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  • oncogenes
  • The family of ras oncogenes promotes the initiation of tumor growth by stimulating tumor cell proliferation, but also ensures tumor progression by stimulating tumor-associated angiogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Of the three mammalian RAS genes, only HRAS and KRAS were identified originally as the cellular counterparts of the viral oncogenes of acute transforming Harvey and Kirsten sarcoma retroviruses (Cox and Der, 2010). (cancer.gov)
  • Inhibiting this enzyme causes a reduction in the endogenous production of mevalonate, which in turn triggers a series of reactions resulting in decreased biologic activity of Ras proteins and other oncogenes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Indeed, the study of the signaling pathways regulated by RAS in yeast cells led to the discovery of properties that were often found interchangeable with RAS proto-oncogenes in human pathways, and vice versa. (mdpi.com)
  • isoform
  • One logical assumption is that a specific RAS isoform is favored simply by level of expression. (cancer.gov)
  • 2000). This result suggested that sensitivity to DNA mutagenesis, rather than a requirement for activation of a specific RAS protein, is a basis for RAS isoform preference in cancer induction from a particular tissue. (cancer.gov)
  • guanosine triphosphate
  • The activated form of Ras contains a bound GTP (guanosine triphosphate, orange) in its active site. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Partially purified preparations of the carboxy-terminal domain of the SCD25 gene product enhanced the exchange rate of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) to guanosine triphosphate (GTP) of pure RAS2 protein by stimulating the release of GDP. (sciencemag.org)
  • MAPK
  • FPT III incubation (18 h) inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated p42/p44 MAPK activation and p21 Ras membrane localization, whereas 15 min incubation had no effect on the activation of p42/p44 MAPK in response to PDGF (added at 18 h) or on membrane p21 Ras localization (measured at 18 h). (strath.ac.uk)
  • sequence
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein. (uniprot.org)
  • tissues
  • 2014), supporting distinct roles for RAS isoforms in driving cancer from different tissues. (cancer.gov)
  • yeast
  • One example of the high degree of conservation between human and yeast proteins is highlighted by the members of the RAS family. (mdpi.com)
  • biochemical
  • Such a distribution can be ascertained by biochemical fractionation, which shows Ras-GRF1 in both soluble and particulate fractions, its proportions vary depending on the cell type. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • abundant
  • Abundant expression of ras proteins in Aplysia neurons. (rupress.org)
  • Fluorescence immunocytochemistry revealed that ras-like protein is most abundant in neuronal cell bodies and axon processes, with staining most prominent at plasma membranes. (rupress.org)
  • neurons
  • The large identified neurons of Aplysia offer the opportunity to examine how ras protein might function in mature nerve cells. (rupress.org)
  • tumor
  • As a result of these Ras-regulated changes in gene expression, the tumor cells cause stimulation of endothelial cells in nearby vascular beds (directly via VEGF, and indirectly via COX-produced prostaglandins) and promote remodeling of the extracellular matrix (by lowering TSP and increasing uPA/MMPs). (nih.gov)
  • kinase
  • Acts as an A-kinase anchoring protein by binding to the type II regulatory subunit of protein kinase A and anchoring it to the mitochondrion. (rcsb.org)
  • regulation
  • In this review we describe the mechanisms that underlie Ras regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenases (COX-1/-2), thrombospondins (TSP-1/-2), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteases-2 and -9 (MMP-2/-9). (nih.gov)
  • bound
  • We have used MSCS to study two crystal forms of active H-Ras bound to a nonhydrolyzable GTP analog (GMPPNP). (ncsu.edu)
  • activity
  • therefore, it is reasonable to speculate that a pharmacological approach that curtails Ras activity may represent a sensible approach to inhibit melanoma growth. (curehunter.com)
  • The membrane is playing a very critical role in controlling the activity of very complex signaling networks that involve many different protein molecules, Sligar said. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Ras-GRF1, along with Ras-GRF2 and Sos, are the only known exchange factors that combine Rho and Ras exchanger activity in the same protein. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • extracts
  • We used a panel of monoclonal antibodies raised against v-Ha-ras p21 to precipitate an Mr 21,000 protein from extracts of Aplysia nervous tissue, ovotestis, and, to a much lesser degree, buccal muscle. (rupress.org)