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  • pathogens
  • Direct quantification is also a valuable approach for the characterization of reference materials and materials for external quality assurance schemes that underpin quality of results in diagnostics of human pathogens. (globalmedicaldiscovery.com)
  • In response to pathogens, especially viruses, cells release interferons and other cytokines to fight the infections. (jimmunol.org)
  • In animals, the emergence in northern Europe of the Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in 2006 and of the Schmallenberg virus in 2011 illustrate this increasing risk in cattle, associated with the introduction of known pathogens in free areas or with the emergence of an unknown pathogen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abstract
  • ABSTRACT: In the present study, 2 systems of real-time RT-PCR-one based on SYBR Green and the other on TaqMan-were designed to detect strains from any genotype of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), with high sensitivity and repeatability/reproducibility. (int-res.com)
  • Antiviral
  • The objectives of this study were to isolate the surface layer (S-layer) protein from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 as a new antiviral material, to evaluate the stimulatory effects of the S-layer protein on mouse dendritic cells (DCs) and to verify its ability to inhibit the invasion of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in DCs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although all animals became infected, the immunized animals mounted better antiviral antibody responses, controlled virus levels more effectively, and had a longer disease-free survival than the unvaccinated infected monkeys. (asm.org)
  • qPCR
  • In the past some viruses and bacteria have already been directly quantified using qPCR without DNA extraction, however drawbacks related to the qPCR formats such as susceptibility to inhibitory substances and dependence on the calibration material probably hampered the precise and reliable measurements of the actual concentrations therefore direct quantification using dPCR has a potential to overcome these. (globalmedicaldiscovery.com)
  • The detection and quantification of enteric RNA viruses is based on isolation of viral RNA from the sample followed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). (frontiersin.org)
  • quantify
  • To quantify the contribution of a contaminated environment to the transmission of FMDV, this study used calves that were not vaccinated and calves that were vaccinated 1 week prior to inoculation with the virus in direct and indirect contact experiments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the aim of the present study is twofold: to utilize a 2 route-SIR model i.e. with both direct contact and indirect (environment) routes, to quantify the contribution of a contaminated environment to the transmission of FMDV, and to examine whether vaccination one week before inoculation with the virus could reduce FMDV transmission through either direct contact or via the environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • diagnostics
  • Direct quantification can be used to determine absolute DNA extraction efficiencies and for the evaluation of the influence of matrix on the extraction yield and therefore supports laboratories in decisions on fit for purpose extraction methods as well as in comparability of results especially in diagnostics. (globalmedicaldiscovery.com)
  • To evaluate the usefulness of MS2 PLP in routine diagnostics different matrices known to harbor enteric RNA viruses (swab samples, liver tissue, serum, feces, and vegetables) were artificially contaminated with specific amounts of MS2 PLP. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recently, advances in high-throughput sequencing allow for virus-sequence-independent identification of entire virus populations in clinical samples, yet standardized protocols are needed to allow broad application in clinical diagnostics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to optimize metagenomic sequencing for application in virus diagnostics, we tested different enrichment and amplification procedures on plasma samples spiked with RNA and DNA viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • amplification
  • DNA extraction before amplification is considered an essential step for the measurement of any DNA targets, as it releases the DNA from cells, viruses and bacteria and eliminates any PCR-inhibitory substances that are initially present in the matrix. (globalmedicaldiscovery.com)
  • Here, we describe a comprehensive sample preparation protocol for high-throughput metagenomic virus sequencing using random amplification of total nucleic acids from clinical samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A protocol including filtration, nuclease digestion, and random amplification of RNA and DNA in separate reactions provided the best results, allowing reliable recovery of viral genomes and a good correlation of the relative number of sequencing reads with the virus input. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Common steps in sample preparation for unbiased metagenomic sequencing are virus enrichment, extraction of nucleic acids, reverse transcription, and unbiased amplification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus directly from nasopharyngeal swabs. (amedeo.com)
  • subtype
  • Recent studies showed the introduction of subtype A, D, and E viruses and even group O viruses in the United States ( 8 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • A study of blood donors in France showed a 16% increase in the prevalence of individuals infected with non-subtype B viruses between 1984 and 1995 ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • The H9N2 subtype of the influenza virus is widespread in birds in Asia and the Middle East ( Alexander, 2007 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Measles
  • Measles (MEV) and mumps virus (MUV) are enveloped, non-segmented, negative single stranded RNA viruses of the family Paramyxoviridae , and are the cause of measles and mumps, respectively, both preventable by vaccination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Derivatives of the Edmonston-B strain of measles virus (MV-Ed) are safe, live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines that have been used worldwide for more than 30 years. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Measles virus (MV) may be particularly promising as an oncolytic virus for the treatment of lymphoid malignancy for a number of reasons. (bloodjournal.org)
  • H9N2
  • In conclusion, the S-layer protein stimulates the activation of mouse DCs, inhibits H9N2 virus invasion of DCs, and stimulates the IFN-I signaling pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the relationship between the H9N2 virus and mouse DCs is still unclear. (frontiersin.org)
  • N-glycan profiles in H9N2 avian influenza viruses from chicken eggs and human embryonic lung fibroblast cells. (amedeo.com)
  • single stranded
  • As viral metagenomics is virus-sequence independent, potentially any virus, cultivable or uncultivable, known or novel, can be readily detected and the method can be applied to all types of virus genomes, including single-stranded DNA and RNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • identification
  • The results not only demonstrated that the procedure can be used for detection, identification and quantification of this virus, but also demonstrated a clear correlation between the regression lines obtained with different standards, which will help scientists to compare sensitivity results between different studies. (int-res.com)
  • Enrichment
  • Sample type greatly influences the composition of sequencing reads, and due to the complexity of clinical materials, sample preparation and virus enrichment methods need to be specifically adapted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Various virus enrichment methods for clinical samples have been suggested. (biomedcentral.com)
  • antibody
  • by utilizing a fluorescently-labeled, high-affinity antibody which binds to a unique epitope expressed by your virus of interest. (sartorius.com)
  • serotype
  • The global prevalence of dengue has grown dramatically in recent decades and the disease is now endemic in more than 100 countries with 4 different types of the virus found (serotype 1-4). (um.edu.my)
  • A recent study evaluating whether reproductive data could be used for syndromic surveillance found an increased frequency of early calving (calving occurring a few days earlier than expected) in areas exposed to the Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in northern Europe. (biomedcentral.com)
  • human
  • To investigate the potential of digital PCR for direct quantification of viruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been quantified without prior extraction using two digital PCR platforms and two standard materials. (globalmedicaldiscovery.com)
  • These enteric viruses have a significant impact on human health throughout the world. (frontiersin.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) is characterized by extensive genetic variability. (asm.org)
  • We further validated our method by sequencing a multiplexed viral pathogen reagent containing a range of human viruses from different virus families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The rationale for these studies was generated by experience with viral fusogenic membrane glycoproteins as cytotoxic genes and the recognition of the potential of replicating viruses in the treatment of human malignancy. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Intratumoral injection of both unmodified MV-Ed and a strain of MV-Ed genetically modified by the addition of a β-galactosidase reporter gene (MVlacZ) induced regression of large established human lymphoma xenografts, in contrast to control therapy with UV-inactivated virus, in which all tumors progressed. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Studies throughout the twentieth century have documented the lytic effects of various viruses on many types of human cancer, 1 and systematic study of candidate oncolytic viruses is intensifying. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Viruses under investigation as oncolytic agents include human adenoviruses, ONYX-015, 2 3 reovirus, 4 herpes viruses 5 6 and vesicular stomatitis virus. (bloodjournal.org)
  • More recently, Newcastle disease virus, an avian paramyxovirus, has also shown promising results in preclinical studies, 10-12 and clinical trials in human subjects have begun. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The recent discovery of simplified zidovudine and nevirapine regimens to reduce peripartum human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission is very promising ( 9 , 16 , 38 , 50 ). (asm.org)
  • Herpes
  • Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Genital Ulcer Disease (GUD) is an important public health problem, whose interaction with HIV results in mutually enhancing epidemics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 remains one of the most prevalent viral infections of the eye worldwide ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Reagent
  • Our ComboDye™ reagent and ViroTag® reagents offer the optimal solution for all virus quantification needs. (sartorius.com)
  • Our method proved successful in detecting the majority of the included viruses with high read numbers and compared well to other protocols in the field validated against the same reference reagent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • results
  • Results of direct quantification were equally or even more repeatable, than that of the extracted DNA. (globalmedicaldiscovery.com)
  • To control the whole process of analysis and in order to guarantee the validity and reliability of results, process control viruses (PCV) are used. (frontiersin.org)
  • Results on the presence of HCPs in differently purified virus preparations imply that actin, annexins, cyclophilin A, moesin and integrin β1 are part of the virions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • extraction
  • Deposited directly into the sample, this standard was used both as extraction control and as quantification tool. (asm.org)
  • 22 ). Virus was then recovered by two different extraction procedures using either borate ( 5 ) or glycine ( 30 ) buffers and was concentrated by organic flocculation ( 15 ) or precipitation with 10% polyethylene glycol 6000 ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • direct
  • A more compelling approach in this situation is the use of a vector or virus that is able to replicate within the tumor tissue, resulting in direct cell death through cytolysis or toxicity of viral proteins. (bloodjournal.org)
  • method
  • Only five HCPs were constantly present in purified virus preparations, regardless of the purification method used, implying they are likely the integral part of the virions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This fact, together with the high efficiency and R 2 values of the standard curves, encouraged us to analyse the reliability of the method for viral quantification. (int-res.com)