###### Atoms

- Quantum dots are also sometimes referred to as artificial atoms , a term that emphasizes that a quantum dot is a single object with bound , discrete electronic states, as is the case with naturally occurring atoms or molecules . (wikipedia.org)
- These quantum dots can contain as few as 100 to 100,000 atoms within the quantum dot volume, with a diameter of ~ 10 to 50 atoms. (wikipedia.org)

###### particles

- Quantum dots ( QD ) are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometres in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles. (wikipedia.org)

###### molecules

- Quantum dots exhibit properties that are intermediate between those of bulk semiconductors and those of discrete molecules. (wikipedia.org)

###### Computing

- Potential applications include transistors , solar cells , LED s, diode lasers and second-harmonic generation , quantum computing , and medical imaging . (wikipedia.org)

###### Dots

- Colloidal quantum dots irradiated with a UV light. (wikipedia.org)
- Different sized quantum dots emit different color light due to quantum confinement. (wikipedia.org)
- Many types of quantum dot will emit light of specific frequencies if electricity or light is applied to them, and these frequencies can be precisely tuned by changing the dots' size, shape and material, giving rise to many applications. (wikipedia.org)
- There are several ways to prepare quantum dots, the principal ones involving colloids. (wikipedia.org)
- This corresponds to about 2 to 10 nanometers , and at 10 nm in diameter, nearly 3 million quantum dots could be lined up end to end and fit within the width of a human thumb. (wikipedia.org)

###### small

- Additionally, their small size allows for QDs to be suspended in solution which leads to possible uses in inkjet printing and spin-coating . (wikipedia.org)

###### Fermi

- In that state, correlations are algebraic because of the presence of a Dirac point at the Fermi level, suggesting that the ground state is an algebraic spin-orbital liquid. (perimeterinstitute.ca)
- Cenke Xu's research has contributed to several different topics in theoretical condensed matter physics, such as quantum spin liquid states, interacting topological insulators and more generally symmetry protected topological phases, duality of unconventional 2+1 dimensional quantum critical points, and new understanding of non-Fermi liquid phenomena constructed based on the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model and related models. (simonsfoundation.org)
- Theoretical arguments have been presented that light doping of such a spin liquid could give rise to a high temperature superconductor or an exotic topological Fermi liquid metal. (stanford.edu)
- The resulting scenario envisages a smooth crossover between an ordinary weakly interacting metal sustaining weak, short-range antiferromagnetic correlations in the overdoped regime to an unconventional poor metal characterized by very strong, long-but-finite-range antiferromagnetic correlations leading to momentum-selective non-Fermi liquid features as well as to the opening of a pseudogap and to the striking differences between the nodal and the antinodal dynamics in the underdoped regime. (hindawi.com)
- By anomalous behaviors we mean those not predicted by standard many-body theory, that is, behaviors in contradiction with the Fermi-liquid framework and diagrammatic expansions. (hindawi.com)
- Fermi liquid instabilities: superconductivity, itinerant magnetism, spin-density waves. (bu.edu)
- Under an external parameter (here pressure) the magnetic order (AF) is suppressed and a Landau Fermi liquid regime (FL) is reached under pressure. (cea.fr)
- These are intermetallic compounds with an incomplete filled electronic f shell, like Ce, Yb of U compounds showing strongly renormalized Fermi liquid properties at low temperature. (cea.fr)
- The energy dependence of the single-particle decay rate at the hot spots obeys non-Fermi liquid power laws, with an exponent 2/3 in the case of a single hot spot pair, and exponent one for two hot spot pairs - in leading order perturbation theory. (mpg.de)
- Charge and spin correlations in metals are singular at wave vectors that connect points on the Fermi surface with antiparallel Fermi velocities. (mpg.de)

###### Kitaev

- We study the magnetic exchange interactions in alpha-RuCl3, a promising candidate of the Kitaev quantum spin liquid, by density functional theory calculation based on the newly reported rhombohedral crystal structure (R-3). (aps.org)
- By precisely mapping the total energies of constrained non-collinear spin configurations into the Kitaev-Heisenberg Hamiltonian, we have obtained various isotropic and anisotropic interaction parameters of the zigzag magnetic order. (aps.org)
- We have performed muon spin rotation measurements on single crystal α-RuCl 3 , a honeycomb layered ruthenate that has been proposed to be close to a Kitaev quantum spin liquid ground state. (aps.org)
- Recently, the layered antiferromagnetic Mott insulator $\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ has been studied in bulk crystals and found to be proximate to a Kitaev quantum spin liquid. (aps.org)
- A pseudospin-1/2 Mott phase on a honeycomb lattice is proposed to host the celebrated two-dimensional Kitaev model which has an elusive quantum spin liquid ground state, and fascinating physics relevant to the development of future templates towards topological quantum bits. (osti.gov)
- α-RuCl 3 is a leading candidate material for the observation of physics related to the Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL). (aps.org)

###### antiferromagnets

- Novel quantum and functional phases in correlated electron systems: from spin liquids to anomalous Hall effect in chiral antiferromagnets. (mpg.de)
- The topics discussed include: Pairing mechanisms, low-dimensional electron systems with strong correlations, properties of doped and disordered quantum antiferromagnets, model hamiltonians, flux phases, the quantum spin liquid, model wave functions, fractional statistics and superconductivity, theory of anomalous normal state properties. (springer.com)

###### magnetism

- Other vigorous areas of research include such phenomena as metal-insulator transition, two-dimensional electron systems, magnetism, and quantum fluids and solids. (rutgers.edu)
- The aim will be to highlight advances in the theory of magnetism, topological phases, superconductivity, entanglement, many-body localization, and other topics of recent interest. (perimeterinstitute.ca)
- Quantum magnetism and spin-wave theory. (bu.edu)

###### Mott

- Spin-1/2 moments in the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator α-RuCl3 are coupled by strongly anisotropic bond-dependent exchange interactions on a honeycomb lattice. (case.edu)
- Upon doping, Mott insulators often exhibit symmetry breaking where charge carriers and their spins organize into patterns known as stripes. (stanford.edu)
- Here, we show that circularly polarized light can provide a knob to drive frustrated Mott insulators into a chiral spin liquid, realizing an elusive quantum spin liquid with topological order. (stanford.edu)
- We find that the dynamics of a driven Kagome Mott insulator is well-captured by an effective Floquet spin model, with heating strongly suppressed, inducing a scalar spin chirality S i · (S j × S k ) term which dynamically breaks time-reversal while preserving SU(2) spin symmetry. (stanford.edu)
- It shows how as one increases the number of deuterium atoms (replacing H) on the BEDT-TTF molecules (shown below) one gradually moves from the superconducting (S.C.) phase into the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator (A.F.I) phase. (blogspot.in)

###### Fermions

- Furthermore, the properties of the spin-orbital liquid state on the honeycomb lattice are accurately accounted for by a projected variational wave-function based on the pi-flux state of fermions on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4-filling. (perimeterinstitute.ca)
- Gil Refael is best known for his works on realizing Majorana fermions in solid state systems and on quantum dynamics and control. (simonsfoundation.org)

###### chiral

- We fingerprint the transient phase diagram and find a stable photo-induced chiral spin liquid near the equilibrium state. (stanford.edu)

###### criticality

- Another approach, often calles 'local' quantum criticality, supposes that the Kondo effect breaks down at the critical pressure as the f electrons are not coupled only to the conduction electrons, but also among themselves. (cea.fr)
- Here we discuss consequences of quantum criticality at the onset of incommensurate 2 k F charge or spin density wave order in the ground state, in cases where the phase transition (e.g., as a function of electron density) is continuous. (mpg.de)

###### electron systems

- The systems that we have been studying include graphene, Vortex Phases in superconductors, two-dimensional electron systems on helium and in heterostructures. (rutgers.edu)
- Our research focuses on two topics: (1) Spectroscopic studies of strongly correlated electron systems, novel superconductors and quantum spin systems. (rutgers.edu)
- The primary focus has been the experimental study of the charge and spin states in correlated electron systems including high Tc superconductors and colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) compounds. (rutgers.edu)

###### superconductors

- Although solid-state systems are usually considered "dirty" with impurities and imperfections, it is still the case that macroscopic, quantized phenomena can be observed in the form of the Josephson effect in superconductors and the quantum Hall effect in 2DEG. (case.edu)
- Called quantized vortices, they exist only in superfluids or superfluid-like systems such as liquid helium, type-II superconductors, liquid crystals, Bose-Einstein condensates, the inner cores of neutron stars, and perhaps cosmic strings in the early universe. (aps.org)
- In particular, the ground state of the two-dimensional Hubbard model, the most intensively studied model for cuprate high temperature superconductors, exhibits a spin density wave instability at a 2 k F vector, at least at weak coupling. (mpg.de)

###### electrons

- These new phases, and the associated theoretical tools, are not only relevant to describe the low temperature phases of the electrons (or their spins) in some particular solids, but they are also relevant to some "artificial" quantum systems, such as trapped cold atoms or nanofabricated superconducting arrays, which both could be engineered to realize some topological phases. (u-psud.fr)
- Electrons rotate like the earth, acting as tiny magnets called spins in magnetic materials. (phys.org)
- In most of electrically insulating magnets, electrons form tiny magnets called spins by their rotation. (phys.org)

###### fluctuations

- Recent work has highlighted remarkable effects of classical thermal fluctuations in the dipolar spin ice compounds, such as "artificial magnetostatics. (case.edu)
- We find a rich variety of exotic phases: while on the square and checkerboard lattices the ground state exhibits dimer-N\'eel order and plaquette order, respectively, quantum fluctuations on the honeycomb lattice destroy any order, giving rise to a spin-orbital liquid. (perimeterinstitute.ca)
- But whether the horizon catches light or sound, Hawking-radiation should be produced regardless, and it should appear in form of fluctuations (in the fluid or quantum matter fields, respectively) that are paired across the horizon. (blogspot.com)
- At low temperature the systems is dominated by strong quantum fluctuations. (cea.fr)
- In the very low temperature limit the physical properties are determined by quantum fluctuations, which can give rise to new exotic ground states, e.g. the observation of superconductivity close to the point where the magnetic order vanishes. (cea.fr)
- At the critical point critical spin fluctuations diverge giving rise to a second order phase transition. (cea.fr)
- found strong infrared divergencies and concluded that fluctuations destroy the quantum critical point (QCP), such that the phase transition is ultimately discontinuous. (mpg.de)

###### helium

- A professor at Cornell since 1964, he was an authority on liquid helium. (cornell.edu)
- Much of his work focused on the liquid and solid phases of helium three and four. (cornell.edu)
- Armed with real-time videos of solid hydrogen particles trapped on quantum vortices in superfluid helium, the Maryland group has been able to observe the lattice motions and capture what may be the first movies of waves in the vortex lattice. (aps.org)
- Liquid helium, though, is much easier to observe, and when it is cooled below 2.17 Kelvin (colder than deep space), it undergoes a phase transition to a "superfluid" state. (aps.org)
- Since the vortices are only the width of a helium atom and are therefore nominally invisible, we inject hydrogen gas into the rotating liquid helium. (aps.org)
- We find that these quantized vortices look like strings of spaghetti that begin and end on the walls of the cryostat, the thermos-like vessel that contains our liquid helium. (aps.org)
- The chemical potential must reside safely within this gap to avoid detrimental contributions to the edge current from the bulk material, and very low temperatures (below that of liquid helium) are needed to suppress thermal excitation of charge carriers into those bulk electron bands ( 7 , 8 ). (sciencemag.org)

###### superconductivity

- Minimal evidence of a Higgs transition 1 of north and south poles of electron spins was observed in a magnet Yb2Ti2O7 at the absolute temperature 2 0.21 K. A fractionalization of these monopoles from electron spins was observed on cooling to 0.3 K. On further cooling below 0.21 K, the material showed the ferromagnetism to be understood as a superconductivity of monopoles. (phys.org)

###### correlations

- This mini-program will focus on quantum materials, models and field theories where strong correlations result in novel emergent phenomena. (perimeterinstitute.ca)
- We used numerically exact determinant quantum Monte Carlo calculations to demonstrate dynamical stripe correlations in the three-band Hubbard model, which represents the local electronic structure of the copper-oxygen plane. (stanford.edu)
- Spin correlations remain short ranged, as in the spin-liquid parent state, from which we infer that the state is a crystal of spinless holons, rather than of holes. (stanford.edu)
- Charge and spin correlations in low dimensional systems are often peaked at 2 k F vectors, such that they are privileged wave vectors for charge and spin density wave instabilities. (mpg.de)

###### Kagome

- Projective symmetry group analysis on slave-particle representations is used to understand possible spin liquid phases on the Kagome lattice. (perimeterinstitute.ca)
- "Holon Wigner Crystal in a Lightly Doped Kagome Quantum Spin Liquid" - Hong-Chen Jiang: Devereaux, T., Kivelson, S.A. (stanford.edu)
- We address the problem of a lightly doped spin liquid through a large-scale density-matrix renormalization group study of the t − J model on a kagome lattice with a small but nonzero concentration δ of doped holes. (stanford.edu)

###### magnets

- The goal of this program, dubbed TopMat, is to gather some experts in the field interacting topological phases, such as fractional quantum Hall states or quantum spin liquids in magnets, to discuss the latest theoretical and experimental developments, and to favor informal discussions and new collaborations. (ipht.fr)
- The search for quantum spin liquids in frustrated quantum magnets recently has enjoyed a surge of interest, with various candidate materials under intense scrutiny. (stanford.edu)
- An Efficient Implementation of High-order Coupled-Cluster Methods Applied to Quantum Magnets , C. Zeng, D.J.J. Farnell, and R.F. Bishop, J. Stat. Phys . (gwu.edu)
- This state hosting dissipationless monopole current of spins is expected to play important roles in spintronics that aims at efficient controls of magnets for application. (phys.org)

###### search for quantum

- The present results also suggest to choose optical lattices with honeycomb geometry in the search for quantum liquids in ultra-cold four-color fermionic atoms. (perimeterinstitute.ca)

###### Condensed Matter

- IPhT will host a 4-week program on topological phases in condensed matter. (ipht.fr)
- Our research spans too very broad areas of the contemporary experimental condensed matter - design and growth of artificial quantum materials and investigation of their electronic, magnetic and topological structure with the photoelectron spectroscopies and scattering. (rutgers.edu)
- He is known for results on holographic models that translate the dissipative dynamics of black hole event horizons into phenomena of interest in condensed matter systems and has co-authored a book on the resulting holographic quantum matter. (simonsfoundation.org)
- Our research builds on a blend of concepts and ideas from condensed matter theory, statistical mechanics, quantum field theory and quantum information. (uibk.ac.at)

###### unconventional

- This "classical" phase, a consequence of weak interladder coupling, is nevertheless highly unconventional: its properties are influenced strongly by the spin Luttinger-liquid state of the ladder subunits. (epfl.ch)

###### neutron

- Neutron diffraction is used to investigate the field-induced, antiferromagnetically ordered state in the two-leg spin-ladder material (Hpip)(2)CuBr4. (epfl.ch)
- The research team irradiated a neutron beam on the single crystal of Yb2Ti2O7 with the neutron spins being aligned, and then analyzed configurations of electron spins from a pattern of the scattering intensity of neutrons by electron spins. (phys.org)
- And I'm not really sure I'd call a neutron star a 'phase of matter,' but the distinction is ambiguous anyway. (physicsforums.com)

###### Luttinger

- Luttinger liquids and bosonization. (bu.edu)

###### Phenomena

- 1) Exchange Monte Carlo methods have been proposed, and applied to treating slow relaxation processes and have clarified unusual critical phenomena of spin glasses. (go.jp)

###### diagram

- 5) First principles path-integral molecular dynamics method has been developed to consider quantum effects of light atoms and has given insights on of hydrogen phase diagram under high pressure as well as behaviors of myuonium and hydrogen in solids. (go.jp)

###### Frustration

- However, a geometrical frustration, which will be explained below, sometimes suppresses a formation of the magnetic order, as in materials called spin ice, Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7. (phys.org)
- Because of this frustration, the four spins on each tetrahedron are compromised to form a "2-in, 2-out" structure, as the most stable one (Fig.1, upper right). (phys.org)

###### instabilities

- The momentum and energy dependences of the 2 k F density fluctuation propagator differs strongly from that for generic incommensurate wave vectors, and also from the one for commensurate (π,π) charge or spin density wave instabilities, for which quantum critical properties have been extensively studied in the past. (mpg.de)

###### systems

- Ordering emerging from disorder effects in quantum spins, numerical evidence for the existence of chairal spin glass in 3D systems, electron differentiation in the momentum space, and localization of light atoms by quantum zero-point motion. (go.jp)
- Recently, there has been remarkable progress in the theory of topological phases in strongly correlated systems. (mpg.de)
- In addition he was interested in classical and quantum spin systems, order and disorder in solids, two-dimensional melting and problems in materials science. (cornell.edu)
- Quantum spin Hall (QSH) systems are two-dimensional (2D) representatives of the family of topological insulators, which exhibit conduction channels at their edges that are inherently protected against certain types of scattering. (sciencemag.org)
- Initially predicted for graphene ( 1 , 2 ) and eventually realized in HgTe quantum wells ( 3 , 4 ), in the QSH systems realized so far ( 5 , 6 ), the decisive bottleneck preventing applications is the small bulk energy gap of less than 30 meV. (sciencemag.org)

###### dynamics

- In this talk, I will address the effects of terms which induce quantum dynamics in a range of models close to the classical spin ice point. (case.edu)
- For more than fifty years, scientists have worked to observe and understand the dynamics of lattices of quantized vortices, which may be best thought of as long, skinny quantum tornadoes. (aps.org)

###### configurations

- In a paper appearing in Nature Materials ( 'Selective transformations between nanoparticle superlattices via the reprogramming of DNA-mediated interactions' ), they describe a way to selectively rearrange the nanoparticles in three-dimensional arrays to produce different configurations, or phases, from the same nano-components. (nanowerk.com)
- Various types of reprogramming strands can be used to selectively trigger the transformation to different phases, or configurations, of the same particle combinations. (nanowerk.com)
- The right shows Directions and configurations allowed for spins located at vertex points of the unit tetrahedron of the pyrochlore lattice structure. (phys.org)
- Yet a huge number of spin configurations satisfy the ice rule over the crystal, preventing a spin ordering even at low temperatures. (phys.org)

###### atoms

- Since this compound does show a long-range magnetic ordering at low temperatures, a new synthesis at 620°C and 2.5 GPa was undertaken in order to obtain a different modification of this phase called 6H-B. In this phase the Ni atoms don't occupy the same layers as in the 6H-A structure but the upper one of the layers that share octahedron faces. (imaging-git.com)
- The symmetric Kugel-Khomskii can be seen as a minimal model describing the interactions between spin and orbital degrees of freedom in certain transition-metal oxides with orbital degeneracy, and it is equivalent to the SU(4) Heisenberg model of four-color fermionic atoms. (perimeterinstitute.ca)

###### antiferromagnet

- It is now widely accepted that the undoped ( δ = 0 ) spin- 1 / 2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet has a spin-liquid ground state. (stanford.edu)

###### weakly

- Here we will take the concepts from lecture one and set out to construct from the same Josephson junctions very weakly non-linear circuits which operate as phase-preserving amplifiers. (case.edu)

###### solid particles

- Complex liquids, suspensions of solid particles, polymeric dispersions, emulsions and simple liquids behave in different way at interfacial regions. (uni-duesseldorf.de)

###### experimental

- In the quest for quantum spin liquids, the challenges are many: neither is it clear how to look for nor how to describe them, and definitive experimental examples of quantum spin liquids are still missing. (case.edu)
- However, an experimental confirmation of a gapped topological spin liquid remains an open question. (stanford.edu)
- Our combined theoretical and experimental results demonstrate a concept for a quantum spin Hall wide-gap scenario, where the chemical potential resides in the global system gap, ensuring robust edge conductance. (sciencemag.org)

###### dimensional

- By means of rational materials design we are able to create novel classes of atomically thin multilayered structures with properties not found in bulk crystals including exotic magnetic, 2-dimensional metallic and superconducting phases as well as quantum spin liquids and correlated topological materials. (rutgers.edu)

###### insulators

- Topological insulators (TIs) are a recently discovered state of matter characterized by an "inverted" band structure driven by strong spin-orbit coupling. (case.edu)

###### antiferromagnetically

- When spins that interact antiferromagnetically with their neighbors are positioned on a triangular lattice, there is no way that a long range order can satisfy all the interactions. (imaging-git.com)

###### dissipationless

- Quantum spin Hall materials hold the promise of revolutionary devices with dissipationless spin currents but have required cryogenic temperatures owing to small energy gaps. (sciencemag.org)

###### Novel

- By using these developed algorithms, we have predicted existence of new states of matter, and revealed various novel properties.Examples are, prediction of quantum spin liquid phase near metal-insulator phase boundary. (go.jp)

###### critical exponents

- We determine directly the order parameter (transverse magnetization), the ordering temperature, the spin structure, and the critical exponents around the transition. (epfl.ch)

###### magnetic order

- Usually, these spins form a magnetic order on cooling, and the monopoles, namely, north and south poles of electron spins, are confined to each other. (phys.org)
- Since 2010, on the other hand, Dr. Onoda and coworkers have predicted a so-called quantum spin ice 4 that can exhibit a magnetic order realized by a Bose-Einstein condensation of monopoles. (phys.org)

###### measurements

- By combined susceptibility, specific-heat, and 35 Cl nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) measurements, we demonstrate that α-RuCl3 undergoes a quantum phase transition to a QSL in a magnetic field of 7.5 T applied in the ab plane. (aps.org)