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  • beams
  • Beams of high-energy particles are useful for fundamental and applied research in the sciences, and also in many technical and industrial fields unrelated to fundamental research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus elementary particle physicists tend to use machines creating beams of electrons, positrons, protons, and antiprotons, interacting with each other or with the simplest nuclei (e.g., hydrogen or deuterium) at the highest possible energies, generally hundreds of GeV or more. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear physicists and cosmologists may use beams of bare atomic nuclei, stripped of electrons, to investigate the structure, interactions, and properties of the nuclei themselves, and of condensed matter at extremely high temperatures and densities, such as might have occurred in the first moments of the Big Bang. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • Of these, only about 1% are research machines with energies above 1 GeV, while about 44% are for radiotherapy, 41% for ion implantation, 9% for industrial processing and research, and 4% for biomedical and other low-energy research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study
  • To study the collisions of quarks with each other, scientists resort to collisions of nucleons, which at high energy may be usefully considered as essentially 2-body interactions of the quarks and gluons of which they are composed. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • These investigations often involve collisions of heavy nuclei - of atoms like iron or gold - at energies of several GeV per nucleon. (wikipedia.org)
  • multiple
  • Since in these types the particles can pass through the same accelerating field multiple times, the output energy is not limited by the strength of the accelerating field. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • It is also possible that new fractionation schedules could be designed to exploit the change in the DNA repair kinetics when MGMT-methylated cells respond to high LET radiation. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The new machine can deliver high-powered radiation without damaging healthy cells. (itv.com)
  • Radioactive
  • Besides asbestos, mining industry workers who are exposed to coal products or radioactive substances, such as uranium, and workers exposed to chemicals, such as arsenic, vinyl chloride, mustard gas , and other carcinogens, also have a higher than average risk of contracting lung cancer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • High levels of a radioactive gas (radon) that cannot be seen or smelled pose a risk for lung cancer. (encyclopedia.com)