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  • GTPases
  • The sites of Sec7 domain interaction on ARF1 have subsequently been mapped, by protein footprinting experiments, to the switch 1 and switch 2 GTPase regions, leading to a model for the interaction between ARF GTPases and Sec7 domain exchange factors. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Multiple, yet distinct lipid products are generated following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and bind to different domains in the RasGRP and SOS RasGEFs to facilitate the activation of the membrane-anchored Ras GTPases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Ras GTPases cycle between GDP-bound inactive and GTP-bound active forms. (frontiersin.org)
  • RasGEFs
  • Early on it was recognized that Ras activation is critical for T cell development and that the RasGEFs play an important role herein. (frontiersin.org)
  • These nuances include distinct biochemical patterns of analog versus digital Ras activation, differences in cellular localization of Ras activation, and intricate interplays between the RasGEFs during distinct T cell developmental stages as revealed by various new mouse models. (frontiersin.org)
  • In many instances, the exact nature of these nuances in Ras activation or how these may result from fine-tuning of the RasGEFs is not understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review we highlight how different lipid-based elements are generated by various enzymes downstream of the TCR and other receptors and how these dynamic and interrelated lipid products may fine-tune Ras activation by RasGEFs in developing T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • bind
  • This novel architecture, in which the three lobes bind with three membrane associated proteins, and the location of calmodulin binding sites provide insight into how the protein 4.1R core domain interacts with membrane proteins and dynamically regulates cell shape in response to changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • target proteins
  • the other takes the form of an extended structure and its binding with CaM is dramatically enhanced by the presence of Ca 2+, resulting in the weakening of protein 4.1R binding to its target proteins. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Second, at the molecular level, by promoting different modes of association with many target proteins. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The dynamic reorganization of the PSD links glutamate receptor signaling to kinases (writers) and phosphatases (erasers), as well as the target proteins that are modulated by protein phosphorylation and the proteins that recognize the phosphorylation status of their binding partners (readers). (sciencemag.org)
  • regulators
  • CM-AVM Capillary … Ras Regulators SHP-2 SOS1 and Noonan syndrome Noonan syndrome (NS) is definitely a developmental autosomal dominating disorder characterized by short stature cardiac and skeletal abnormalities facial dysmorphism. (acancerjourney.info)
  • activation
  • More recent work has revealed that nuances in Ras activation appear to significantly impact T cell development and selection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Activation of Ras is regulated by the balance of opposing actions of two classes of Ras regulatory enzymes. (frontiersin.org)
  • neurons
  • In other tissues such as the sex myoblasts or the chemosensory neurons, all three RasGAPs act in concert. (uzh.ch)
  • The postsynaptic site of neurons is composed of more than 1500 proteins arranged in protein-protein interaction complexes, the composition of which is modulated by protein phosphorylation through the actions of complex signaling networks. (sciencemag.org)
  • interaction
  • By studying the genetic interaction of gap-3 with the two previously identified RasGAPs gap-1 and gap-2, we find that different combinations of RasGAPs are used to repress LET-60 RAS signaling depending on the cellular context. (uzh.ch)
  • a form of synaptic plasticity), isolated the CA1 region, and then performed both a proteomic analysis and a protein-protein interaction analysis of the postsynaptic density (PSD), a cellular compartment containing more than 1500 proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Protein phosphorylation and protein interaction networks converged at highly connected nodes within the PSD network. (sciencemag.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • We triggered LTP in the mouse hippocampus CA1 region and then performed large-scale analyses to identify phosphorylation-mediated events in the PSD and changes in the protein-protein interactome of the PSD that were associated with LTP induction. (sciencemag.org)
  • small
  • Small GTP-binding proteins. (springer.com)
  • Enhanced signaling by the small guanosine triphosphatase Ras is usually common in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. (technumber.com)
  • In the small HCC group, CCT3 and IQGAP3 protein had sensitivity of 76.6 and 74.5 %, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • concentrations
  • Both the R1276A and the R1391A mutant NF1-334 proteins were 1000-fold less active than wild-type NF1-334 in activating the GTPase when measured at saturating concentrations. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • As a consequence of burying the hydrophobic cleft, the R(g) of the protein is reduced by 1.5 A. Based on this prediction, x-ray scattering experiments were conducted on this domain over a range of concentrations. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • contrast
  • In contrast, there was only a minor effect of either mutation on NF1-334 affinity for wild-type Ha-Ras. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere. (rndsystems.com)
  • cytoskeletal
  • The crystal structure of the core domain (N-terminal 30 kDa domain) of cytoskeletal protein 4.1R has been determined and shows a cloverleaf-like architecture. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Factors
  • Bioinformatics analysis of this data set indicated that risk factors associated with autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia were contained within the phosphoproteins that were differentially regulated by the induction of LTP, such that excluding these proteins from the analysis completely removed any association with the risk of having either of these two psychiatric diseases. (sciencemag.org)
  • CCT3 (60 kDa) is a critical subunit in CCT/TRiC complexes, which plays a significant role in specifically binding these factors during protein folding or refolding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • role
  • Three research have got uncovered important insights regarding the role of Ras and cytokine signaling in T-ALL. (technumber.com)
  • cells
  • IL-7 contributes to the maintenance of all naïve and memory T cells, mainly by promoting expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 (9-11). (rndsystems.com)
  • negative
  • In addition, CCT3 and IQGAP3 protein were able to complement AFP in detecting AFP-negative HCC patients with sensitivity and specificity of 92.1 and 70.5 % and 81.6 and 71.6 %, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)