp.org)
  • The "National Institutes of Health" genetically heterogeneous (NIH-HS) rat stock was created in the 1980s through an eight-way cross of as much as possible separate inbred rat strains (i.e. the MR/N, WN/N, WKY/N, M520/N, F344/N, ACI/N, BN/SsN and BUF/N strains) which were readily available at that time. (scirp.org)
  • Hansen and Spuhler developed a more naturalistic, genetically heterogeneous rat stock with the aim of optimizing the distribution of genotypic frequencies and recombination and under the hypothesis that the NIH-HS stock could yield a broad-range distribution of responses (broader than commonly used laboratory rat strains) to experimental conditions, and thus serve as a base population for selection studies. (scirp.org)
  • Genetic studies currently under way have thus far revealed that the genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rat stock constitutes a unique tool for fine mapping of QTL (for multiple behavioural and biological complex traits) to megabase resolution levels, thus enabling candidate gene identification. (scirp.org)
  • Thus, with the purpose of overcoming the problem of too narrow and shared genetic ancestry in the available outbred rat stocks, Hansen and Spuhler developed a more naturalistic, genetically heterogeneous rat stock which could hypothetically yield a broad-range distribution of responses to experimental conditions and could serve as a base population for selection studies. (scirp.org)
  • So, with the goal of optimizing the distribution of genotypic frequencies and recombination within the laboratory rat population, the "National Institutes of Health-N/NIH- Genetically Heterogeneous Rat Stock" (hereafter NIHHS rats) was formed through an eight-way cross of as much as possible separate inbred strains which were readily available. (scirp.org)
  • Howard Jacob describes some of the key moments and breakthroughs in his remarkable career, and the path that led him from his research roots in cardiovascular disease and rat physiology to becoming Director of a clinical genomic sequencing program. (biologists.org)
  • Orotic acid, nucleotide-pool imbalance, and liver-tumor promotion: a possible mechanism for the mitoinhibitory effects of orotic acid in isolated rat hepatocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Given the previously reported role of Per2 as a tumor suppressor, these observations suggest that Per2 is an important target of methylselenocysteine during chemoprevention in N -nitroso- N -methylurea-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis, and for the first time provide a link between chemoprevention and circadian rhythm. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Two disparate strains of inbred rats were selected, each developing spontaneously up to age 24 months, differences in tumor type, in organ site, and in optimal level of endogenous testosterone for tumor development. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In noninvasive rat bladder carcinomas, IMP are in a lattice-like arrangement in half of the tumor cells and randomly distributed in the remainder. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: Intravesical ultrasonography is a reliable and appropriate noninvasive method for evaluating tumor stage and size in an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model. (elsevier.com)
  • Since norepinephrine in the blood vessel wall is predominantly localized to sympathetic nerve endings, the decline in norepinephrine content in most arteries of old rats may reflect a selective decrease in the density of sympathetic neurons or alternatively an age-related alteration in the metabolic properties of these sympathetic nerve endings. (elsevier.com)
  • By contrast, mammary tissue of rats maintained on the selenium-enriched diet showed a progressive, time-dependent increase in the expression of circadian gene Per2 and circadian-regulated transcription factor DBP . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stem cells inhibits intracranial hemorrhage after recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy for transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
  • In this study, we systematically compare the hearing function during aging in male and female F344 rats, by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). (frontiersin.org)
  • However, glucose utilization per IBAT depot (nmol/min) was significantly less in older male than in female rats, and reflected the fact that IBAT weight of older males was more than 50% lower than that of comparably aged females. (elsevier.com)
  • The question of whether young male HSD rats would have reproductive responses to constant dark or to supplemental melatonin injections was also tested. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Also for the first time, sex-specific rat genetic maps were generated, which revealed both genomewide and fine-scale variation in recombination rates between male and female rats. (g3journal.org)
  • First we demonstrate that 2DG increases mortality of male Fischer-344 rats. (elsevier.com)
  • We reconfirm the cardiotoxicity of 2DG in a 6-week follow-up study evaluating male Brown Norway rats and a natural form of 2DG in addition to again examining effects in Fischer-344 rats and the original synthetic 2DG. (elsevier.com)
  • Large amounts of urine with a strong odor, a possible indicator of diabetes mellitus, were frequently observed, and urinary glucose was detected in both male and female LEA/Tohm rats. (springer.com)
  • Male Fischer rats (SPF) of 32 weeks of age were housed in individual cages for 4 weeks. (elsevier.com)
  • The norepinephrine content of blood vessels in male Fischer 344 rats aged 6, 12, 20 and 27 months was measured by electrochemical detection after alumina extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography separation. (elsevier.com)
  • Right-sided lesions were produced in 3-month-old, male rats by stereotaxic injection of 10 micrograms ibotenic acid. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Fourteen months after receiving bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellaris (NBM), male rats demonstrated impairment in spatial learning in a water maze task, increased incidence of high voltage spindles, and significant depletion of cortical choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Young (3months) and old (30months) male Fisher 344×BN F1 rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and the left hind limbs were exposed to 15 sets of 10 SSCs. (cdc.gov)
  • Linear papillary mineralization, another hallmark of the α 2u -g pathway was present only in treated male rats. (nebraska.edu)
  • The PWG concluded that both α 2u -g nephropathy and exacerbated CPN modes of action were operative in TBA renal tumorigenicity in male rats, neither of which has relevance for human cancer risk. (nebraska.edu)
  • As a counterpart to this strategy, L-dopa administration (50 mg/kg) to adult male Fischer 344 rats with unilateral nigrostriatal lesions using 6-hydroxy-dopamine, and subsequent fetal mesencephalic grafts resulted in stunted size and neurite outgrowth, diminished tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, diminished behavioral recovery, and diminished ability to reverse lesion-induced D2 receptor changes, compared with saline-treated rats with the same lesion and subsequent graft. (elsevier.com)
  • BC 1 rats were generated for two specific crosses: the first with a male LEW/Jms rat as parent and grandparent, [(F × L) × L], designated B group, and the second with a female LEW/Jms rat as the parent and grandparent [L × (L × F)], designated C group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For the C group with a female LEW/Jms parent, there was a fully significant locus on Chr2 with a LOD score of 3.81 that was associated almost exclusively with male rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This locus was largely associated with male rats with a LEW/Jms male parent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rats were sacrificed, and various skeletal muscles and IBAT were removed and immediately frozen in liquid N 2 for subsequent analysis of [ 14 C]-2DGP content. (elsevier.com)
  • Protein expression and oxidation were evaluated in myosin and actin isolated from the soleus and semimembranosus muscles from young adult, old, and very old Fischer 344 rats. (umn.edu)
  • In the semimembranosus, actin content was stable, but myosin exhibited decreased content in muscles from very old rats, resulting in a decrease in the myosin-to-actin ratio. (umn.edu)
  • The hippocampus can be extracted quickly and easily from rats and mice and slices remain viable for hours in oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid. (meta.org)
  • The effects of the adenosine reuptake inhibitor soluflazine on synaptic potentials and population hypoxic depolarizations in area CA1 of rat hippocampus in vitro. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Adenosine has recently been shown to play a potentially important role in the regulation of synaptic excitability during experimental hypoxia in the hippocampus of the rat. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • In the present experiments, an inhibitor of the reuptake of adenosine, soluflazine (R64719) was employed to increase the levels of endogenous adenosine under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in slices of the hippocampus of the rat. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Objective The present study assessed the effect of prolonged betamethasone use in ligature-induced periodontitis in adult Fischer-344 rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results Jac-E and Jac-O of groups B and S were not significantly different, but they differed significantly from those of group C. Conclusion Prolonged use of betamethasone did not affect the progression of induced periodontitis in rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • Prolonged use of betamethasone did not affect the progression of induced periodontitis in rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • Transplantation of astrocytes derived from embryonic glial-restricted precursors (GRPs) promoted robust axon growth and restoration of locomotor function after acute transection injuries of the adult rat spinal cord. (nih.gov)
  • Transplantation of GDAs into stab-wound lesions of the dorsal column white matter pathways of adult rat spinal cord (Figure 1a-c) resulted in the growth of the majority of the cut ascending dorsal column axons into the lesion center (Figures 2 and 3a), with 66% of these axons extending further beyond the lesion site into adjacent white matter (Figures 2 and 3a,b,e,f). (nih.gov)
  • Young adult (3 months old) and aging (24 months old) Fischer rats were treated for 2 months with vehicle, or the potent PARP inhibitor INO-1001. (utmb.edu)
  • Inbred Fischer rats produce greater amounts of the abovementioned substances, which has a direct effect on the nervous, connective, and epithelial tissues of the periodontium, facilitating the progression of ligatureinduced periodontitis 7-9 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, mice and rats with genetic inactivation or inhibition of DPP-4 exhibit improved glucose tolerance, elevated levels of GLP-1 and GIP, and resistance to diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Rat hindlimbs were perfused at a rate of 10 ml · min -1 with a modified Krebs Henseleit buffer containing bovine red blood cells (hematocrit: 40%) and 5.85 mmole · L -1 glucose along with 358 pmoles · L -1 followed by 3580 pmoles · L -1 insulin. (elsevier.com)
  • Although estimated glucose utilization in IBAT (nmol/min/g) isolated from cold-exposed rats was significantly greater than that in brown fat isolated from non-cold-exposed animals, there was no main effect of age or gender. (elsevier.com)
  • Phenotypic analysis of F344- Ctns ugl rats indicated that the incidence of urinary glucose was 100% in both males and females at around 40 weeks of age, and marked cystine accumulation was observed in the tissues, as well as remarkable renal lesions and cystine crystals in the lysosomes of the renal cortex. (springer.com)
  • FaOH and FaDOH have previously demonstrated a chemopreventive effect on precursor lesions of colorectal cancer (CRC) in azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nucleus basalis lesions fail to induce senile plaques in the rat. (muscimol.xyz)
  • There is evidence from quantitative electron microscopy studies of urinary bladder carcinomas induced by a chemical carcinogen in Fischer rats that decreased intercellular adhesion, mediated in part by intercellular junctions, does not contribute to the invasive potential of tumours. (elsevier.com)
  • Pauli, BU, Friedell, GH & Weinstein, RS 1978, ' Topography and numerical densities of intramembrane particles in chemical carcinogen-induced urinary bladder carcinomas in Fischer rats ', Laboratory Investigation , vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 565-573. (elsevier.com)
  • Glutathione concentrations were decreased in trachea of rats exposed to 0.4 ppm ozone for 2 h and increased in lobar bronchus and distal bronchiole after 2 h exposure at 1 ppm. (nih.gov)
  • Ninety day ozone exposures (6 h/day x 5 days/week) in rats produced an elevation in glutathione (164% of control value) only in distal bronchiole at the 1 ppm exposure level. (nih.gov)
  • All rat strains displayed a biphasic pattern of leukocyte infiltration in the lungs, dominated by neutrophils 2 days after exposure and a second peak dominated by macrophages 29 days after exposure. (wiley.com)
  • Some were housed in the standard, social condition (SC) of multiple rats in one cage, others were housed in enriched conditions (EC), which involved group housing and exposure to novel objects, and others were housed in isolated conditions (IC), which removed all social and object stimuli. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Effect of diet and occupational exposure in different rat strains on serum biomarkers and peripheral blood mononuclear cell telomere length: development of an animal model to examine the exposome. (cdc.gov)
  • Lung tissues and blood samples were collected from rats at 4, 32, and 44 wk after exposure to 15 mg/m 3 of silica × 6 h/d × 5 d. (cdc.gov)
  • Rats were euthanized one, 3 or 10days after the exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • However, 9days after exposure to iSSCs, old rats still displayed an increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulation, and this hyperalgesia was associated with an increase in CGRP immunolabeling in the DRG. (cdc.gov)
  • Fischer-344 rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.3, 1.0, or 2.0 mg Cd/m3 as CdCl2 aerosol for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 62 exposure days. (nih.gov)
  • this very uniformity means that fewer individuals are required to produce results with the same level of statistical significance when an inbred line is used in comparison to an outbred line in the same experiment Breeding of inbred strains is often towards specific phenotypes of interest such as behavioural traits like alcohol preference or physical traits like aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the key strengths of using inbred strains as a model is that strains are readily available for whatever study one is performing and that there are resources such as the Jackson Laboratory, and Flybase, where one can look up strains with specific phenotypes or genotypes, from among inbred lines, recombinant lines, and Coisogenic strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, mitochondrial biogenesis in response to chronic activation of AMPK with beta-guanidinopropionic acid (beta-GPA) feeding was also diminished in old rats. (nih.gov)
  • The present study was designed to investigate the potency and safety of KRP-203 on allograft survival against both acute and chronic rejection in rat skin and heart transplantation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2DG has also recapitulated some hallmarks of the CR phenotype including reduced body temperature and circulating insulin in short-term rodent trials, but one chronic feeding study in rats found toxic effects. (elsevier.com)
  • Although mouse, hamster, and rabbit models of the human N-acetylation polymorphism have been identified and characterized, many investigations of arylamine toxicity and carcinogenicity are carried out in the rat, particularly the Fischer 344 (F-344) inbred rat. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The results in this study suggest there is a link between the development of lung fibrosis and high cytotoxic cell responses and that there is a genetic influence, as there are variations in acute and late adverse reactions between rat strains in both timing and magnitude. (wiley.com)
  • The oleic acid (OA) model of acute lung injury in rats is characterized by a massive and rapid influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) within 1 h, with a peak inflammatory response at 4 h and resolution by 72 h. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "A study was conducted on the changes of physiological function in rats due to immobilization stress. (elsevier.com)
  • In other experiments, young HSD rats failed to suppress reproduction or reduce body weight in response to either constant dark or twice-daily supplemental melatonin injections. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • In our experience, transgenic efficiency with outbred SD rats is comparable to transgenesis in inbred mouse lines such as FVB/N (one founder per seven donors or 1.0% transgenic eggs) and C57BL/6 (one founder per six donors or 3.3% transgenic eggs). (imgs.org)
  • In an intercross between F1(BBDP x F344) rats, we identified a rat with a recombination event on chromosome 4, allowing us to fix 33 Mb of F344 between D4Rat253 and D4Rhw6 in the congenic DR. lyp rat line. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Spontaneous diabetes in the BB rat may therefore be controlled, in part, by a diabetogenic factor(s), perhaps unrelated to the Gimap5 mutation on rat chromosome 4. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Linkage analyses of LEWxBN F2 progeny was previously used to map Toxoplasma resistance in rats to a single genetic locus, termed Toxo1 , within a 1.7-cM region of chromosome 10 . (prolekare.cz)
  • Inbreeding of moderately responding backcrosses with moderately or highly responding backcrosses gave offspring that showed the whole spectrum of antibody responses, as would be expected for control by multiple genetic factors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Pedigree analyses of the antibody responses to poly(Glu 52 Lys 33 Tyr 15 ) in a variety of hybrids of the ACI and F344 strains were performed in order to search for unexpectedly high responses (mean of the parental responses + three standard deviations) or for minimal responses (≤50 µg of antibody/ml) in the offspring of parents that made moderate amounts of antibody. (jimmunol.org)
  • Such unexpected antibody responses were found in all of the crosses examined: F 1 hybrids, F 2 hybrids, F 1 backcrosses, inbred F 1 backcrosses, second F 1 backcrosses and F 2 backcrosses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Along the last decade, in a series of studies we have phenotypically characterized the NIH-HS rat stock (a colony exists at our laboratory since 2004) for their anxiety/fearfulness profiles (using a battery of both unconditioned and conditioned tests/tasks), as well as regarding their stress-induced hormonal responses, coping style under inescapable stress and spatial learning ability. (scirp.org)
  • The NIH-HS rat stock is, as a population, a rather anxious type of rat, with predominantly reactive/passive coping style in unlearned and learned anxiety/fear tests, and elevated stress hormone responses (as well as enhanced "depressive" symptoms in the forced swimming test). (scirp.org)
  • Offspring homozygous for the F344 allele ( f/f ) between D4Rat253 and D4Rhw6 were lymphopenic (85 of 85, 100%) but did not develop diabetes (0 of 85). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This essay presents some practical advice and suggestions for those who wish to use mice and rats in experiments on the biology of aging. (afar.org)
  • This article is intended to convey some rules-of-thumb for investigators just starting to think about the design of experiments on aging using mice and rats. (afar.org)
  • In addition the word "mice" will be used throughout to mean "mice and rats," except in those cases where mice are different from rats. (afar.org)