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  • molecules
  • Ran-GTPases lack consensus membrane attachment sequences, are predominantly nuclear localized ( B ischoff and P onstingl 1991b ), and are very abundant, with an estimated 10 7 molecules per HeLa cell ( B ischoff and P onstingl 1991b ). (genetics.org)
  • It contains most of the cell's genetic material (DNA), organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. (wikibooks.org)
  • The movement of larger molecules such as proteins is carefully controlled, and requires active transport regulated by carrier proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound subcompartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of subnuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. (wikibooks.org)
  • vitro
  • Indeed, NXT1 stimulates nuclear protein export of the NES-containing protein PKI in vitro. (asm.org)
  • In Ran Tg T cells, there was compromised activation marker expression, lymphokine secretion, and proliferation upon T cell receptor activation in vitro when compared with wild type T cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • By using the digitonin-permeabilized cell system for protein import in vitro, we have defined the import pathway for the Rex protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. (curehunter.com)
  • Using in vitro competition assays, it was demonstrated that the target sites on Imp β for Imp α, Tat, and Rev binding either are identical or at least overlap. (asm.org)
  • Amino acid permeases require COPII components and the ER resident membrane protein Shr3p for packaging into transport vesicles in vitro. (duke.edu)
  • substrates
  • Nuclear import receptors such as importin beta bind their substrates only in the absence of GTP-bound RAN and release them upon direct interaction with GTP-bound RAN , while export receptors behave in the opposite way. (rcsb.org)
  • Acting autonomously, is thought to serve itself as receptor for nuclear localization signals (NLS) and to promote translocation of import substrates through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) by an energy requiring, Ran-dependent mechanism. (genecards.org)
  • Binds specifically and directly to substrates containing either a simple or bipartite NLS motif. (genecards.org)
  • CELL NUCLEUS
  • The results of genetic studies in Arabidopsis indicate that three proteins, the RNase III DICER-Like1 (DCL1), the dsRNA-binding protein HYPONASTIC LEAVES1 (HYL1), and the C2H2 Zn-finger protein SERRATE (SE), are required for the accurate processing of microRNA (miRNA) precursors in the plant cell nucleus. (pnas.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes two essential regulatory proteins that are both active in the cell nucleus (reviewed in references 8 and 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Crm1
  • Thus, NXT1 regulates the Crm1-dependent export pathway through its direct interaction with Ran-GTP. (asm.org)
  • This protein functions as a nuclear export factor in both RAN (Ras-related nuclear protein)- and CRM1 (required for chromosome region maintenance)-dependent pathways. (genecards.org)
  • It is found to stimulate the export of U1 snRNA in RAN- and CRM1-dependent pathways and the export of tRNA and mRNA in a CRM1-independent pathway. (genecards.org)
  • Control of cyclin B1 localization through regulated binding of the nuclear export factor CRM1. (duke.edu)
  • We show here that the previously characterized cytoplasmic retention sequence of Cyclin B1, responsible for its interphase cytoplasmic localization, is actually an autonomous nuclear export sequence, capable of directing nuclear export of a heterologous protein, and able to bind specifically to the recently identified export mediator, CRM1. (duke.edu)
  • yeast
  • Perturbations of the spi1p GTPase system in fission yeast, caused by mutation or overexpression of several regulatory proteins, result in a unique terminal phenotype that includes condensed chromosomes, a wide medial septum, and a fragmented nuclear envelope. (genetics.org)
  • med2 and med3 encode novel fission yeast proteins that, based on our phenotypic analyses, are likely to identify additional regulators or effectors of the spi1p GTPase system. (genetics.org)
  • Exposure of yeast cells to increases in extracellular osmolarity activates the HOG1 MAP kinase cascade, which is composed of three tiers of protein kinases, namely the SSK2, SSK22 and STE11 MAPKKKs, the PBS2 MAPKK, and the HOG1 MAPK. (embopress.org)
  • assay
  • Indeed, RanBPM specifically interacted with GTP-Ran in two-hybrid assay. (nih.gov)
  • In a solution binding assay, ARAN1 recognized Ran when complexed with importin beta, transportin, and CAS, but not the Ran-GTP or the Ran-GDP alone, indicating that the COOH-terminal domain of Ran is exposed via its interaction with importin beta-related proteins. (nih.gov)
  • To confirm this, we prepared the 10-mer peptide of the COOH-terminal domain, 207-216, of Ran fused to GST (Fig. 3 A). As shown in Fig. 3, B and C, ARAN1 clearly reacted with the residues between 207 and 216 of human Ran not only in immunoblotting but also in a solution binding assay. (nih.gov)
  • mRNA
  • The export of mRNA from the nucleus is also thought to be receptor mediated and dependent on Ran-GTP, but the specific contributions of transport factors to this pathway are much less clear than for protein export. (asm.org)
  • Analysis of MEX67 in S. cerevisiae and its apparent mammalian orthologue TAP has revealed a role for these proteins in mRNA export as well ( 47 ). (asm.org)
  • The Rev protein, while equally critical for HIV-1 replication, acts posttranscriptionally to induce the sequence-specific nuclear export of late HIV-1 mRNA species. (asm.org)
  • The encoded protein heterodimerizes with Tap protein and may regulate the ability of Tap protein to mediate nuclear mRNA export. (genecards.org)
  • The mature miRNA forms a complex with the RNA-induced silencing complex and represses the expression of target mRNA transcripts via binding to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR). (ahajournals.org)
  • Nup358 binds to AGO proteins through its SUMO-interacting motifs and promotes the association of target mRNA with miRISC. (nih.gov)
  • genes
  • Consistent with coupling of transcription to the nuclear pore, we show that transcriptional activation of the GAL genes results in their association with nuclear pore proteins, relocation to the nuclear periphery, and loss of RanGEF association. (nih.gov)
  • Genomic studies revealed that numerous portions of the human genome do not encode conventional protein-coding genes but encode biologically active non-coding RNA species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Traditionally, network biology has ignored such properties of proteins and has instead examined either the physical interactions of whole proteins or the consequences of removing entire genes. (nih.gov)
  • mediate
  • Upon binding to NLS or NES cargo, receptors mediate transport of the receptor-cargo complex through the central gated channel of the NPC in a poorly understood translocation reaction. (asm.org)
  • highly conserved
  • The E26 transformation-specific sequence (ETS) factors are a family of transcription factors that share a highly conserved DNA binding domain and regulate cell development, senescence, death, and tumorigenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • interact
  • Here, we report that the arginine-rich NLS sequences present in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 regulatory proteins Tat and Rev fail to interact with Imp α and instead bind directly to Imp β. (asm.org)
  • Mutations within the Ets binding site block transactivation, and Ets-1 and Ets-2 interact with this critical genomic region. (ahajournals.org)
  • Interaction
  • Alternatively, Ran may have multiple independent functions that are mediated by its interaction with a variety of downstream effectors. (genetics.org)
  • Tat function involves a direct interaction between Tat and an RNA target site, termed TAR, that is mediated by an arginine-rich RNA binding motif (ARM) that also functions as the Tat NLS ( 18 , 40 ). (asm.org)
  • NTF2
  • Here we characterize a novel component of the Ran system that is 26% identical to NTF2, which based on its function we refer to as NTF2-related export protein 1 (NXT1). (asm.org)
  • The model reflects experimentally determined rates for cargo import and correctly predicts that import is limited principally by Impα and Ran, but is also sensitive to NTF2. (rupress.org)
  • 1) The NTF2 homodimer imports Ran into the nucleus. (rupress.org)
  • In the model, Ran can also translocate the NPC without NTF2, but with a much lower permeability constant. (rupress.org)
  • pathways
  • The fact that many of these nuclear proteins appear to be imported into the nucleus by different pathways suggests that their import must be coordinately regulated. (rupress.org)
  • A collection of articles that focus on an array of different scientific topics such as pathways, cancer, transmembrane proteins. (cusabio.com)
  • transport receptors
  • Thereby, RAN controls cargo loading and release by transport receptors in the proper compartment and ensures the directionality of the transport (PubMed:8896452, PubMed:9351834, PubMed:9428644). (rcsb.org)
  • abundant
  • Neurogranin (Ng) is among the most abundant proteins known to bind calmodulin (CaM) in a Ca 2+ -sensitive way in the brain [ 1 ]. (ijbs.com)