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  • Sprague-Dawley
  • Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups. (bioscirep.org)
  • We have previously reported that male and female offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a diet rich (approximately 50% of caloric intake from fat) in animal fat (lard) during pregnancy and suckling (OHF) demonstrate cardiovascular dysfunction, including blunted endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in the aorta as well as reduced renal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • genes
  • Androgens and their nuclear receptor regulate genes necessary for development of the male phenotype, a process that is thought to be modulated by extracellular androgen carrier proteins. (duke.edu)
  • The two domains were joined at splice junctions of the ABP-SHBG and HDC genes, which were localized to rat chromosomes 10 and 3, respectively. (duke.edu)
  • A low dose (200 ng/kg per minute) of Ang II was continuously infused into rats by osmotic minipump for 24 hours or 3 or 7 days to examine the effects on the expression of cardiac phenotype-related or fibrosis-related genes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Interactions between differentially expressed genes/proteins belonging to "positive regulation of RNA metabolic process" ontology group were investigated by STRING10 software. (hindawi.com)
  • The present study was to determine whether prenatal cocaine exposure induced apoptosis and the possible role of Bcl-2 family genes in the programming cell death in fetal rat brain. (medsci.org)
  • 24 ] has detected cocaine exposure-induced changes in expression of some apoptosis-related genes in the fetal mouse cerebral wall by microarray analysis and demonstrated that maternal cocaine exposure could influence transcriptional expression levels of multiple apoptosis related genes in fetal cerebral wall. (medsci.org)
  • However, whether maternal cocaine exposure causes a typical apoptotic cell morphological and biochemical damage, and induces changes in translational expression levels of apoptosis-related genes in fetal brain in vivo is unknown. (medsci.org)
  • Fetus
  • Picon L. Effect of insulin on growth and biochemical composition of the rat fetus. (springer.com)
  • The results showed that the levels of thyroid hormone, insulin, insulin signal transduction-related protein, mitochondrial, and adipokines increased with the fetus developed, but had no statistical differences in the PTU group compared with the normal group. (bioscirep.org)
  • Such findings led to the "fetal origins hypothesis", which states that cardiovascular disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes originate through adaptations that the fetus makes when it is undernourished. (bmj.com)
  • 8 Furthermore, findings among people who were in utero during the Dutch famine show that the fetus' metabolism may be permanently changed by levels of undernutrition that do not affect fetal growth. (bmj.com)
  • skeletal
  • Effects of physiologic hyperinsulinemia on skeletal muscle protein synthesis and breakdown in man. (springer.com)
  • The monospecific antibody was then used to investigate the distribution of α-skeletal actin in the myocardium of newborn and normal or hypertensive (with or without fibrotic areas) adult rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • During cardiac hypertrophy induced by aortic ligature between the renal arteries, the expressions of α-skeletal actin mRNA and protein were increased. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 4 5 6 It has been shown that the 2 sarcomeric mRNAs are coexpressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle: α-cardiac actin mRNA has been found in developing mouse, 7 rat, 8 and chick 9 skeletal muscles. (ahajournals.org)
  • the proportion of total actin mRNA due to α-skeletal actin mRNA is 28% at 17 to 19 days of fetal development, 40% one week after birth and 5% in the adult. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 13 Using these methods, it was shown that both α-skeletal and α-cardiac actins are simultaneously expressed in various types of striated muscle and that a good correlation between the relative protein and mRNA expressions generally is observed. (ahajournals.org)
  • 14 15 16 This has left open questions regarding the distribution of α-skeletal actin protein expression in muscle tissues, as well as the degree to which the 2 α-striated muscle actins colocalize in the same cell and within the sarcomere. (ahajournals.org)
  • The pregnant rats were obtained and had a cesarean-section to get at gestational ages of 8.5, 13, and 21 days, following blood samples and skeletal muscle were obtained from fetal rats. (bioscirep.org)
  • Western blotting was performed to analyze mitochondria and insulin signal transduction-related protein in fetal rat skeletal muscle. (bioscirep.org)
  • proliferation
  • Thyroid hormones are involved in regulating various physiological functions and pathological processes in the body, including changes in metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and lipids, influence cell proliferation and development, and modulate response to other hormones [ 1-3 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • 95% O 2 from birth, increased viability induced by intraperitoneal injection of KGF (2 μg/g body wt) every other day was associated with prevention of neutrophil influx in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), prevention of decreases in whole lung DNA content and cell proliferation rate, partial prevention of apoptosis increase, and a markedly increased proportion of surfactant protein B-immunoreactive cells in lung parenchyma. (physiology.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to develop a method for investigating proliferation and differentiation of undifferentiated cells from fetal rat stomach. (diva-portal.org)
  • induces
  • In the present study, to examine whether Ang II induces these qualitative changes of the heart, we continuously infused a low dose of Ang II into rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our study has demonstrated that prenatal cocaine exposure induces apoptosis in the fetal brain, and suggested that up-regulating Bax/Bcl-2 gene expression may be involved in cocaine-induced apoptosis. (medsci.org)
  • phenotype
  • Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, induced by hypertension or pressure overload by aortic coarctation, is accompanied not only by quantitative changes (increase in cardiac myocyte size) but also by qualitative changes, including a shift to the fetal phenotype of myocytes 5 12 13 14 15 and cardiac remodeling such as interstitial fibrosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • We obtained direct evidence that Ang II, via the type 1 (AT 1 ) receptor, can induce the shift to the fetal phenotype of cardiac myocytes and cardiac remodeling independent of hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • In order to evaluate their presence and biological activity, we studied the effect of PF and serum obtained from patients undergoing cardiac surgery on the phenotype and cell growth of isolated adult rat myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • histidine decarboxylase
  • The other cDNA represented a fused transcript of the ABP-SHBG gene (exons 1-5) and the histidine decarboxylase (HDC) gene, encoding a Mr 98,000 precursor protein. (duke.edu)
  • Gastric tissue was subjected to indirect double immunofluorescence staining with antiserum against the C-terminal decapeptide of the CCK2 receptor and antibodies against 5' bromo-2-deoxyuridine, which had been injected into the rats I h before they were killed, the acid pump H,K-ATPase, the membrane-cytoskeletal linker ezrin, pepsin/pepsinogen or histidine decarboxylase. (diva-portal.org)
  • insulin
  • The effects of dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP), theophylline, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) on DNA replication and on the biosynthesis of RNA and insulin in fetal rat islets of Langerhans maintained in tissue culture have been studied. (bioscirep.org)
  • Both (pro)insulin and total protein biosynthesis were stimulated by glucose, whereas dbcAMP stimulated only the (pro)insulin biosynthesis. (bioscirep.org)
  • Insulin, for example, is a potent stimulus of protein turnover increasing synthesis and attenuating degradation [1, (springer.com)
  • Effect of insulin on protein turnover in heart muscle. (springer.com)
  • Insulin effects on protein synthesis are independent of glucose and energy metabolism. (springer.com)
  • The effect of insulin infusion and food intake on muscle protein synthesis in post absorptive rats. (springer.com)
  • Recently, it has been suggested that taurine deficiency may alter the endocrine pancreas "fetal programming," increasing the risk of insulin resistance in adult life. (springer.com)
  • hyperinsulinemia
  • Susa JB, McCormick KL, Widness JA, Singer DB, Oh W, Adamsons K and Schwartz R. Chronic hyperinsulinemia in the fetal rhesus monkey: effects on fetal growth and composition. (springer.com)
  • synthesis
  • Protein turnover in muscle represents the net result of synthesis of new protein from a precursor pool of amino acids and the degradation of contractile, regulatory and other proteins into their constituent amino acids. (springer.com)
  • In muscle, an array of hormonal, mechanical, and metabolic factors influence protein synthesis and degradation. (springer.com)
  • Fractional synthesis (K s ) and degradation (K d ) rate represent the fraction of the available precursor that is synthesized into protein or the protein product which is degraded into amino acids, respectively. (springer.com)
  • Relative synthesis of cardiac contractile proteins. (springer.com)
  • Regulation of protein synthesis in heart muscle. (springer.com)
  • The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) growth and development during folliculogenesis and oogenesis are accompanied by changes involving synthesis and accumulation of large amount of RNA and proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • The RNA, which is accumulated within the oocyte cytoplasm, displays a significant function as the template for protein synthesis after fertilization and during embryo preimplantation development [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • mRNA
  • Northern blots revealed the concomitant increase in HSP72 mRNA in stretched rat hearts. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions - Stretch in the rat heart results in activation of HSF1 and an increase in HSP72 mRNA through SACs. (ahajournals.org)
  • apoptosis
  • The increased apoptosis of neuronal cells in the fetal brain is likely to play a key role in cocaine-induced neuronal defects during fetal development. (medsci.org)
  • A previous study demonstrated that cocaine induced apoptosis in cultured cortical neuronal cells of fetal mice [ 22 ]. (medsci.org)
  • To understand the possible mechanisms underlying cocaine-induced apoptosis in the developing brain, we measured the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 and examined the effects of cocaine on Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression in fetal rat brain. (medsci.org)
  • growth
  • The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of human PF and serum, collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery, on the growth of cultured adult rat cardiac myocytes and (2) to relate the growth activity of both fluids to the adaptive changes in overloaded human hearts. (ahajournals.org)
  • The influence of placental size on foetal growth according to sex and order of birth. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 6 However, while birth weight serves as a marker of fetal growth it is a crude one. (bmj.com)
  • actin
  • The 6 actin isoforms found in mammalians constitute a family of closely related proteins expressed in a tissue-specific way. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 10 11 12 At the protein level, studies on actin isoform distribution and quantification have been carried out using electrophoresis and by analysis of the partially hydrolyzed NH 2 -terminal peptides. (ahajournals.org)
  • brain
  • Fetal regional brain protein signature in FASD rat model. (nih.gov)
  • Although teratogenic effects of cocaine on the human fetal brain, such as destructive lesions and disturbances of the neurodevelopmental program are well documented [ 3 , 6 ], the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. (medsci.org)
  • expression
  • Expression of the fusion cDNA in COS cells yielded HDC activity and the predicted size protein (Mr = 93,000) on Western immunoblots. (duke.edu)
  • Mouse models have been a very valuable tool in characterizing cellular gene activation and protein-expression profiles as well as elucidating the signaling pathways involved. (springer.com)
  • 8,10-12 Several studies reported that stretch resulted in HSF1 activation and HSP72 expression in rat aorta, 8,13,14 but few data are available for the heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • Increased lung antioxidant capacity is likely to be due in part to enhanced CAAT/enhancer binding protein α expression. (physiology.org)
  • In the M. tibialis, gene expression of uncoupling protein 3 was higher in the Concept compared to the CTRL group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • newborn
  • Last, it was shown that KGF protected premature newborn rats from hyperoxic lethality but not from hyperoxic inhibition of postnatal alveolar formation and early pulmonary fibrosis ( 22 ). (physiology.org)
  • development
  • Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding ( 11 ), in which catch-up fat is studied in the absence of hyperphagia, we previously showed that the hyperinsulinemic state of catch-up fat preceded the development of excess adiposity and could be linked to suppressed thermogenesis, per se, in the absence of hyperphagia ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Sex differences in development of fetal rat lung. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Fetal body development was assessed. (garvan.org.au)
  • findings
  • Consistent with these findings, spindle orientation-regulatory proteins Insc, LGN (Gpsm2) and NuMA, and the cell fate determinant Numb are asymmetrically localized in embryonic lung distal epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • cardiac
  • Geenen DL, Malhotra A, Buttrick PM and Scheuer J. Increased heart rate prevents the isomyosin shift after cardiac transplantation in the rat. (springer.com)
  • Geenen DL, Malhotra A, Buttrick PM and Scheuer J. Ventricular pacing attenuates but does not reverse cardiac atrophy and an isomyosin shift in the rat heart. (springer.com)
  • 21 It has been recently shown that isolated rat cardiac myocytes release FGF2 via sarcolemma transient disruption. (ahajournals.org)
  • differences
  • 2 Two of these differences consist of an inversion of glutamic and aspartic acid at residues 2 and 3 in the NH 2 -terminus of the protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • Localization
  • We further show that Eya1 protein regulates cell polarity, spindle orientation and the localization of Numb, which inhibits Notch signaling. (biologists.org)
  • serum
  • The explants were cultured in DMEM/F-12 medium supplemented with fetal calf serum only, or fetal calf serum combined with either hydrocortisone or pentagastrin. (diva-portal.org)
  • alteration
  • This cDNA also lacked testicular exon 6 DNA, an alteration that implicates the encoded protein in regulatory functions. (duke.edu)