• Super resolution Structured Illumination Microscopy (SR-SIM) was used to examine samples collected at 0, 10, 30, 60, and 120 min of capacitation time, to obtain 3D images of SNARE localization. (illinois.edu)
  • Our results will help in identification of pathways that may regulate SNARE localization and function during capacitation, membrane fusion and the acrosome reaction. (illinois.edu)
  • We know SNARE proteins are responsible for insulin secretion, but it's still not understood exactly how they do it. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Indeed different SNAREs regulate diverse mechanisms such as the constitutive secretion of immune mediators, phagocytosis and endocytosis, or also the release of inflammatory mediators and products from secretory granules. (units.it)
  • During my thesis I have investigated the role of SNAREs in IL-12 secretion by DCs. (units.it)
  • I performed functional analyses by silencing SNAREs with the siRNA strategy to detect impairment in DC cytokines secretion and in T cell priming. (units.it)
  • In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , a mutation in the unc-64 gene, which encodes the ortholog of the mammalian presynaptic t-SNARE syntaxin 1A, strongly antagonizes the behavioral effects of VAs acting at concentrations within the range of that used in human anesthesia. (asahq.org)
  • Furthermore, we identified that the SNARE-like motif present in these bacterial proteins encodes the inhibitory function. (jefferson.edu)
  • This real-time analysis of single vesicle fusion opens the door to mechanistic studies of how SNARE and accessory proteins regulate fusion processes in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Our observations establish that the SNARE core complex is sufficient to fuse two opposing membrane bilayers at a speed commensurate with most membrane fusion processes in cells. (nih.gov)
  • A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. (curehunter.com)
  • The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. (umassmed.edu)
  • Bombardier JP, Munson M. Three steps forward, two steps back: mechanistic insights into the assembly and disassembly of the SNARE complex. (umassmed.edu)
  • Autoinhibition of SNARE complex assembly by a conformational switch represents a conserved feature of syntaxins. (umassmed.edu)
  • A ) A cartoon depicting the SNARE complex and the location of neurotoxin cleavage sites ( 27 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Munc 18-1 has a vital regulatory role in preventing the formation of the binary complex between syntaxin 1a and SNAP-25 before the proteins reach their target destination of the plasma membrane. (bl.uk)
  • Sorting of the v-SNARE VAMP7 in Dictyostelium discoideum: a role for more than one Adaptor Protein (AP) complex. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Evidence suggests that t-SNAREs form stable subcomplexes which serve as guides for v-SNARE binding to complete the formation of the SNARE complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • R-SNAREs are proteins that contribute an arginine (R) residue in the formation of the zero ionic layer in the assembled core SNARE complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Q-SNAREs are proteins that contribute a glutamine (Q) residue in the formation of the zero ionic layer in the assembled core SNARE complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • After fusion, the cis-SNARE complex is bound and disassembled by an adaptor protein, alphaSNAP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The KMN network also holds in place the Rod‐Zw10‐Zwilch (RZZ) complex and spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) proteins, which are important for signaling incomplete attachment. (embopress.org)
  • Some models of vesicle fusion involve the tightening of the SNARE complex as an early step in fusion. (grantome.com)
  • 13,14 Both the SNARE complex and syntaxin are particularly good candidates to bind VAs because both are thought to form 4-α-helical bundles with large hydrophobic cavities within each bundle. (asahq.org)
  • Our data showed that the site of SNARE complex formation between these proteins is on the plasma membrane of non-growing hyphae in old sub-peripheral regions of the colony, but that there is no interaction between the proteins in growing hyphal tips in at the colony margin. (vtt.fi)
  • downstream of VGCC, is the membrane-embedded SNARE complex. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • In concert with the AP-3 complex, the BLOC-1 complex is required to target membrane protein cargos into vesicles assembled at cell bodies for delivery into neurites and nerve terminals. (nih.gov)
  • The BLOC-1 complex, in association with SNARE proteins, is also proposed to be involved in neurite extension. (nih.gov)
  • As part of the SNARE complex, it is required for vesicle docking and fusion and regulates neurotransmitter release. (nih.gov)
  • Among those, synaptosome-associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP23) was central in SNARE complex formation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Dissociation of the complex with soluble NSF and α-SNAP, a process requiring ATP hydrolysis, is necessary to allow the recycling of SNARE components ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Molecular basis for the sorting of the SNARE VAMP7 into endocytic clathrin-coated vesicles by the ArfGAP Hrb. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • More specifically, we showed that IncA and IcmG/DotF, two SNARE-like proteins respectively expressed by Chlamydia and Legionella, inhibit the endocytic SNARE machinery. (jefferson.edu)
  • A team of researchers at Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK, is using new molecular microscopic techniques on SNARE proteins to solve the mystery of how insulin release is regulated and how this changes during type 2 diabetes. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • EpsinR is an adaptor for the SNARE protein Vti1b", MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL , vol. 15, 2004, pp. 5593-5602. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Thus, separate molecular determinants govern the ability of syntaxin 1A to affect N-type channel gating and its modulation by G-proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although SNAREs vary considerably in structure and size, they all share a segment in their cytosolic domain called a SNARE motif that consists of 60-70 amino acids and contains heptad repeats that have the ability to form coiled-coil structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic analysis shows that the increased complexity of trafficking pathways in mammalian cells involves an expansion of the number of SNARE, Rab and COP proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • The machinery for trafficking proteins through the secretory pathway is well conserved in eukaryotes, but remains poorly characterized in filamentous fungi. (vtt.fi)
  • SNAREs are thought to be the core required components of the fusion machinery and can function independently of additional cytosolic accessory proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • With use of the large calyx of Held presynaptic terminal from rats, we found that cleavage of different SNARE proteins by clostridial neurotoxins caused distinct kinetic changes in neurotransmitter release. (sciencemag.org)
  • With the additional coexpression of SNAP25, the syntaxin 1A-induced G-protein modulation of the channel became reduced in magnitude by ∼50% but nonetheless remained significantly higher than the low levels of background inhibition seen with N-type channels alone. (jneurosci.org)
  • Small, soluble proteins called Complexins (Cpx) and calcium-sensing Synaptotagmins cooperate to block fusion at low resting calcium concentrations, but trigger release upon calcium increase. (frontiersin.org)
  • A ) v-liposome is docked to a t-SNARE bilayer supported on glass. (nih.gov)
  • These SNAREs are the targets of the bacterial neurotoxins responsible for botulism and tetanus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon delivery to the plasma membrane that t-SNAREs have been shown to form cholesterol dependent clusters in several cell types of between 60-7509 nm. (bl.uk)
  • The SSOI and SNCI proteins co-localized in sterol-independent clusters on the plasma membrane in sub-apical but not apical hyphal regions. (vtt.fi)
  • Distinct kinetic differences in their action ( 3 , 4 ) indicate that it matters which of the SNAREs is cleaved and at what particular site ( Fig. 1A ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Hydrophobic mismatch sorts SNARE proteins into distinct membrane domains. (ox.ac.uk)
  • I have analyzed the expression and modulation during maturation of three SNAREs, Syntaxin6, VAMP3 and VAMP7, that were previously shown to play a role in other immune cells. (units.it)
  • A comparative analysis of crystal structures of the four human Sec24 isoforms establishes the structural determinants for discrimination among these transport signals, and provides a framework to understand how an expansion of coat subunits extends the range of cargo proteins packaged into COPII-coated vesicles. (rcsb.org)
  • In clathrin-depleted cells, both coat and cargo proteins are greatly reduced in this preparation. (uni-bielefeld.de)