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  • The ratio of numbers A and B can be expressed as: the ratio of A to B A is to B (followed by "as C is to D") A:B A fraction that is the quotient: A divided by B: A B {\displaystyle {\tfrac {A}{B}}} , which can be expressed as either a simple or a decimal fraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main advantage of the generalized Rachev ratio over the traditional Rachev ratio is conferred by the power indexes γ {\displaystyle \gamma } and δ {\displaystyle \delta } that characterize an investor's aversion to risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • For two groups that differ only in treatment condition, the ratio of the hazard functions is given by e β {\displaystyle e^{\beta }} , where β {\displaystyle \beta } is the estimate of treatment effect derived from the regression model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then the Sharpe ratio (using the old definition) will be R a − R f σ a = 0.15 0.10 = 1.5 {\displaystyle {\frac {R_{a}-R_{f}}{\sigma _{a}}}={\frac {0.15}{0.10}}=1.5} Example 2 For an example of calculating the more commonly used ex-post Sharpe ratio - which uses realized rather than expected returns - based on the contemporary definition, consider the following table of weekly returns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rate Ratio = Incidence Rate 1 Incidence Rate 2 {\displaystyle {\text{Rate Ratio}}={\frac {\text{Incidence Rate 1}}{\text{Incidence Rate 2}}}} Where incidence rate is the occurrence of an event over person-time, for example person-years. (wikipedia.org)
  • 0, a + b a = a b = def φ , {\displaystyle {\frac {a+b}{a}}={\frac {a}{b}}\ {\stackrel {\text{def}}{=}}\ \varphi ,} where the Greek letter phi ( φ {\displaystyle \varphi } or ϕ {\displaystyle \phi } ) represents the golden ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because δS is the ratio of positive quantities, it is necessarily positive, so, δ S = 1 + 2 = 2.41421356237 … {\displaystyle \delta _{S}=1+{\sqrt {2}}=2.41421356237\dots } The silver ratio is a Pisot-Vijayaraghavan number (PV number), as its conjugate 1 − √2 = −1/δS ≈ −0.41 has absolute value less than 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mathematics, the ratio test is a test (or "criterion") for the convergence of a series ∑ n = 1 ∞ a n , {\displaystyle \sum _{n=1}^{\infty }a_{n},} where each term is a real or complex number and an is nonzero when n is large. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult sex
  • A joint study by the University of Bath and University of Sheffield gives the first conclusive proof that rates of divorce and infidelity in birds are affected by the adult sex ratio of the population they live in - a theory previously discounted by biologists. (bath.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest that adult sex ratio may have an important role in shaping mating behaviour in a wide range of organisms, and deserve further investigations both in humans and non-human animals. (bath.ac.uk)
  • It is generally divided into four subdivisions: primary sex ratio - ratio at fertilization secondary sex ratio - ratio at birth tertiary sex ratio - ratio in sexually mature organisms Also called adult sex ratio and abbreviated to ASR. (wikipedia.org)
  • irrational
  • The Pythagoreans' conception of number included only what would today be called rational numbers, casting doubt on the validity of the theory in geometry where, as the Pythagoreans also discovered, incommensurable ratios (corresponding to irrational numbers) exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • This defines the silver ratio as an irrational mathematical constant, whose value of one plus the square root of 2 is approximately 2.4142135623. (wikipedia.org)
  • odds
  • Hazard ratios differ from relative risks and odds ratios in that RRs and ORs are cumulative over an entire study, using a defined endpoint, while HRs represent instantaneous risk over the study time period, or some subset thereof. (wikipedia.org)
  • When can odds ratios mislead? (bmj.com)
  • Odds ratios are a common measure of the size of an effect and may be reported in case-control studies, cohort studies, or clinical trials. (bmj.com)
  • Odds ratios are hard to comprehend directly and are usually interpreted as being equivalent to the relative risk. (bmj.com)
  • Unfortunately, there is a recognised problem that odds ratios do not approximate well to the relative risk when the initial risk (that is, the prevalence of the outcome of interest) is high. (bmj.com)
  • 1 2 Thus there is a danger that if odds ratios are interpreted as though they were relative risks then they may mislead. (bmj.com)
  • For example: "The odds ratio is approximately the same as the relative risk if the outcome of interest is rare. (bmj.com)
  • However, serious divergence between the odds ratio and the relative risk occurs only with large effects on groups at high initial risk. (bmj.com)
  • This short note quantifies the discrepancy between odds ratios and relative risks in different circumstances, and assesses whether such a discrepancy may seriously mislead if an odds ratio is used as an estimate of the relative risk. (bmj.com)
  • The pretest odds of a particular diagnosis, multiplied by the likelihood ratio, determines the post-test odds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tests where the likelihood ratios lie close to 1 have little practical significance as the post-test probability (odds) is little different from the pre-test probability. (wikipedia.org)
  • In statistics, the odds ratio (OR) is one of three main ways to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of property A is associated with the presence or absence of property B in a given population. (wikipedia.org)
  • This ratio is the odds ratio (OR) and can be computed following these steps: For a given individual that has "B" compute the odds that the same individual has "A" For a given individual that does not have "B" compute the odds that the same individual has "A" Divide the odds from step 1 by the odds from step 2 to obtain the odds ratio (OR). (wikipedia.org)
  • The odds ratio compares the occurrence of the outcome in the presence of a particular exposure, with the occurrence of the outcome in the absence of a particular exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • but then the ratio of the risks, which is RR, is approximately equal to the ratio of the odds, which is OR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Odds ratio Ratio Risk ratio Bellan, Steve. (wikipedia.org)
  • consequent
  • In 1986 John Aitchison, who pioneered the log-ratio approach to compositional data analysis wrote: It seems surprising that the warnings of three such eminent statistician-scientists as Pearson, Galton and Weldon should have largely gone unheeded for so long: even today uncritical applications of inappropriate statistical methods to compositional data with consequent dubious inferences are regularly reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sharpe
  • The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ex-post Sharpe ratio uses the same equation as the one above but with realized returns of the asset and benchmark rather than expected returns - see the second example below. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sharpe ratio is similar to the Information ratio but, whereas the Sharpe ratio is the 'excess' return of an asset over the return of a risk free asset divided by the variability or standard deviation of returns, the information ratio is the active return to the most relevant benchmark index divided by the standard deviation of the 'active' return or tracking error. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sharpe ratio characterizes how well the return of an asset compensates the investor for the risk taken. (wikipedia.org)
  • When comparing two assets versus a common benchmark, the one with a higher Sharpe ratio provides better return for the same risk (or, equivalently, the same return for lower risk). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyramid schemes with a long duration of operation would typically provide a high Sharpe ratio when derived from reported returns, but the inputs are false. (wikipedia.org)
  • When examining the investment performance of assets with smoothing of returns (such as with-profits funds) the Sharpe ratio should be derived from the performance of the underlying assets rather than the fund returns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sharpe ratios, along with Treynor ratios and Jensen's alphas, are often used to rank the performance of portfolio or mutual fund managers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several statistical tests of the Sharpe ratio have been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This ratio is just the Sharpe ratio, only using minimum acceptable return instead of the risk-free rate in the numerator, and using standard deviation of returns instead of standard deviation of excess returns in the denominator. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1966, William F. Sharpe developed what is now known as the Sharpe ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Euclid
  • Mathematicians since Euclid have studied the properties of the golden ratio, including its appearance in the dimensions of a regular pentagon and in a golden rectangle, which may be cut into a square and a smaller rectangle with the same aspect ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Mario Livio: Some of the greatest mathematical minds of all ages, from Pythagoras and Euclid in ancient Greece, through the medieval Italian mathematician Leonardo of Pisa and the Renaissance astronomer Johannes Kepler, to present-day scientific figures such as Oxford physicist Roger Penrose, have spent endless hours over this simple ratio and its properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Euclid explains a construction for cutting (sectioning) a line "in extreme and mean ratio" (i.e., the golden ratio). (wikipedia.org)
  • golden ratio
  • The ratio of the width to the height of a rectangle is called an aspect ratio, an example of which is the golden ratio of classical architecture. (britannica.com)
  • The golden ratio is also called the golden mean or golden section (Latin: sectio aurea). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some twentieth-century artists and architects, including Le Corbusier and Dalí, have proportioned their works to approximate the golden ratio-especially in the form of the golden rectangle, in which the ratio of the longer side to the shorter is the golden ratio-believing this proportion to be aesthetically pleasing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The golden ratio appears in some patterns in nature, including the spiral arrangement of leaves and other plant parts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The golden ratio has also been used to analyze the proportions of natural objects as well as man-made systems such as financial markets, in some cases based on dubious fits to data. (wikipedia.org)
  • The golden ratio has been claimed to have held a special fascination for at least 2,400 years, although without reliable evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • But the fascination with the Golden Ratio is not confined just to mathematicians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ancient Greek mathematicians first studied what we now call the golden ratio because of its frequent appearance in geometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Euclid's Elements (Greek: Στοιχεῖα) provides the first known written definition of what is now called the golden ratio: A straight line is said to have been cut in extreme and mean ratio when, as the whole line is to the greater segment, so is the greater to the lesser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Throughout the Elements, several propositions (theorems in modern terminology) and their proofs employ the golden ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • The golden ratio is explored in Luca Pacioli's book De divina proportione (1509). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first known approximation of the (inverse) golden ratio by a decimal fraction, stated as "about 0.6180340", was written in 1597 by Michael Maestlin of the University of Tübingen in a letter to his former student Johannes Kepler. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the 20th century, the golden ratio has been represented by the Greek letter φ (phi, after Phidias, a sculptor who is said to have employed it) or less commonly by τ (tau, the first letter of the ancient Greek root τομή-meaning cut). (wikipedia.org)
  • analogously to the way the golden ratio is the limiting ratio of consecutive Fibonacci numbers, the silver ratio is the limiting ratio of consecutive Pell numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • These fractions provide accurate rational approximations of the silver ratio, analogous to the approximation of the golden ratio by ratios of consecutive Fibonacci numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact it is the second smallest quadratic PV number after the golden ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • equation
  • are oddities, mathematically speaking: Result 1: if there is a normal anion gap acidosis, the [ AG - 12 ] part of the equation will be close to zero, the delta ratio will be close to zero and there is no mixed acid-base disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • When two ratios are set equal to each other, the resulting equation is called a proportion. (britannica.com)
  • different
  • Hence, it is possible for two women to have vastly different body mass indices but the same waist-hip ratio, or to have the same body mass index but vastly different waist-hip ratios. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquidity ratio analysis may not be as effective when looking across industries as various businesses require different financing structures. (investopedia.com)
  • Liquidity ratio analysis is less effective for comparing businesses of different sizes in different geographical locations. (investopedia.com)
  • The study, which examined the pair bonding and mating behaviour of 197 different species of bird, found the divorce rate was higher in species with a female-biased sex ratio. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Since the measurement of an absolute intensity in an experiment can be challenging, the ratio of different spectral line intensities can be used to achieve information about the plasma, as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • For more tailored applications, the generalized Rachev Ratio has been defined with different powers and/or different confidence levels of the ETR and ETL. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, phytoplankton species with different N and P requirements compete and, as the result, balance each other so that "the ratio of the elements in the plankton as a whole might come to reflect the ratio of the nutrient substances in sea water rather closely" (Redfield 1934). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ratio can also be used to understand the formation of phytoplankton blooms and subsequently hypoxia by comparing the ratio between different regions, such as a comparison of the Redfield Ratio of the Mississippi River to the ratio of the northern Gulf of Mexico. (wikipedia.org)
  • The average compa-ratio can therefore differ from the group compa-ratio according to the spread of individual compa-ratios at different job sizes. (wikipedia.org)
  • asset
  • The loan-to-value ( LTV ) ratio is a financial term used by lenders to express the ratio of a loan to the value of an asset purchased. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Rachev Ratio (or R-Ratio) is a risk-return performance measure of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expense ratio of a stock or asset fund is the total percentage of fund assets used for administrative, management, advertising (12b-1), and all other expenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • 0.75
  • A Compa-Ratio of 1.00 or 100% means that the employee is paid exactly what the industry average pays and is at the midpoint for the salary range, A ratio of 0.75 means that the employee is paid 25% below the industry average and is at the risk of seeking employment with competitors at a higher pay that is perceived equitable. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Raman band whose depolarization ratio is less than 0.75 is called a polarized band, and a band with a 0.75 depolarization ratio is called a depolarized band. (wikipedia.org)
  • risks
  • Hazard ratios suffer somewhat less from selection bias with respect to the endpoints chosen and can indicate risks that happen before the endpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative risk of one group compared with another is simply the ratio of the risks in the two groups. (bmj.com)
  • commonly
  • This is ratio prednisolone 1 why symptoms visit you nitrobenzene commonly. (netibuy.com)
  • As for the inputs portion, although FCR is commonly calculated using feed dry mass, it is sometimes calculated on an as-fed wet mass basis, (or in the case of grains and oilseeds, sometimes on a wet mass basis at standard moisture content), with feed moisture resulting in higher ratios. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term is commonly used by banks and building societies to represent the ratio of the first mortgage line as a percentage of the total appraised value of real property . (wikipedia.org)
  • A parity progression ratios (PPR) is a measure commonly used in demography to study fertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • terminology
  • This is a comparatively recent development however, as can be seen from the fact that modern geometry textbooks still use distinct terminology and notation for ratios and quotients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Second, the lack of a widely used symbolism to replace the already established terminology of ratios delayed the full acceptance of fractions as alternative until the 16th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • higher
  • The hazard ratio would be 2, indicating higher hazard of death from the treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Result 4: if the result of the ratio is greater than 2 in a high anion gap metabolic acidosis, it is usually because there was a pre-existing higher than normal bicarbonate level. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a subject standing in orthostatic position (upright) the apex of the lung shows higher V/Q ratio, while at the base of the lung the ratio is lower but nearer to the optimal value for reaching adequate blood oxygen concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, a higher liquidity ratio shows a company is more liquid and has better coverage of outstanding debts. (investopedia.com)
  • The higher the LTV ratio, the riskier the loan is for a lender. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low LTV ratios (below 80%) carry with them lower rates for lower-risk borrowers and allow lenders to consider higher-risk borrowers, such as those with low credit scores , previous late payments in their mortgage history, high debt-to-income ratios , high loan amounts or cash-out requirements, insufficient reserves and/or no income. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher LTV ratios are primarily reserved for borrowers with higher credit scores and a satisfactory mortgage history. (wikipedia.org)
  • The loans with LTV ratios higher than 100% are called underwater mortgages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors influencing the expense ratio include the size of the fund (small funds often have higher ratios as they spread expenses among a smaller number of investors), sales charges, and the management style of the fund. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charities having a higher program expense ratio (and thus a lower support service expense ratio) are often considered to be more efficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantifies
  • The group compa-ratio, which quantifies the relationship between practice and policy for the whole organization or a defined population group (function, department, occupation or job family). (wikipedia.org)
  • assumption
  • Bill Hamilton expounded Fisher's argument in his 1967 paper on "Extraordinary sex ratios" as follows, given the assumption of equal parental expenditure on offspring of both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • denominator
  • Mathematically if the change in the numerator is similar to the change in the denominator, the delta ratio will be close to 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • males
  • The WHO states that abdominal obesity is defined as a waist-hip ratio above 0.90 for males and above 0.85 for females, or a body mass index (BMI) above 30.0. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that a female bias in sex ratio destabilises the pair bond system, although it is unclear as to whether this is due to lots of unpaired females luring males away from their mate or if the male, given a greater choice of partners, decides to switch partners more frequently. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the 1:1 sex ratio is approached, the advantage associated with producing males dies away. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study performed by Danforth observed no significant difference in the number of males and females from the 1:1 sex ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia cause skewed sex ratios in some arthropod species as they kill males. (wikipedia.org)
  • dimensionless
  • Being a ratio the FCR is dimensionless , that is, it is not affected by the units of measurement used to determine the FCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the two quantities are measured with the same unit, as is often the case, their ratio is a dimensionless number. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • If one were to consider humidified air (with less oxygen), then the ideal v/q ratio would be in the vicinity of 1.0 , thus leading to concept of ventilation-perfusion equality or ventilation-perfusion matching . (wikipedia.org)
  • optimal
  • In the ex-ante analysis, optimal portfolio problems based on the Rachev ratio are, generally, numerically hard to solve because the Rachev ratio is a fraction of two CVaRs which are convex functions of portfolio weights. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphate
  • Furthermore, Redfield proposed thermostat like scenario in which the activities of nitrogen fixers and denitrifies keep the nitrate to phosphate ratio in the seawater near the requirements in the protoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Redfield proposed that the ratio of Nitrogen to Phosphorus in plankton resulted in the global ocean having a remarkably similar ratio of dissolved nitrate to phosphate (16:1). (wikipedia.org)
  • regression
  • Cox arthralgias that included a 25 action pathophysiology, 50 use beneficiary, and 1 prednisolone ratio 75 halo transcription in regression in the walmart autonomic dose after protocol-specified study range. (netibuy.com)
  • Regression models are used to obtain hazard ratios and their confidence intervals . (wikipedia.org)
  • perpendicular
  • The polarization extinction ratio (PER) is the ratio of optical powers of perpendicular polarizations, usually called TE (transverse electrical) and TM (transverse magnetic). (wikipedia.org)
  • In Raman spectroscopy, the depolarization ratio is the intensity ratio between the perpendicular component and the parallel component of the Raman scattered light. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ratio of the peak intensity of the parallel and perpendicular component is known as the depolarization ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if you have a species with a peak which had an intensity 10 units, when the polarisers were parallel, and an intensity of 1 unit when the polarisers were perpendicular, then the depolarisation ratio would be 1/10 = 0.1, this peak would be highly polarised band. (wikipedia.org)
  • estimates
  • This paper estimates monthly pass-through ratios from import prices to consumer prices in real time. (repec.org)
  • It estimates critical parameters, including the divergence between sequences and the transition/transversion ratio, by deducing the most likely values to produce the input data. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • While both ventilation and perfusion increase going from the apex to the base, perfusion increases to a greater degree than ventilation, lowering the V/Q ratio at the base of the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, as n increases, the ratio still tends in the limit towards the same constant 1/2. (wikipedia.org)
  • anion
  • Delta ratio is a formula that can be used to assess elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis and to evaluate whether a mixed acid base disorder (metabolic acidosis) is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • radius ratio Radius of a cation divided by that of an anion . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Oxygen is the major anion in most minerals, so the radius ratio of various cations to oxygen is particularly important. (encyclopedia.com)
  • mathematicians
  • Mathematicians have studied the silver ratio since the time of the Greeks (although perhaps without giving a special name until recently) because of its connections to the square root of 2, its convergents, square triangular numbers, Pell numbers, octagons and the like. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • Liquidity ratios are an important class of financial metrics used to determine a debtor's ability to pay off current debt obligations without raising external capital. (investopedia.com)
  • The analysis of line intensity ratios is an important tool to obtain information about laboratory and space plasmas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expense ratios are important to consider when choosing a fund, as they can significantly affect returns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leading sources of information about charities, including GuideStar, Charity Navigator and the Wise Giving Alliance, say that the support service expense ratio (i.e. "overhead") can be an important indicator, especially if it is at one extreme or another, but generally speaking it is just as important to look at other factors including transparency, governance, leadership, and results. (wikipedia.org)
  • This ratio has an important part to play in the overall pay management process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The division of a line into "extreme and mean ratio" (the golden section) is important in the geometry of regular pentagrams and pentagons. (wikipedia.org)
  • interval
  • Vincenzo Galilei, father of Galileo, discovered that the ratio of an interval is proportional to string lengths, but varies as the square of the tension applied to the strings. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • a separate likelihood ratio is simply calculated for every level of test result and is called interval or stratum specific likelihood ratios. (wikipedia.org)
  • examine
  • An investor can examine a fund's "Financial Highlights" which is contained in both the periodic financial reports and the fund's prospectus, and determine a fund's expense ratio over the last five years (if the fund has five years of history). (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • For example, internal analysis regarding liquidity ratios involves using multiple accounting periods that are reported using the same accounting methods. (investopedia.com)
  • Alternatively, external analysis involves comparing the liquidity ratios of one company to another or an entire industry. (investopedia.com)
  • rectangle
  • Removing a largest possible square from a sheet of such paper leaves a rectangle with proportions 1:√2 − 1 which is the same as 1 + √2:1, the silver ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Biased sex ratios may destabilise pair-bonds and increase marital infidelity, although relevance of these findings for other species need to be thoroughly tested. (bath.ac.uk)
  • In most sexually reproducing species, the ratio tends to be 1:1. (wikipedia.org)
  • For various reasons, however, many species deviate from anything like an even sex ratio, either periodically or permanently. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most species, the sex ratio varies according to the age profile of the population. (wikipedia.org)
  • The theory of sex ratio is a field of study concerned with the accurate prediction of sex ratios in all sexual species, based on a consideration of their natural history. (wikipedia.org)
  • He defines five major questions, both for his book and the field in general (slightly abbreviated here): For a dioecious species, what is the equilibrium sex ratio maintained by natural selection? (wikipedia.org)
  • Fisher's principle explains why for most species, the sex ratio is approximately 1:1. (wikipedia.org)
  • This ratio has been observed in many species, including the bee Macrotera portalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • For species where the cost of successfully raising one offspring is roughly the same regardless of its sex, this translates to an approximately equal sex ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • expected value
  • A lower V/Q ratio (with respect to the expected value for a particular lung area in a defined position) impairs pulmonary gas exchange and is a cause of low arterial partial pressure of oxygen (paO 2 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Operational
  • It is very hard for a fund to significantly lower its expense ratio once it has had a few years of operational history. (wikipedia.org)
  • measure
  • The term "expense ratio" is also a key measure of performance for a nonprofit organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • A rate ratio (sometimes called an incidence density ratio) in epidemiology, is a relative difference measure used to compare the incidence rates of events occurring at any given point in time. (wikipedia.org)
  • latter
  • In 1958, almost a quarter century after first discovering the ratios, Redfield leaned toward the latter mechanism proposing in his seminal manuscript the idea of "the biological control of chemical factors" in the ocean (Redfield, 1958). (wikipedia.org)
  • reflects
  • The exposition of the theory of proportions that appears in Book VII of The Elements reflects the earlier theory of ratios of commensurables. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Respectively, they are known as the positive likelihood ratio (LR+, likelihood ratio positive, likelihood ratio for positive results) and negative likelihood ratio (LR-, likelihood ratio negative, likelihood ratio for negative results). (wikipedia.org)
  • Considering that at the time little was known about the composition of "protoplasm," Redfield did not attempt to explain why its N:P ratio should be approximately 16:1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The test was first published by Jean le Rond d'Alembert and is sometimes known as d'Alembert's ratio test or as the Cauchy ratio test. (wikipedia.org)
  • investor's
  • In a bond fund where the historical gross return might be 8%, a 1% expense ratio will consume approximately 12.5% of the investor's return. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a money market fund where the historical gross return might be 5%, a 1% expense ratio will consume approximately 20% of the investor's historical total return. (wikipedia.org)
  • Funds
  • A typical annual expense ratio for a U.S. domestic stock fund is about 1%, although some passively managed funds (such as index funds) have significantly lower ratios. (wikipedia.org)
  • One notable component of the expense ratio of U.S. funds is the "12b-1 fee", which represents expenses used for advertising and promotion of the fund. (wikipedia.org)
  • means
  • An expense ratio of 1% per annum means that each year 1% of the fund's total assets will be used to cover expenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • For example, a person with a 30″ (76 cm) waist and 38″ (97 cm) hips has a waist-hip ratio of about 0.78. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is calculated as waist measurement divided by hip measurement (W ÷ H). For example, a person with a 30″ (76 cm) waist and 38″ (97 cm) hips has a waist-hip ratio of about 0.79. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if a bowl of fruit contains eight oranges and six lemons, then the ratio of oranges to lemons is eight to six (that is, 8:6, which is equivalent to the ratio 4:3). (wikipedia.org)
  • main
  • The phenomenon of spurious correlation of ratios is one of the main motives for the field of compositional data analysis, which deals with the analysis of variables that carry only relative information, such as proportions, percentages and parts-per-million. (wikipedia.org)