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  • KYNA
  • While astrocytes are not able to produce quinolinic acid directly, they are capable of producing KYNA, which when released from the astrocytes can be taken in by migroglia that can in turn increase quinolinic acid production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue factor (TF), its inhibitor (TFPI), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F(1+2)), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), its soluble receptor (suPAR), plasmin/antiplasmin (PAP) complexes, KYN, kynurenic (KYNA) and quinolinic (QA) acids levels were significantly higher, whereas TRP was significantly lower in the PD patients than in the controls. (biomedsearch.com)
  • kynurenine 3-monooxygena
  • Post-mortem brains were obtained from the Australian Neurotrauma Tissue and Fluid Bank and used in qPCR for quantitating expression of KP enzymes (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1), kynurenase (KYNase), kynurenine amino transferase-II (KAT-II), kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase (3HAO) and quinolinic acid phosphoribosyl transferase (QPRTase) and IDO1 immunohistochemistry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • neuronal
  • High levels of quinolinic acid can lead to hindered neuronal function or even apoptotic death. (wikipedia.org)
  • DPA-714, along with other members of the DPA class of TSPO ligands, has been shown to decrease microglial activation and increase neuronal survival in a quinolinic acid rat model of excitotoxic neurodegeneration, suggesting potential neuroprotective effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • astrocytes
  • Furthermore, quinolinic acid has been shown to play a role in destabilization of the cytoskeleton within astrocytes and brain endothelial cells, contributing to the degradation of the BBB, which results in higher concentrations of quinolinic acid in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • novo
  • De novo synthesis of nicotinamide from quinolinic acid contributes to the maintenance of nicotinamide, and by implication NAD levels, in HIV/AIDS patients from low income populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • inflammatory
  • Under inflammatory conditions and conditions of T cell activation, leukocytes are retained in the brain by cytokine and chemokine production, which can lead to the breakdown of the BBB, thus increasing the quinolinic acid that enters the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gliotoxic effects of quinolinic acid further amplify the inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • pyridine
  • A pyridinedicarboxylic acid that is pyridine substituted by carboxy groups at positions 2 and 3. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • synthesis
  • Gould-Jacobs reaction starting from an aniline and ethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate Skraup synthesis using ferrous sulfate, glycerol, aniline, nitrobenzene, and sulfuric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • Lapin followed up this research by demonstrating that quinolinic acid could induce convulsions when injected into mice brain ventricles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quinolinic acid is unable to pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and must be produced within the brain microglial cells or macrophages that have passed the BBB. (wikipedia.org)
  • neutral
  • Solutions of NAD+ are colorless and stable for about a week at 4 °C and neutral pH, but decompose rapidly in acids or alkalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Arg 83 and Tyr 97 also form polar contacts with the carboxylate in the amino acid moiety on the substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doebner reaction using anilines with an aldehyde and pyruvic acid to form quinoline-4-carboxylic acids Doebner-Miller reaction using anilines and α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. (wikipedia.org)